Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
8/15/2020

Article 13. Dissolution.

§ 13.1-902. Dissolution by directors and members.

A. Where there are members having voting rights, a corporation's board of directors may propose dissolution for submission to the members.

B. For a proposal to dissolve to be adopted:

1. The board of directors shall recommend dissolution to the members unless the board of directors determines that because of conflict of interests or other special circumstances it should make no recommendation and communicates the basis for its determination to the members; and

2. The members entitled to vote shall approve the proposal to dissolve as provided in subsection E.

C. The board of directors may condition its submission of the proposal for dissolution on any basis.

D. The corporation shall notify each member entitled to vote of the proposed members' meeting in accordance with § 13.1-842. The notice shall also state that the purpose, or one of the purposes, of the meeting is to consider dissolving the corporation.

E. Unless the board of directors, acting pursuant to subsection C, requires a greater vote, dissolution to be authorized shall have been approved by more than two-thirds of all the votes cast on the proposal to dissolve at a meeting at which a quorum exists. The articles of incorporation may provide for a greater or lesser vote than that provided for in this subsection or a vote by separate voting groups so long as the vote provided for is not less than a majority of all the votes cast by each voting group entitled to vote on the proposed dissolution at a meeting at which a quorum of the voting group exists.

Code 1950, § 13.1-248; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-903. Dissolution by directors.

Where there are no members, or no members having voting rights, the dissolution of the corporation shall be authorized at a meeting of the board of directors upon the adoption of a resolution to dissolve by the vote of a majority of the directors in office.

Code 1950, § 13.1-248; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522.

§ 13.1-904. Articles of dissolution.

A. At any time after dissolution is approved, the corporation may dissolve by filing with the Commission articles of dissolution setting forth:

1. The name of the corporation.

2. The date dissolution was authorized.

3. Where there are members having voting rights, either (i) a statement that dissolution was authorized by unanimous consent of the members, or (ii) a statement that the proposed dissolution was submitted to the members by the board of directors in accordance with this article and a statement of (a) the existence of a quorum of each voting group entitled to vote separately on dissolution and (b) either the total number of votes cast for and against dissolution by each voting group entitled to vote separately on dissolution or the total number of undisputed votes cast for dissolution separately by each voting group and a statement that the number cast for dissolution by each voting group was sufficient for approval by that voting group.

4. Where there are no members, or no members having voting rights, then a statement of that fact, the date of the meeting of the board of directors at which the dissolution was authorized and a statement of the fact that dissolution was authorized by the vote of a majority of the directors in office.

B. If the Commission finds that the articles of dissolution comply with the requirements of law and that the corporation has paid all required fees and taxes imposed by laws administered by the Commission, it shall issue a certificate of dissolution.

C. A corporation is dissolved upon the effective date of the certificate of dissolution.

D. For purposes of §§ 13.1-902 through 13.1-908.2, "dissolved corporation" means a corporation whose articles of dissolution have become effective; the term includes a successor entity to which the remaining assets of the corporation are transferred subject to its liabilities for purposes of liquidation.

Code 1950, §§ 13.1-252, 13.1-253; 1956, c. 428; 1974, c. 452; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2003, c. 596; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-905. Revocation of dissolution.

A. A corporation may revoke its dissolution at any time prior to the effective date of its certificate of termination of corporate existence.

B. Revocation of dissolution shall be authorized in the same manner as the dissolution was authorized unless, where members have votes, that authorization permitted revocation by action by the board of directors alone, in which event the board of directors may revoke the dissolution without member action.

C. After the revocation of dissolution is authorized, the corporation may revoke the dissolution by filing with the Commission articles of revocation of dissolution that set forth:

1. The name of the corporation;

2. The effective date of the dissolution that was revoked;

3. The date that the revocation of dissolution was authorized;

4. If the corporation's board of directors revoked a dissolution authorized by the members, a statement that revocation was permitted by action by the board of directors alone pursuant to that authorization; and

5. If member action was required to revoke the dissolution, the information required by subdivision 3 of subsection A of § 13.1-904.

D. If the Commission finds that the articles of revocation of dissolution comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of revocation of dissolution.

E. When the revocation of dissolution is effective, it relates back to and takes effect as of the effective date of the dissolution and the corporation resumes carrying on its business as if dissolution had never occurred.

