Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 19.2. Criminal Procedure
Chapter 17. Convictions; Effect Thereof
9/26/2021

Chapter 17. Convictions; Effect Thereof.

Article 1. Proof and Verdicts.

§ 19.2-283. How accused may be convicted of felony.

No person shall be convicted of felony, unless by his confession of guilt in court, or by his plea, or by the verdict of a jury, accepted and recorded by the court, or by judgment of the court trying the case without a jury according to law.

Code 1950, § 19.1-248; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-284. Proof of ownership in offense relating to property.

In a prosecution for an offense committed upon, relating to or affecting real estate, or for stealing, embezzling, destroying, injuring or fraudulently receiving or concealing any personal estate it shall be sufficient to prove that when the offense was committed the actual or constructive possession, or a general or special property, in the whole or any part of such estate was in the person or entity alleged in the indictment or other accusation to be the owner thereof.

Code 1950, § 19.1-247; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-285. Accused guilty of part of offense charged; sentence; on new trial what tried.

If a person indicted of a felony be by the jury acquitted of part of the offense charged, he shall be sentenced for such part as he is so convicted of, if the same be substantially charged in the indictment, whether it be felony or misdemeanor. If the verdict be set aside and a new trial granted the accused, he shall not be tried for any higher offense than that of which he was convicted on the last trial.

Code 1950, § 19.1-249; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-286. Conviction of attempt or as accessory on indictment for felony; effect of general verdict of not guilty.

On an indictment for felony the jury may find the accused not guilty of the felony but guilty of an attempt to commit such felony, or of being an accessory thereto; and a general verdict of not guilty, upon such indictment, shall be a bar to a subsequent prosecution for an attempt to commit such felony, or of being an accessory thereto.

Code 1950, § 19.1-254; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-287. Verdict and judgment, when jury agree as to some and disagree as to others.

When two or more persons are charged and tried jointly, the jury may render a verdict as to any of them as to whom they agree. Thereupon judgment shall be entered according to the verdict; and as to the others the case shall be tried by another jury.

Code 1950, § 19.1-256; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-288. Verdict when accused found guilty of punishable homicide.

If a person indicted for murder be found by the jury guilty of any punishable homicide, they shall in their verdict fix the degree thereof. The court shall ascertain the extent of the punishment to be inflicted within the bounds prescribed by §§ 18.2-30 to 18.2-36, unless the accused has requested that the jury ascertain punishment of the offense as provided in subsection A of § 19.2-295.

Code 1950, § 19.1-250; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, c. 43.

§ 19.2-289. Conviction of petit larceny.

In a prosecution for grand larceny, if it be found that the thing stolen is of less value than $1,000, the jury may find the accused guilty of petit larceny.

Code 1950, § 19.1-252; 1960, c. 366; 1966, c. 247; 1975, c. 495; 1981, c. 197; 2018, cc. 764, 765; 2020, cc. 89, 401.

§ 19.2-290. Conviction of petit larceny though thing stolen worth $1,000 or more.

In a prosecution for petit larceny, though the thing stolen be of the value of $1,000 or more, the jury may find the accused guilty, and upon a conviction under this section or § 19.2-289 the accused shall be sentenced for petit larceny.

Code 1950, § 19.1-253; 1960, c. 366; 1966, c. 247; 1975, c. 495; 1981, c. 197; 2018, cc. 764, 765; 2020, cc. 89, 401.

§ 19.2-291. Faulty counts; motion to strike; general verdict of guilty.

When there are several counts in the indictment one or more of which are faulty, the accused may move to strike the faulty count or counts or move the court to instruct the jury to disregard them. If he does neither and a general verdict of guilty is found, judgment shall be entered against the accused, if any count be good, though others be faulty, unless the court can plainly see that the verdict could not have been found on the good count. If the accused demurs to the faulty count or moves the court to instruct the jury to disregard it and his demurrer or motion is overruled and there is a general verdict of guilty and it cannot be seen on which count the verdict was founded, if the jury has been discharged, it shall be set aside; but if it is manifest that it could not have been found on the bad count, the verdict shall be allowed to stand.

Code 1950, § 19.1-255; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-291.1. Report of conviction of school employees for certain offenses.

The clerk of any circuit court or any district court in the Commonwealth shall report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the division superintendent of any employing school division the conviction of any person, known by such clerk to hold a license issued by the Board of Education, for any felony involving the sexual molestation, physical or sexual abuse, or rape of a child or involving drugs pursuant to Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2.

2008, cc. 474, 827.

Article 2. Former Jeopardy.

§ 19.2-292. Acquittal by jury on merits bar to further prosecution for same offense.

A person acquitted upon the facts and merits on a former trial, may plead such acquittal in bar of a second prosecution for the same offense, notwithstanding any defect in the form or substance of the indictment or accusation on which he was acquitted, unless the case be for a violation of the law relating to the state revenue and the acquittal be reversed on a writ of error on behalf of the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 19.1-257; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-293. When acquittal not a bar to further prosecution for same offense.

A person acquitted of an offense on the ground of a variance between the allegations and the proof of the indictment or other accusation, or upon an exception to the form or substance thereof, may be arraigned again on a new indictment or other proper accusation, and tried and convicted for the same offense, notwithstanding such former acquittal.

Code 1950, § 19.1-258; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495.

§ 19.2-294. Offense against two or more statutes or ordinances.

If the same act be a violation of two or more statutes, or of two or more ordinances, or of one or more statutes and also one or more ordinances, conviction under one of such statutes or ordinances shall be a bar to a prosecution or proceeding under the other or others. Furthermore, if the same act be a violation of both a state and a federal statute, a prosecution under the federal statute shall be a bar to a prosecution under the state statute. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any offense involving an act of terrorism as defined in § 18.2-46.4.

For purposes of this section, a prosecution under a federal statute shall be deemed to be commenced once jeopardy has attached.

Code 1950, § 19.1-259; 1960, c. 366; 1975, c. 495; 1987, c. 241; 2002, cc. 588, 623; 2003, c. 736.

§ 19.2-294.1. Dismissal of one of dual charges for driving while intoxicated and reckless driving upon conviction of other charge.

Whenever any person is charged with a violation of § 18.2-266 or any similar ordinances of any county, city, or town and with reckless driving in violation of § 46.2-852 or any ordinance of any county, city or town incorporating § 46.2-852, growing out of the same act or acts and is convicted of one of these charges, the court shall dismiss the remaining charge.

Code 1950, § 19.1-259.1; 1960, c. 493; 1975, c. 495; 1997, c. 691; 2004, c. 937.

Article 3. Conviction of Aliens.

§ 19.2-294.2. Procedure when aliens convicted of certain felonies; duties of probation and parole officer.

A. Whenever a person is (i) convicted in a circuit court of any felony and (ii) referred to a probation or parole officer for a report pursuant to § 19.2-299, or for probation supervision, the probation or parole officer shall inquire as to the citizenship of such person. If upon inquiry it is determined that the person may be an alien based upon his failure to produce evidence of United States citizenship, the probation or parole officer shall report this determination to the Central Criminal Records Exchange of the Department of State Police in a format approved by the Exchange.

B. The inquiry required by this section need not be made if it is apparent that a report on alien status has previously been made to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to this section.

C. It shall be the responsibility of the Central Criminal Records Exchange of the Department of State Police to review arrest reports submitted by law-enforcement agencies and reports of suspected alien-status inquiries made by probation or parole officers, and to report within sixty days of final disposition to the Law Enforcement Support Center of the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement the identity of all convicted offenders suspected of being an alien.

1985, c. 247; 1994, c. 579; 2008, cc. 180, 415; 2017, c. 84.