Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.7. Commercial Code -- Warehouse Receipts, Bills of Lading and Other Documents of Title
Part 5. Warehouse Receipts and Bills of Lading: Negotiation and Transfer
3/24/2019

§ 8.7-501. Form of negotiation and requirements of "due negotiation".

(1) The following rules apply to a negotiable tangible document:

(a) If the document's original terms run to the order of a named person, the document is negotiated by his endorsement and delivery. After his endorsement in blank or to bearer any person can negotiate the document by delivery alone.

(b) If the document's original terms run to bearer, it is negotiated by delivery alone.

(c) If a document's original terms run to the order of a named person and it is delivered to him, the effect is the same as if the document had been negotiated.

(d) Negotiation of the document after it has been endorsed to a named person requires endorsement by the named person as well as delivery.

(e) A document is "duly negotiated" when it is negotiated in the manner stated in this subsection to a holder who purchases it in good faith, without notice of any defense against or claim to it on the part of any person, and for value, unless it is established that the negotiation is not in the regular course of business or financing or involves receiving the document in settlement or payment of a money obligation.

(2) The following rules apply to a negotiable electronic document:

(a) If the document's original terms run to the order of a named person or to bearer, the document is negotiated by delivery of the document to another person. Endorsement by the named person is not required to negotiate the document.

(b) If the document's original terms run to the order of a named person and the named person has control of the document, the effect is the same as if the document had been negotiated.

(c) A document is duly negotiated if it is negotiated in the manner stated in this subsection to a holder that purchases it in good faith, without notice of any defense against or claim to it on the part of any person, and for value, unless it is established that the negotiation is not in the regular course of business or financing or involves taking delivery of the document in settlement or payment of a monetary obligation.

(3) Endorsement of a nonnegotiable document neither makes it negotiable nor adds to the transferee's rights.

(4) The naming in a negotiable bill of a person to be notified of the arrival of the goods does not limit the negotiability of the bill nor constitute notice to a purchaser thereof of any interest of such person in the goods.

Code 1950, §§ 61-40 to 61-43, 61-50; 1964, c. 219; 2004, c. 200.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.