Code 1950, § 13.1-251; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522.

§ 13.1-906. Effect of dissolution.

A. A dissolved corporation continues its corporate existence but may not transact any business except that appropriate to wind up and liquidate its business and affairs, including:

1. Collecting its assets;

2. Disposing of its properties;

3. Discharging or making provision for discharging its liabilities;

4. Distributing its remaining property; and

5. Doing every other act necessary to wind up and liquidate its business and affairs.

B. Dissolution of a corporation does not:

1. Transfer title to the corporation's property;

2. Subject its directors to standards of conduct different from those prescribed in § 13.1-870;

3. Change quorum or voting requirements for its board of directors or members; change provisions for selection, resignation, or removal of its directors or officers; or change provisions for amending its bylaws;

4. Prevent commencement of a proceeding by or against the corporation in its corporate name;

5. Abate or suspend a proceeding pending by or against the corporation on the effective date of dissolution; or

6. Terminate the authority of the registered agent of the corporation.

1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-907. Distribution and plan of distribution of assets.

A. The assets of a corporation in the process of dissolution shall be applied and distributed as follows:

1. All liabilities and obligations of the corporation shall be paid, satisfied and discharged, or adequate provision shall be made therefor;

2. Assets held by the corporation upon condition requiring return, transfer or conveyance, which condition occurs by reason of the dissolution, shall be returned, transferred or conveyed in accordance with such requirements;

3. Assets received and held by the corporation subject to limitations permitting their use only for charitable, religious, eleemosynary, benevolent, educational or similar purposes, but not held upon a condition requiring return, transfer or conveyance by reason of the dissolution, shall be transferred or conveyed to one or more domestic or foreign corporations, societies or organizations engaged in activities substantially similar to those of the dissolving corporation, pursuant to a plan of distribution adopted as provided in this Act or as a court may direct;

4. Other assets, if any, shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of the articles of incorporation or the bylaws to the extent that the articles of incorporation or bylaws determine the distributive rights of members, or any class or classes of members, or provide for distribution to others;

5. Any remaining assets may be distributed to such persons, societies, organizations or domestic or foreign corporations, whether issuing shares or not, as may be specified in a plan of distribution adopted as provided in this Act or as a court may direct.

B. A plan providing for the distribution of assets, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, may be adopted by a corporation in the process of dissolution and shall be adopted by a corporation for the purpose of authorizing any transfer or conveyance of assets for which this Act requires a plan of distribution. A plan shall be adopted in accordance with the procedures established in § 13.1-902 or 13.1-903, as the case may be.

Code 1950, §§ 13-237, 13.1-249, 13.1-250; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-908. Known claims against dissolved corporation.

A. A dissolved corporation may dispose of the known claims against it by following the procedure described in this section.

B. The dissolved corporation shall deliver to each of its known claimants written notice of the dissolution at any time after its effective date. The written notice shall:

1. Provide a reasonable description of the claim that the claimant may be entitled to assert;

2. State whether the claim is admitted, or not admitted, and if admitted (i) the amount that is admitted, which may be as of a given date, and (ii) any interest obligation if fixed by an instrument of indebtedness;

3. Provide a mailing address where a claim may be sent;

4. State the deadline, which may not be fewer than 120 days from the effective date of the written notice, by which confirmation of the claim is required to be delivered to the dissolved corporation; and

5. State that, except to the extent that any claim is admitted, the claim will be barred if written confirmation of the claim is not delivered by the deadline.

C. A claim against the dissolved corporation is barred to the extent that it is not admitted:

1. If the dissolved corporation delivered written notice to the claimant in accordance with subsection B and the claimant does not deliver written confirmation of the claim to the dissolved corporation by the deadline; or

2. If the dissolved corporation delivered written notice to the claimant that his claim is not admitted, in whole or in part, and the claimant does not commence a proceeding to enforce the claim within 90 days from the delivery of written confirmation of the claim to the dissolved corporation.

D. For purposes of this section, "claim" does not include (i) a contingent liability or a claim based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution or (ii) a liability or claim the ultimate maturity of which is more than 60 days after the delivery of written notice to the claimant pursuant to subsection B.

