Virginia Compacts

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Virginia Compacts

§§ 22.1-336 through 22.1-338. Compact for Education; Education Commission of the States

§ 22.1-336. Compact entered into and enacted into law; form of compact

The compact for education is hereby enacted into law and entered into with all jurisdictions legally joining therein in the form substantially as follows:

Article I.

A. It is the purpose of this compact to:

1. Establish and maintain close cooperation and understanding among executive, legislative, professional, educational and lay leadership on a nationwide basis at the state and local levels.

2. Provide a forum for the discussion, development, crystallization and recommendation of public policy alternatives in the field of education.

3. Provide a clearinghouse of information on matters relating to educational problems and how they are being met in different places throughout the nation so that the executive and legislative branches of state government and of local communities may have ready access to the experience and record of the entire country and so that both lay and professional groups in the field of education may have additional avenues for the sharing of experience and the interchange of ideas in the formation of public policy in education.

4. Facilitate the improvement of state and local educational systems so that all of them will be able to meet adequate and desirable goals in a society which requires continuous qualitative and quantitative advance in educational opportunities, methods and facilities.

B. It is the policy of this compact to encourage and promote local and state initiative in the development, maintenance, improvement and administration of educational systems and institutions in a manner which will accord with the needs and advantages of diversity among localities and states.

C. The party states recognize that each of them has an interest in the quality and quantity of education furnished in each of the other states as well as in the excellence of its own educational systems and institutions because individuals are highly mobile throughout the nation and because the products and services contributing to the health, welfare and economic advancement of each state are supplied in significant part by persons educated in other states.

Article II.

As used in this compact, "state" means a state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Article III.

A. The Education Commission of the States, hereinafter called "the Commission," is hereby established. The Commission shall consist of seven members representing each party state. One of such members shall be the governor; two shall be members of the state legislature selected by its respective houses and serving in such manner as the legislature may determine; and four shall be appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the governor, unless the laws of the state otherwise provide. If the laws of a state prevent legislators from serving on the Commission, six members shall be appointed and serve at the pleasure of the governor, unless the laws of the state otherwise provide. In addition to any other principles or requirements which a state may establish for the appointment and service of its members of the Commission, the guiding principle for the composition of the membership on the Commission from each party state shall be that the members representing such state shall, by virtue of their training, experience, knowledge or affiliations, be in a position collectively to reflect broadly the interests of the state government, higher education, the state education system, local education and lay and professional, public and nonpublic educational leadership. Of those appointees, one shall be the head of a state agency or institution designated by the governor having responsibility for one or more programs of public education. In addition to the members of the Commission representing the party states, there may be not to exceed ten nonvoting commissioners selected by the steering committee for terms of one year. Such commissioners shall represent leading national organizations of professional educators or persons concerned with educational administration.

B. The members of the Commission shall be entitled to one vote each on the Commission. No action of the Commission shall be binding unless taken at a meeting at which a majority of the total number of votes on the Commission are cast in favor thereof. Action of the Commission shall be only at a meeting at which a majority of the commissioners are present. The Commission shall meet at least once a year. In its bylaws and subject to such directions and limitations as may be contained therein, the Commission may delegate the exercise of any of its powers to the steering committee or the executive director except for the power to approve budgets or requests for appropriations, the power to make policy recommendations pursuant to Article IV and adoption of the annual report pursuant to Article III (J).

C. The Commission shall have a seal.

D. The Commission shall elect annually from among its members a chairman, who shall be a governor, a vice-chairman and a treasurer. The Commission shall provide for the appointment of an executive director. Such executive director shall serve at the pleasure of the Commission and, together with the treasurer and such other personnel as the Commission may deem appropriate, shall be bonded in such amount as the Commission shall determine. The executive director shall serve as secretary of the Commission.

E. Irrespective of the civil service, personnel or other merit system laws of any of the party states, the executive director, subject to the approval of the steering committee, shall appoint, remove or discharge such personnel as may be necessary for the performance of the functions of the Commission and shall fix the duties and compensation of such personnel. The Commission in its bylaws shall provide for the personnel policies and programs of the Commission.

F. The Commission may borrow, accept or contract for the services of personnel from any party jurisdiction, the United States, or any subdivision or agency of the aforementioned governments, or from any agency of two or more of the party jurisdictions or their subdivisions.

