Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 20. Domestic Relations
Chapter 9. Status of Children of Assisted Conception

§ 20-156. Definitions.

As used in this chapter unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Assisted conception" means a pregnancy resulting from any intervening medical technology, whether in vivo or in vitro, which completely or partially replaces sexual intercourse as the means of conception. Such intervening medical technology includes, but is not limited to, conventional medical and surgical treatment as well as noncoital reproductive technology such as artificial insemination by donor, cryopreservation of gametes and embryos, in vitro fertilization, uterine embryo lavage, embryo transfer, gamete intrafallopian tube transfer, and low tubal ovum transfer.

"Compensation" means payment of any valuable consideration for services in excess of reasonable medical and ancillary costs.

"Cryopreservation" means freezing and storing of gametes and embryos for possible future use in assisted conception.

"Donor" means an individual, other than a surrogate, who contributes the sperm or egg used in assisted conception.

"Gamete" means either a sperm or an ovum.

"Genetic parent" means an individual who contributes a gamete resulting in a conception.

"Gestational mother" means the woman who gives birth to a child, regardless of her genetic relationship to the child.

"Embryo" means the organism resulting from the union of a sperm and an ovum from first cell division until approximately the end of the second month of gestation.

"Embryo transfer" means the placing of a viable embryo into the uterus of a gestational mother.

"Infertile" means the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse.

"Intended parent" means a married couple or unmarried individual who enters into an agreement with a surrogate under the terms of which such parent will be the parent of any child born to the surrogate through assisted conception regardless of the genetic relationships between the intended parent, the surrogate, and the child.

"In vitro" means any process that can be observed in an artificial environment such as a test tube or tissue culture plate.

"In vitro fertilization" means the fertilization of ova by sperm in an artificial environment.

"In vivo" means any process occurring within the living body.

"Legal or contractual custody" means having authority granted by law, contract, or court order to make decisions concerning the use of an embryo.

"Ovum" means the female gamete or reproductive cell prior to fertilization.

"Reasonable medical and ancillary costs" means the costs of the performance of assisted conception, the costs of prenatal maternal health care, the costs of maternal and child health care for a reasonable postpartum period, the reasonable costs for medications and maternity clothes, and any additional and reasonable costs for housing and other living expenses attributable to the pregnancy.

"Sperm" means the male gametes or reproductive cells which impregnate the ova.

"Surrogacy contract" means an agreement between the intended parent, a surrogate, and her spouse, if any, in which the surrogate agrees to be impregnated through the use of assisted conception, to carry any resulting fetus, and to relinquish to the intended parent the custody of and parental rights to any resulting child.

"Surrogate" means any adult woman who agrees to bear a child carried for the intended parent.

1991, c. 600; 1997, c. 81; 2019, c. 375.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.