E. If a liability exists but the full extent of any damages is or may not be ascertainable, and a proceeding to enforce the claim is commenced pursuant to subdivision C 2, the claimant may amend the pleadings after filing to include any damages that occurred or are alleged to have occurred after filing, and the court having jurisdiction of such claim may continue such proceeding during its pendency if it appears that further damages are or may be still occurring.

1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-908.1. Other claims against dissolved corporation.

A. A dissolved corporation may also (i) deliver notice of its dissolution to any known claimant with a liability or claim that pursuant to subsection D of § 13.1-908 is not treated as a claim for purposes of § 13.1-908 and (ii) publish notice of its dissolution one time in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the dissolved corporation's principal office, or, if none in the Commonwealth, its registered office, is or was last located. The notice of dissolution shall request that persons with claims against the dissolved corporation present them in accordance with the notice.

B. The notice shall:

1. Describe the information that is required to be included in a claim and provide a mailing address to which the claim may be sent; and

2. State that a claim against the dissolved corporation will be barred unless a proceeding to enforce the claim is commenced prior to the earlier of the expiration of any applicable statute of limitations or three years after the date of delivery of notice to the claimant, or the date of publication of the notice, as appropriate.

C. If the dissolved corporation provides notice of its dissolution in accordance with this section, the claim of each of the following claimants is barred unless the claimant commences a proceeding to enforce the claim against the dissolved corporation prior to the earlier of the expiration of any applicable statute of limitations or three years after the date on which notice was delivered to the claimant or published, as appropriate:

1. A claimant who was not given written notice under § 13.1-908;

2. A claimant whose claim was timely sent to the dissolved corporation but not acted on; and

3. A claimant whose claim pursuant to subsection D of § 13.1-908 is not treated as a claim for purposes of § 13.1-908.

D. A claim that is not barred by subsection C of § 13.1-908 or subsection C of this section may be enforced:

1. Against the dissolved corporation, to the extent of its undistributed assets; or

2. Except as provided in subsection D of § 13.1-908.2, if the assets have been distributed in liquidation, against a member of the dissolved corporation to the extent of the member's pro rata share of the claim or the corporate assets distributed to the member in liquidation, whichever is less, but a member's total liability for all claims under this section may not exceed the total amount of assets distributed to the member.

2007, c. 925; 2015, c. 611.

§ 13.1-908.2. Court proceedings.

A. A dissolved corporation that has published a notice under § 13.1-908.1 may file an application with the circuit court of the city or county where the dissolved corporation's principal office, or, if none in the Commonwealth, its registered office, is or was last located for a determination of the amount and form of security to be provided for payment of claims that are contingent or have not been made known to the dissolved corporation or that are based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution but that, based on the facts known to the dissolved corporation, are reasonably estimated to arise after the effective date of dissolution. Provision need not be made for any claim that is or is reasonably anticipated to be barred under subsection C of § 13.1-908.1.

B. Within 10 days after the filing of the application, notice of the proceeding shall be given by the dissolved corporation to each claimant holding a contingent claim whose contingent claim is shown on the records of the dissolved corporation.

C. The court may appoint a guardian ad litem to represent all claimants whose identities are unknown in any proceeding brought under this section. The reasonable fees and expenses of such guardian, including all reasonable expert witness fees, shall be paid by the dissolved corporation.

D. Provision by the dissolved corporation for security in the amount and the form ordered by the court under subsection A shall satisfy the dissolved corporation's obligations with respect to claims that do not meet the definition of a claim in subsection D of § 13.1-908, and such claims may not be enforced against a member who received assets in liquidation.

2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-908.3. Director duties.

A. The board of directors shall cause the dissolved corporation to apply its remaining assets to discharge or make reasonable provision for the payment of claims and make distributions of assets to members after payment or provision for claims.

B. Directors of a dissolved corporation that has disposed of claims under § 13.1-908, 13.1-908.1, or 13.1-908.2 shall not be liable for breach of subsection A with respect to claims against the dissolved corporation that are barred or satisfied under § 13.1-908, 13.1-908.1, or 13.1-908.2.

2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-909. Grounds for judicial dissolution.

