Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
Chapter 10. Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act
8/15/2020

§ 13.1-883. Application of article.

A. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws expressly provide otherwise, any authorization of indemnification in the articles of incorporation or bylaws shall not be deemed to prevent the corporation from providing the indemnity permitted or mandated by this article. A corporation, by a provision in its articles of incorporation or bylaws or in a resolution adopted or contract approved by its board of directors or members, may obligate itself in advance of the act or omission giving rise to a proceeding to provide indemnification in accordance with § 13.1-876 and advance funds to pay for or reimburse expenses in accordance with § 13.1-878. Any such obligatory provision shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements for authorization referred to in subsection C of § 13.1-878 and subsection C of § 13.1-880.

B. Any corporation shall have power to make any further indemnity, including indemnity with respect to a proceeding by or in the right of the corporation, and to make additional provision for advances and reimbursement of expenses, to any director or officer that may be authorized by the articles of incorporation or any bylaw made by the members or any resolution adopted, before or after the event, by the members, except an indemnity against (i) such person's willful misconduct, or (ii) a knowing violation of the criminal law. Any such provision that obligates the corporation to provide indemnification to the fullest extent permitted by law shall be deemed, unless the articles of incorporation or any such bylaw or resolution expressly provides otherwise, also to obligate the corporation to advance funds to pay for or reimburse expenses to the fullest extent permitted by law in accordance with § 13.1-878 except that the applicable standard shall be conduct that does not constitute willful misconduct or a knowing violation of criminal law, rather than the standard of conduct prescribed in § 13.1-876. Unless the articles of incorporation, or any such bylaw or resolution expressly provides otherwise, any determination as to the right to any further indemnity shall be made in accordance with subsection B of § 13.1-880. Each such indemnity may continue as to a person who has ceased to have the capacity referred to above and may inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

C. The provisions of this article and Article 8 (§ 13.1-853 et seq.) of this Act shall apply to the same extent to any cooperative organized under the Code of Virginia.

D. No right provided to any person pursuant to this section may be reduced or eliminated by any amendment of the articles of incorporation or bylaws with respect to any act or omission occurring before such amendment.

E. This article does not limit a corporation's power to pay or reimburse expenses incurred by a director or an officer in connection with his appearance as a witness in a proceeding at a time when he is not a party.

F. This article does not limit a corporation's power to indemnify, advance expenses to, or provide or maintain insurance on behalf of an employee or agent who is not a director or officer.

Code 1950, § 13.1-205.1; 1968, c. 689; 1975, c. 500; 1981, c. 57; 1985, c. 522; 1987, cc. 59, 257; 1988, c. 561; 2007, c. 925; 2010, c. 171.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.