G. The Commission may accept for any of its purposes and functions under this compact any and all donations and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials and services, conditional or otherwise, from any state, the United States, or any other governmental agency, or from any person, firm, association, foundation, or corporation and may receive, utilize and dispose of the same. Any donation or grant accepted by the Commission pursuant to this paragraph or services borrowed pursuant to paragraph F of this article shall be reported in the annual report of the Commission. Such report shall include the nature, amount and conditions, if any, of the donation, grant or services borrowed and the identity of the donor or lender.

H. The Commission may establish and maintain such facilities as may be necessary for transacting its business. The Commission may acquire, hold, and convey real and personal property and any interest therein.

I. The Commission shall adopt bylaws for the conduct of its business and shall have the power to amend and rescind these bylaws. The Commission shall publish its bylaws in convenient form and shall file a copy thereof and a copy of any amendment thereto with the appropriate agency or officer in each of the party states.

J. The Commission annually shall make to the governor and legislature of each party state a report covering the activities of the Commission for the preceding year. The Commission may make such additional reports as it may deem desirable.

Article IV.

In addition to authority conferred on the Commission by other provisions of this compact, the Commission shall have authority to:

1. Collect, correlate, analyze and interpret information and data concerning educational needs and resources;

2. Encourage and foster research in all aspects of education, but with special reference to the desirable scope of instruction, organization, administration, and instructional methods and standards employed or suitable for employment in public educational systems;

3. Develop proposals for adequate financing of education as a whole and at each of its many levels;

4. Conduct or participate in research of the types referred to in this article in any instance where the Commission finds that such research is necessary for the advancement of the purposes and policies of this compact, utilizing fully the resources of national associations, regional compact organizations for higher education, and other agencies and institutions, both public and private;

5. Formulate suggested policies and plans for the improvement of public education as a whole or for any segment thereof and make recommendations with respect thereto available to the appropriate governmental units, agencies and public officials;

6. Do such other things as may be necessary or incidental to the administration of any of its authority or functions pursuant to this compact.

Article V.

A. If the laws of the United States specifically so provide or if administrative provision is made therefor within the federal government, the United States may be represented on the Commission by not to exceed ten representatives. Any such representative or representatives of the United States shall be appointed and serve in such manner as may be provided by or pursuant to federal law and may be drawn from any one or more branches of the federal government. No such representative shall have a vote on the Commission.

B. The Commission may provide information and make recommendations to any executive or legislative agency or officer of the federal government concerning the common educational policies of the states and may advise any such agencies or officers concerning any matter of mutual interest.

Article VI.

A. To assist in the expeditious conduct of its business when the full Commission is not meeting, the Commission shall elect a steering committee of thirty-two members which, subject to the provisions of this compact and consistent with the policies of the Commission, shall be constituted and function as provided in the bylaws of the Commission. One fourth of the voting membership of the steering committee shall consist of governors, one fourth shall consist of legislators, and the remainder shall consist of other members of the Commission. A federal representative on the Commission may serve without vote on the steering committee. The voting members of the steering committee shall serve for terms of two years except that members elected to the first steering committee of the Commission shall be elected as follows: Sixteen for one year and sixteen for two years. The chairman, vice-chairman, and treasurer of the Commission shall be members of the steering committee and, anything in this paragraph to the contrary notwithstanding, shall serve during their continuance in these offices. Vacancies in the steering committee shall not affect its authority to act, but the Commission at its next regularly ensuing meeting following the occurrence of any vacancy shall fill it for the unexpired term. No person shall serve more than two terms as a member of the steering committee; provided that service for a partial term of one year or less shall not be counted toward the two term limitation.

B. The Commission may establish advisory and technical committees composed of state, local and federal officials and private persons to advise it with respect to any one or more of its functions. Any advisory or technical committee may, on request of the states concerned, be established to consider any matter of special concern to two or more of the party states.

C. The Commission may establish such additional committees as its bylaws may provide.

Article VII.

A. The Commission shall advise the governor or designated officer or officers of each party state of its budget and estimated expenditures for such period as may be required by the laws of that party state. Each of the Commission's budgets of estimated expenditures shall contain specific recommendations of the amount or amounts to be appropriated by each of the party states.

B. The total amount of appropriation requests under any budget shall be apportioned among the party states. In making such apportionment, the Commission shall devise and employ a formula which takes equitable account of the populations and per capita income levels of the party states.