A. The circuit court in any city or county described in subsection C may dissolve a corporation:

1. In a proceeding by a member or director if it is established that:

a. The directors are deadlocked in the management of the corporate affairs and irreparable injury to the corporation is threatened or being suffered, or the business and affairs of the corporation can no longer be conducted to the advantage of the members generally, because of the deadlock, and either that the members are unable to break the deadlock or there are no members having voting rights;

b. The directors or those in control of the corporation have acted, are acting, or will act in a manner that is illegal, oppressive, or fraudulent;

c. The members are deadlocked in voting power and have failed, for a period that includes at least two consecutive annual meeting dates, to elect successors to directors whose terms have expired;

d. The corporate assets are being misapplied or wasted; or

e. The corporation is unable to carry out its purposes;

2. In a proceeding by a creditor if it is established that:

a. The creditor's claim has been reduced to judgment, the execution on the judgment returned unsatisfied and the corporation is insolvent; or

b. The corporation has admitted in writing that the creditor's claim is due and owing and the corporation is insolvent;

3. In a proceeding by the corporation to have its voluntary dissolution continued under court supervision;

4. Upon application by the board of directors when it is established that circumstances make it impossible to obtain a representative vote by members on the question of dissolution and that the continuation of the business of the corporation is not in the interest of the members but it is in their interest that the assets and business be liquidated; or

5. When the Commission has instituted a proceeding for the involuntary termination of a corporate existence and entered an order finding that the corporate existence of the corporation should be terminated but that liquidation of its business and affairs should precede the entry of an order of termination of corporate existence.

B. The circuit court in the city or county named in subsection C shall have full power to liquidate the assets and business of the corporation at any time after the termination of corporate existence, pursuant to the provisions of this article upon the application of any person, for good cause, with regard to any assets or business that may remain. The jurisdiction conferred by this clause may also be exercised by any such court in any city or county where any property may be situated whether of a domestic or a foreign corporation that ceased to exist.

C. Venue for a proceeding brought under this section lies in the city or county where the corporation's principal office is or was last located, or, if none in the Commonwealth, where its registered office is or was last located.

D. It is not necessary to make directors or members parties to a proceeding to be brought under this section unless relief is sought against them individually.

E. A court in a proceeding brought to dissolve a corporation may issue injunctions, appoint a receiver or custodian pendente lite with such powers and duties as the court may direct, take other action required to preserve the corporate assets wherever located, and carry on the business of the corporation until a full hearing can be held.

Code 1950, §§ 13.1-257, 13.1-260, 13.1-261; 1956, c. 428; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-910. Receivership or custodianship.

A. A court in a judicial proceeding brought to dissolve a corporation may appoint one or more receivers to wind up and liquidate, or one or more custodians to manage while the proceeding is pending, the business and affairs of the corporation. The court shall hold a hearing, after notifying all parties to the proceeding and any interested persons designated by the court, before appointing a receiver or custodian. The court appointing a receiver or custodian has exclusive jurisdiction over the corporation and all its property wherever located.

B. The court may appoint an individual, a domestic corporation, or a foreign corporation, authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth, as a receiver or custodian. The court may require the receiver or custodian to post bond, with or without sureties, in an amount the court directs.

C. The court shall describe the powers and duties of the receiver or custodian in its appointing order, which may be amended from time to time. Among other powers:

1. The receiver (i) may dispose of all or any part of the assets of the corporation wherever located, at a public or private sale, if authorized by the court, and (ii) may sue and defend in his own name as receiver of the corporation in all courts of the Commonwealth; and

2. The custodian may exercise all of the powers of the corporation, through or in place of its board of directors or officers, to the extent necessary to manage the affairs of the corporation in the best interest of its members and creditors.

D. The court during a receivership may redesignate the receiver a custodian, and during a custodianship may redesignate the custodian a receiver, if doing so is in the best interest of the corporation, its members, and creditors.

E. The court from time to time during the receivership or custodianship may order compensation paid and expense disbursements or reimbursements made to the receiver or custodian and the custodian's counsel from the assets of the corporation or proceeds from the sale of the assets.

Code 1950, §§ 13.1-258, 13.1-259; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-911. Decree of dissolution.

A. If after a hearing the court determines that one or more grounds for judicial dissolution described in § 13.1-909 exist, it may enter a decree directing that the corporation shall be dissolved. The clerk of the court shall deliver a certified copy of the decree to the Commission, which shall enter an order of involuntary dissolution.

