Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations

Article 3. Formation of Corporations.

§ 13.1-818. Incorporators.

One or more persons may act as the incorporator or incorporators of a corporation by signing and delivering articles of incorporation to the Commission for filing.

Code 1950, § 13.1-230; 1956, c. 428; 1968, c. 42; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2015, c. 623.

§ 13.1-819. Articles of incorporation.

A. The articles of incorporation shall set forth:

1. A corporate name for the corporation that satisfies the requirements of § 13.1-829.

2. If the corporation is to have no members, a statement to that effect.

3. If the corporation is to have one or more classes of members, any provision which the incorporators elect to set forth in the articles of incorporation or, if the articles of incorporation so provide, in the bylaws designating the class or classes of members, stating the qualifications and rights of the members of each class and conferring, limiting or denying the right to vote.

4. If the directors or any of them are not to be elected or appointed by one or more classes of members, a statement of the manner in which such directors shall be elected or appointed, and a designation of ex officio directors, if any.

5. The address of the corporation's initial registered office (including both (i) the post-office address with street and number, if any, and (ii) the name of the city or county in which it is located), and the name of its initial registered agent at that office, and that the agent is either (i) an individual who is a resident of Virginia and either a director of the corporation or a member of the Virginia State Bar or (ii) a domestic or foreign stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company or registered limited liability partnership authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth.

B. The articles of incorporation may set forth:

1. The names and addresses of the individuals who are to serve as the initial directors;

2. Provisions not inconsistent with law:

a. Stating the purpose or purposes for which the corporation is organized;

b. Regarding the management of the business and regulation of the affairs of the corporation;

c. Defining, limiting and regulating the powers of the corporation, its directors, and its members; and

d. Any provision that under this Act is required or permitted to be set forth in the bylaws.

C. The articles of incorporation need not set forth any of the corporate powers enumerated in this Act.

D. Provisions of the articles of incorporation may be made dependent upon facts objectively ascertainable outside the articles of incorporation in accordance with subsection L of § 13.1-804.

E. Except as provided in subsection A of § 13.1-855, whenever a provision of the articles of incorporation is inconsistent with a bylaw, the provision of the articles of incorporation shall be controlling.

Code 1950, § 13.1-231; 1956, c. 428; 1958, c. 564; 1975, c. 500; 1982, c. 182; 1985, c. 522; 1986, c. 622; 1993, c. 113; 2000, c. 162; 2001, cc. 517, 541; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-820. Issuance of certificate of incorporation.

If the Commission finds that the articles of incorporation comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of incorporation.

When the certificate of incorporation is effective, the corporate existence shall begin. Upon becoming effective, the certificate of incorporation shall be conclusive evidence that all conditions precedent required to be performed by the incorporators have been complied with and that the corporation has been incorporated under this Act.

Code 1950, §§ 13-223, 13-224, 13.1-232, 13.1-233; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-821. Liability for preincorporation transactions.

All persons purporting to act as or on behalf of a corporation, but knowing there was no incorporation under this chapter, are jointly and severally liable for all liabilities created while so acting except for any liability to any person who also knew that there was no incorporation.

1985, c. 522.

§ 13.1-822. Organization of corporation.

A. After incorporation:

1. If initial directors are named in the articles of incorporation, the initial directors shall hold an organizational meeting, at the call of a majority of the directors, to complete the organization of the corporation by adopting bylaws, appointing officers, and carrying on any other business brought before the meeting or

2. If initial directors are not named in the articles, the incorporator or incorporators shall hold an organizational meeting at the call of a majority of the incorporators:

a. To elect a board of directors and complete the organization of the corporation; or

b. To elect directors who shall complete the organization of the corporation.

B. Action required or permitted by this Act to be taken by incorporators at an organizational meeting may be taken without a meeting if the action taken is evidenced by one or more written consents describing the action taken and signed by each incorporator.

C. An organizational meeting may be held in or out of the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 13.1-234; 1956, c. 428; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

§ 13.1-823. Bylaws.

A. The incorporators or board of directors of a corporation shall adopt initial bylaws for the corporation.

B. The bylaws of a corporation may contain any provision that is not inconsistent with law or the articles of incorporation.

Code 1950, §§ 13-234, 13.1-212; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925; 2010, c. 171.

§ 13.1-824. Emergency bylaws.

A. Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, the board of directors of a corporation may adopt bylaws to be effective only in an emergency defined in subsection D. The emergency bylaws, which are subject to amendment or repeal by the members, may make all provisions necessary for managing the corporation during the emergency, including:

1. Procedures for calling a meeting of the board of directors;

2. Quorum requirements for the meeting; and

3. Designation of additional or substitute directors.

B. All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws remain effective during the emergency. The emergency bylaws are not effective after the emergency ends.

C. Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws:

1. Binds the corporation; and

2. May not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee or agent.

D. An emergency exists for purposes of this section if a quorum of the corporation's board of directors cannot readily be assembled because of some catastrophic event.

Code 1950, § 13.1-212.1; 1962, c. 102; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2007, c. 925.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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