C. The Commission shall not pledge the credit of any party states. The Commission may meet any of its obligations in whole or in part with funds available to it pursuant to paragraph G of Article III of this compact, provided that the Commission takes specific action setting aside such funds prior to incurring an obligation to be met in whole or in part in such manner. Except where the Commission makes use of funds available to it pursuant to paragraph G of Article III of this compact, the Commission shall not incur any obligation prior to the allotment of funds by the party states adequate to meet the same.

D. The Commission shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. The receipts and disbursements of the Commission shall be subject to the audit and accounting procedures established by its bylaws. In addition, all receipts and disbursements of funds handled by the Commission shall be audited yearly by a qualified public accountant, and the report of the audit shall be included in and become part of the annual reports of the Commission.

E. The accounts of the Commission shall be open at any reasonable time for inspection by duly constituted officers of the party states and by any persons authorized by the Commission.

F. Nothing contained herein shall be construed to prevent Commission compliance with laws relating to audit or inspection of accounts by or on behalf of any government contributing to the support of the Commission.

Article VIII.

A. This compact shall have as eligible parties all states, territories, and possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In any such jurisdiction not having a governor, the term "governor" as used in this compact shall mean the closest equivalent official of such jurisdiction.

B. Any state or other eligible jurisdiction may enter into this compact and it shall become binding thereon when it has adopted the same; provided that in order to enter into initial effect, adoption by at least ten eligible party jurisdictions shall be required.

C. Adoption of the compact shall be by enactment.

D. Any party state may withdraw from this compact by enacting a statute repealing the same, but no such withdrawal shall take effect until one year after the governor of the withdrawing state has given notice in writing of the withdrawal to the governors of all other party states. No withdrawal shall affect any liability already incurred by or chargeable to a party state prior to the time of such withdrawal.

Article IX.

This compact shall be liberally construed so as to effectuate the purposes thereof. The provisions of this compact shall be severable and if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision of this compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any state or of the United States or if the application thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any state participating therein, the compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the state affected as to all severable matters.

Code 1950, § 22-345; 1968, c. 564; 1980, c. 559.

§ 22.1-337. Virginia representatives on Education Commission of the States; membership; terms; compensation and expenses; chairman's executive summary

In accordance with the Compact for Education of 1968, which established the Education Commission of the States, there shall be seven commissioners representing Virginia on the Education Commission of the States. The Virginia commissioners shall consist of one member of the House of Delegates, to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Delegates; one member of the Senate, to be appointed by the Senate Committee on Rules; four nonlegislative citizen members, of whom one shall be the Superintendent of Public Instruction, to be appointed by the Governor; and the Governor. The commissioners representing Virginia shall by virtue of their training, experience, knowledge, or affiliations, collectively reflect the broad interests of state government, the state's system of education, public and higher education, nonprofessional and professional public and nonpublic educational leadership.

Legislative members shall serve terms coincident with their terms of office. Nonlegislative citizen members shall serve at the pleasure of the Governor. All members may be reappointed. Appointments to fill vacancies, other than by expiration of a term, shall be made for the unexpired terms. Vacancies shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointments.

The commissioners shall serve without compensation. All members shall be reimbursed for all reasonable and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties as provided in §§ 2.2-2813 and 2.2-2825. The costs of expenses of the legislative commissioners incurred in the performance of their duties shall be paid from appropriations to the Virginia Commission on Intergovernmental Cooperation for the attendance of conferences. The costs of expenses of nonlegislative citizen commissioners incurred in the performance of their duties shall be paid from such funds as may be provided for this purpose in the appropriations act.

The chairman of the Commissioners shall submit to the Governor and the General Assembly an annual executive summary of the interim activity and work of the Commissioners no later than the first day of each regular session of the General Assembly. The executive summary shall be submitted as provided in the procedures of the Division of Legislative Automated Systems for the processing of legislative documents and reports and shall be posted on the General Assembly's website.

Code 1950, § 22-346; 1968, c. 564; 1973, c. 524; 1980, c. 559; 2003, c. 885; 2005, c. 758; 2011, cc. 691, 714.

§ 22.1-338. Education Commission to file bylaws with State Council of Higher Education

Pursuant to paragraph I of Article III of the compact for education set forth in § 22.1-336, the Education Commission of the States shall file a copy of its bylaws and amendments thereto with the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia.

Code 1950, § 22-347; 1968, c. 564; 1980, c. 559.