B. After the order of involuntary dissolution has been entered, the court shall direct the winding up and liquidation of the corporation's business and affairs in accordance with §§ 13.1-906 and 13.1-907 and the notification of claimants in accordance with §§ 13.1-908, 13.1-908.1, and 13.1-908.2. When all of the assets of the corporation have been distributed, the court shall so advise the Commission, which shall enter an order of termination of corporate existence.

Code 1950, §§ 13.1-262, 13.1-263; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-912. Articles of termination of corporate existence.

A. When a corporation has distributed all of its assets and voluntary dissolution proceedings have not been revoked, it shall file articles of termination of corporate existence with the Commission. The articles shall set forth:

1. The name of the corporation;

2. That all the assets of the corporation have been distributed; and

3. That the dissolution of the corporation has not been revoked.

B. If the Commission finds that the articles of termination of corporate existence comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall by order issue a certificate of termination of corporate existence. Upon the issuance of such certificate, the existence of the corporation shall cease, except for the purpose of suits, other proceedings and appropriate corporate action by members, directors and officers as provided in this Act.

C. The statement "that all the assets of the corporation have been distributed" means that the corporation has divested itself of all its assets by the payment of claims or by assignment to a trustee or trustees as directed by § 13.1-907. If any certificate holder, member, bondholder, or other security holder, or a participating patron of a cooperative who is entitled to a share in the distribution of the assets cannot be found, the corporation may thereupon, and without awaiting the one year mentioned in § 55.1-2513, pay such person's share to the State Treasurer as abandoned property on complying with all applicable requirements of § 55.1-2524 except subdivision B 4 of that section.

1985, c. 522; 1986, c. 529; 2004, c. 162; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-913. Termination of corporate existence by incorporators or initial directors.

A majority of the initial directors or, if initial directors were not named in the articles of incorporation and have not been elected, the incorporators of a corporation that has not commenced business may dissolve the corporation and terminate its corporate existence by filing with the Commission articles of termination of corporate existence that set forth:

1. The name of the corporation;

2. That the corporation has not commenced business;

3. That no debt of the corporation remains unpaid;

4. That the net assets of the corporation remaining after winding up have been distributed; and

5. That a majority of the initial directors authorized the dissolution or that initial directors were not named in the articles of incorporation and have not been elected and a majority of the incorporators authorized the dissolution.

1985, c. 522; 1986, c. 234; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-914. Automatic termination of corporate existence.

A. If any domestic corporation fails to file its annual report or pay its annual registration fee in a timely manner as required by this chapter, the Commission shall mail to each such corporation a notice of the impending termination of its corporate existence. Whether or not such notice is mailed, if any corporation fails to file its annual report or pay its annual registration fee on or before the last day of the fourth month immediately following its annual report or annual registration fee due date each year, the corporate existence of the corporation shall be automatically terminated as of that day.

B. If any domestic corporation whose registered agent has filed with the Commission his statement of resignation pursuant to § 13.1-835 fails to file a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-834 within 31 days after the date on which the statement of resignation was filed, the Commission shall mail notice to the corporation of the impending termination of its corporate existence. If the corporation fails to file the statement of change before the last day of the second month immediately following the month in which the impending termination notice was mailed, the corporate existence of the corporation shall be automatically terminated as of that day.

C. The properties and affairs of a corporation whose corporate existence has been terminated pursuant to this section shall pass automatically to its directors as trustees in liquidation. The trustees shall then proceed to (i) collect the assets of the corporation, (ii) pay, satisfy, and discharge its liabilities and obligations, and (iii) do all other acts required to liquidate its business and affairs. After paying or adequately providing for the payment of all its obligations, the trustees shall distribute the remainder of its assets in accordance with § 13.1-907.

D. No officer, director, or agent of a corporation shall have any personal obligation for any of the liabilities of the corporation whether such liabilities arise in contract, tort, or otherwise, solely by reason of the termination of the corporation's existence pursuant to this section.

Code 1950, § 13.1-254; 1956, c. 428; 1970, c. 4; 1980, c. 185; 1985, cc. 522, 528; 1987, c. 2; 1988, c. 405; 1991, c. 125; 1997, c. 216; 2000, c. 52; 2007, c. 925; 2010, c. 753.

§ 13.1-915. Involuntary termination of corporate existence.

