Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 28.2. Fisheries and Habitat of the Tidal Waters
6/24/2019

Article 4. Enforcement and Penalties.

§ 28.2-1416. Investigations and prosecutions.

The Commission may investigate all projects, whether proposed or ongoing, which alter dunes or beaches. The Commission may prosecute all violations of any order, rule, or regulation of the Commission or of a wetlands board, or violation of any provision of this chapter. Wetlands boards may investigate all projects, whether proposed or ongoing, which alter dunes or beaches located within their jurisdiction. Wetlands boards may prosecute all violations of their orders and any violation of any provision of the coastal primary sand dune zoning ordinance which they administer.

1992, c. 836.

§ 28.2-1417. Monitoring, inspections, compliance, and restoration.

A. The Commissioner or board chairman may require a permittee to implement monitoring and reporting procedures they believe are reasonably necessary to ensure compliance with the provisions of the permit and this chapter.

B. The Commissioner or board chairman may require such on-site inspections as he believes are reasonably necessary to determine whether the measures required by the permit are being properly performed, or whether the provisions of this chapter are being violated. Prior to conducting such inspections, the Commissioner or board chairman shall provide notice to the resident owner, occupier, or operator, who shall be given an opportunity to accompany the site inspector. If it is determined that there is a failure to comply with the permit, the Commissioner or board chairman shall serve notice upon the permittee at the address specified in his permit application or by delivery at the site of the permitted activities to the person supervising the activities and designated in the permit to receive the notice. The notice shall describe the measures needed for compliance and the time within which these measures shall be completed. Failure of the person to comply within the specified period is a violation of this section.

C. Upon receipt of a sworn complaint of a substantial violation of this chapter from the designated enforcement officer, the Commissioner or board chairman may, in conjunction with or subsequent to a notice to comply as specified in subsection B of this section, issue an order requiring all or part of the activities on the site to be stopped until the specified corrective measures have been taken. In the case of an activity not authorized under this chapter or where the alleged permit noncompliance is causing, or is in imminent danger of causing, significant harm to the coastal primary sand dunes protected by this chapter, the order may be issued without regard to whether the person has been issued a notice to comply pursuant to subsection B of this section. Otherwise, the order may be issued only after the permittee has failed to comply with the notice to comply. The order shall be served in the same manner as a notice to comply, and shall remain in effect for a period of seven days from the date of service pending application by the enforcing authority, permittee, resident owner, occupier, or operator for appropriate relief to the circuit court of the jurisdiction wherein the violation was alleged to have occurred. Upon completion of corrective action, the order shall immediately be lifted. Nothing in this section shall prevent the Commissioner or board chairman from taking any other action specified in § 28.2-1416.

D. Upon receipt of a sworn complaint of a substantial violation of this chapter from a designated enforcement officer, the Commission or a wetlands board may order that the affected site be restored to predevelopment conditions if the Commission or board finds that restoration is necessary to recover lost resources or to prevent further damage to resources. The order shall specify the restoration necessary and establish a reasonable time for its completion. The order shall be issued only after a hearing with at least thirty days' notice to the affected person of the hearing's time, place, and purpose, and shall become effective immediately upon issuance by the Commission or board. The Commission or board shall require any scientific monitoring plan they believe is necessary to ensure the successful reestablishment of coastal primary sand dunes protected by this chapter and may require that a prepaid contract acceptable to the Commission or board be in effect for the purpose of carrying out the scientific monitoring plan. The Commission or board may also require a reasonable bond or letter of credit in an amount and with surety and conditions satisfactory to it securing to the Commonwealth compliance with the conditions set forth in the restoration order. The appropriate court, upon petition by the Commission or board, may enforce any such restoration order by injunction, mandamus, or other appropriate remedy. Failure to complete the required restoration is a violation of this chapter.

E. The duties of the Commissioner or the board chairman under this section may be delegated to their respective designees; however, these designees shall not be designated enforcement officers.

1992, c. 836.

§ 28.2-1418. Violations; penalty.

Any person who knowingly, intentionally, or negligently violates any order, rule, or regulation of the Commission or of a wetlands board, any provision of this chapter or of a coastal primary sand dune zoning ordinance enacted pursuant to this chapter, or any provision of a permit granted pursuant to this chapter is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Following a conviction, every day the violation continues is a separate offense.

1992, c. 836.

§ 28.2-1419. Injunctions.

Upon the petition of the Commission or a wetlands board to the circuit court of the county or city where any act is done or threatened which is unlawful under this chapter, the court may enjoin the unlawful act and order the defendant to take any steps necessary to restore, protect, and preserve the dunes or beaches involved. This remedy shall be exclusive of and in addition to any criminal penalty which may be imposed under § 28.2-1418.

1992, c. 836.

§ 28.2-1420. Penalties.

A. Without limiting the remedies which may be obtained under this chapter, any person who violates any provision of this chapter or who violates or fails, neglects, or refuses to obey any Commission or wetlands board notice, order, rule, regulation, or permit condition authorized by this chapter shall, upon such finding by an appropriate circuit court, be assessed a civil penalty not to exceed $25,000 for each day of violation. Such civil penalties may, at the discretion of the court assessing them, be directed to be paid into the treasury of the county, city, or town in which the violation occurred for the purpose of abating environmental damage to or restoring dunes or beaches therein, in such a manner as the court may, by order, direct, except that where the violator is the county, city, or town itself, or its agent, the court shall direct the penalty to be paid into the state treasury.

B. Without limiting the remedies which may be obtained under this chapter, and with the consent of any person who has violated any provision of this chapter or who has violated or failed, neglected, or refused to obey any Commission or wetlands board order, rule, regulation, or permit condition authorized by this chapter, the Commission or wetlands board may provide, in an order issued by the Commission or wetlands board against such person, for the one-time payment of civil charges for each violation in specific sums, not to exceed $10,000 for each violation. Civil charges shall be in lieu of any appropriate civil penalty which could be imposed under subsection A of this section. Civil charges may be in addition to the cost of any restoration ordered by the Commission or a wetlands board.

1990, c. 811, § 62.1-13.27:1; 1992, c. 836.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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