Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
Chapter 10. Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act

§ 13.1-810. Notices and other communications.

For purposes of this chapter, except for notice to or from the Commission:

A. Notice shall be in writing except that oral notice of any meeting of the board of directors may be given if expressly authorized by the articles of incorporation or bylaws.

B. Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, words in a notice or other communication shall be in the English language. A notice or other communication may be given or sent by any method of delivery except that an electronic transmission shall be in accordance with this section. If these methods of delivery are impracticable, a notice or other communication may be communicated by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the notice is intended to be given, or by radio, television, or other form of public communication in the area where notice is intended to be given.

C. Notice or other communication to a domestic or foreign corporation, authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth, may be delivered to its registered agent at its registered office or to the secretary of the corporation at its principal office shown in its most recent annual report or, in the case of a foreign corporation that has not yet delivered an annual report, in its application for a certificate of authority.

D. Notice or other communication may be delivered by electronic transmission if consented to by the recipient or if authorized by subsection K.

E. Any consent under subsection D may be revoked by the person who consented by written or electronic notice to the person to whom the consent was delivered. Any such consent is deemed revoked if (i) the corporation is unable to deliver two consecutive electronic transmissions given by the corporation in accordance with such consent and (ii) such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation or other person responsible for the giving of notice or other communications. The inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

F. Unless otherwise agreed between the sender and the recipient, an electronic transmission is received when:

1. It enters an information processing system that the recipient has designated or uses for the purpose of receiving electronic transmissions or information of the type sent, and from which the recipient is able to retrieve the electronic transmission; and

2. It is in a form capable of being processed by that system.

G. Receipt of an electronic acknowledgment from an information processing system described in subdivision F 1 establishes that an electronic transmission was received. However, such receipt of an electronic acknowledgment, by itself, does not establish that the content sent corresponds to the content received.

H. An electronic transmission is received under this section even if no individual is aware of its receipt.

I. Notice or other communication, if in a comprehensible form or manner, is effective at the earliest of the following:

1. If in physical form, the earliest of when it is actually received or when it is left at:

a. A member's address shown on the corporation's record of members maintained by the corporation pursuant to subsection C of § 13.1-932;

b. A director's residence or usual place of business;

c. The corporation's principal place of business; or

d. The corporation's registered office when left with the corporation's registered agent;

2. If mailed postage prepaid and correctly addressed to a member, upon deposit in the United States mail;

3. If mailed by United States mail postage prepaid and correctly addressed to a recipient other than a member, the earliest of when it is actually received or: (i) if sent by registered or certified mail return receipt requested, the date shown on the receipt, signed by or on behalf of the addressee; or (ii) five days after it is deposited in the mail;

4. If an electronic transmission, when it is received as provided in subsection F; and

5. If oral, when communicated.

J. A notice or other communication may be in the form of an electronic transmission that cannot be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process used in conventional commercial practice only if (i) the electronic transmission is otherwise retrievable in perceivable form and (ii) the sender and the recipient have consented in writing to the use of such form of electronic transmission.

K. If this chapter prescribes requirements for notices or other communications in particular circumstances, those requirements govern. If articles of incorporation or bylaws prescribe requirements for notices or other communications not inconsistent with this section or other provisions of this chapter, those requirements govern. The articles of incorporation or bylaws may authorize or require delivery of notices of meetings of directors by electronic transmission.

1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925; 2010, c. 171.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.