A. The corporate existence of a corporation may be terminated involuntarily by order of the Commission when it finds that the corporation (i) has continued to exceed or abuse the authority conferred upon it by law; (ii) has failed to maintain a registered office or a registered agent in the Commonwealth as required by law; (iii) has failed to file any document required by this Act to be filed with the Commission; or (iv) has been convicted for a violation of 8 U.S.C. § 1324a(f), as amended, for actions of its officers and directors constituting a pattern or practice of employing unauthorized aliens in the Commonwealth. Upon termination, the properties and affairs of the corporation shall pass automatically to its directors as trustees in liquidation. The trustees then shall proceed to collect the assets of the corporation, and pay, satisfy and discharge its liabilities and obligations and do all other acts required to liquidate its business and affairs. After paying or adequately providing for the payment of all its obligations, the trustees shall distribute the remainder of its assets in accordance with § 13.1-907. A corporation whose existence is terminated pursuant to clause (iv) shall not be eligible for reinstatement for a period of not less than one year.

B. Any corporation convicted of the offense listed in clause (iv) of subsection A shall immediately report such conviction to the Commission and file with the Commission an authenticated copy of the judgment or record of conviction.

C. Before entering any such order the Commission shall issue a rule against the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard and show cause why such an order should not be entered. The Commission may issue the rule on its own motion or on motion of the Attorney General.

Code 1950, § 13.1-256; 1956, c. 428; 1958, c. 506; 1968, c. 116; 1976, c. 350; 1985, c. 522; 1991, c. 310; 2007, c. 925; 2008, cc. 588, 770.

§ 13.1-916. Reinstatement of a corporation that has ceased to exist.

A. A corporation that has ceased to exist pursuant to this article may apply to the Commission for reinstatement within five years thereafter unless the corporate existence was terminated by order of the Commission (i) upon a finding that the corporation has continued to exceed or abuse the authority conferred upon it by law or (ii) entered pursuant to § 13.1-911 and the circuit court's decree directing dissolution contains no provision of reinstatement of corporate existence.

B. To have its corporate existence reinstated, the corporation shall provide the Commission with the following:

1. An application for reinstatement, which shall include the identification number issued by the Commission to the corporation, and which may be in the form of a letter signed by an officer or director of the corporation, or which may be by affidavit signed by an agent of any member's interests stating that after diligent search by such agent, no officer or director can be found;

2. A reinstatement fee of $10;

3. All annual registration fees and penalties that were due before the corporation ceased to exist and that would have been assessed or imposed to the date of reinstatement if the corporation's existence had not been terminated;

4. An annual report for the calendar year that corresponds to the calendar year of the latest annual registration fee that was assessed or that would have been assessed to the date of reinstatement;

5. If the name of the corporation does not comply with the provisions of § 13.1-829 at the time of reinstatement, articles of amendment to the articles of incorporation to change the corporation's name to a name that satisfies the provisions of § 13.1-829, with the fee required by this chapter for the filing of articles of amendment; and

6. If the corporation's registered agent has filed a statement of resignation and a new registered agent has not been appointed, a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-834.

C. If the corporation complies with the provisions of this section, the Commission shall enter an order of reinstatement of corporate existence. Upon entry of the order of reinstatement, the corporate existence shall be deemed to have continued from the date of termination as if termination had never occurred, and any liability incurred by the corporation or a director, officer, or other agent after the termination and before the reinstatement is determined as if the termination of the corporation's existence had never occurred.

Code 1950, § 13.1-255; 1956, c. 428; 1958, c. 564; 1976, c. 350; 1985, c. 522; 1986, c. 234; 1988, c. 405; 2004, c. 601; 2005, c. 379; 2006, c. 663; 2007, c. 925; 2015, c. 623.

§ 13.1-917. Survival of remedy after termination of corporate existence.

The termination of corporate existence shall not take away or impair any remedy available to or against the corporation, its directors, officers or members, for any right or claim existing, or any liability incurred, prior to such termination. Any such action or proceeding by or against the corporation may be prosecuted or defended by the corporation in its corporate name. The members, directors and officers shall have power to take such corporate or other action as shall be appropriate to protect such remedy, right or claim.

Code 1950, § 13.1-264; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-918. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 405.

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