Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.7. Commercial Code — Warehouse Receipts, Bills of Lading and Other Documents of Title
Part 4. Warehouse Receipts and Bills of Lading: General Obligations

§ 8.7-403. Obligation of bailee to deliver; excuse.

(1) The bailee must deliver the goods to a person entitled under the document who complies with subsections (2) and (3), unless and to the extent that the bailee establishes any of the following:

(a) delivery of the goods to a person whose receipt was rightful as against the claimant;

(b) damage to or delay, loss or destruction of the goods for which the bailee is not liable;

(c) previous sale or other disposition of the goods in lawful enforcement of a lien or on warehouseman's lawful termination of storage;

(d) the exercise by a seller of his right to stop delivery pursuant to § 8.2-705 or by a lessor of his right to stop delivery pursuant to § 8.2A-526;

(e) a diversion, reconsignment or other disposition pursuant to § 8.7-303;

(f) release, satisfaction or any other fact affording a personal defense against the claimant; or

(g) any other lawful excuse.

(2) A person claiming goods covered by a document must satisfy the bailee's lien where the bailee so requests or where the bailee is prohibited by law from delivering the goods until the charges are paid.

(3) Unless the person claiming the goods is one against whom the document confers no right under § 8.7-503 (1), he must surrender possession or control, for cancellation or notation of partial deliveries, any outstanding negotiable document covering the goods, and the bailee must cancel the document or conspicuously note the partial delivery thereon or be liable to any person to whom the document is duly negotiated.

(4) "Person entitled under the document" means holder, in the case of a negotiable document, or the person to whom delivery of the goods is to be made by the terms of, or pursuant to instructions in a record under, a nonnegotiable document.

Code 1950, §§ 61-11 to 61-15, 61-19, 61-22; 1964, c. 219; 2004, c. 200.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.