Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 38.2. Insurance
3/29/2020

Article 5. Insurance Holding Companies.

§ 38.2-1322. Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Acquiring person" means any person by whom or on whose behalf acquisition of control of any domestic insurer is to be effected.

"Affiliate" of a specific person or a person "affiliated" with a specific person means a person that directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the person specified.

"Control," including the terms "controlling," "controlled by" and "under common control with," means direct or indirect possession of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person, through (i) the ownership of voting securities, (ii) by contract other than a commercial contract for goods or nonmanagement services, or (iii) otherwise, unless the power is the result of an official position with or corporate office held by the person. Control shall be presumed to exist if any person directly or indirectly owns, controls, holds with the power to vote, or holds proxies representing collectively 10 percent or more of the voting securities of any other person. This presumption may be rebutted by a showing made in the manner provided by subsection K of § 38.2-1329 that control does not exist. After giving all interested persons notice and opportunity to be heard and making specific findings to support its determination, the Commission may determine that control exists, notwithstanding the absence of a presumption to that effect.

"Enterprise risk" means any activity, circumstance, event, or series of events involving one or more affiliates of an insurer that, if not remedied promptly, is likely to have a material adverse effect upon the financial condition or liquidity of the insurer or its insurance holding company system as a whole, including, but not limited to, anything that would cause the insurer's risk-based capital to fall into company action level as set forth in § 38.2-5503 or would cause the insurer to be in hazardous financial condition pursuant to 14VAC5-290-30 and 14VAC5-290-40 of the Virginia Administrative Code.

"Group-wide supervisor" means the regulatory official authorized to engage in conducting and coordinating group-wide supervision activities who is determined or acknowledged by the Commission under § 38.2-1332.2 to have sufficient significant contacts with the internationally active insurance group.

"Insurance holding company system" means two or more affiliated persons, one or more of which is an insurer.

"Insurer" means an insurance company as defined in § 38.2-100.

"Internationally active insurance group" means an insurance holding company system that includes an insurer registered under § 38.2-1329 and that meets the following criteria: (i) premiums written in at least three countries; (ii) the percentage of gross premiums written outside the United States is at least 10 percent of the insurance holding company system's total gross written premiums; and (iii) based on a three year rolling average, (a) the total assets of the insurance holding company system are at least $50 billion or (b) the total gross written premiums of the insurance holding company system are at least $10 billion.

"Material transaction" means (i) any sale, purchase, exchange, loan or extension of credit, or investment; (ii) any dividend or distribution; (iii) any reinsurance treaty or risk-sharing arrangement; (iv) any management contract, service contract or cost-sharing arrangement; (v) any merger with or acquisition of control of any corporation; or (vi) any other transaction or agreement that the Commission by order, rule or regulation determines to be material. Any series of transactions occurring within a 12-month period that are sufficiently similar in nature as to be reasonably construed as a single transaction and that in the aggregate exceed any minimum limits shall be deemed a material transaction.

"NAIC" means the National Association of Insurance Commissioners.

"SEC" means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

"Subsidiary" of a specified person means an affiliate directly or indirectly controlled by that person through one or more intermediaries.

"Voting security" means any security that enables the owner to vote for the election of directors. "Voting security" includes any security convertible into or evidencing a right to acquire a voting security.

1973, c. 505, § 38.1-178.1; 1977, c. 414, § 38.1-178.1:2; 1986, c. 562; 1992, c. 588; 1993, c. 158; 1998, c. 42; 2014, c. 309; 2019, c. 692.

§ 38.2-1323. Acquisition of control of insurers.

A. No person other than the issuer shall make a tender offer or a request or invitation for tenders of, or enter into any agreement to exchange securities for, seek to acquire, or acquire, in the open market or otherwise, any voting security of a domestic insurer if, after the consummation thereof, such person would, directly or indirectly (or by conversion or by exercise of any right to acquire) be in control of the insurer. No person shall enter into an agreement to merge with or otherwise to acquire control of a domestic insurer or any person controlling a domestic insurer unless, at the time the offer, request, or invitation is made or the agreement is entered into, or prior to the acquisition of the securities if no offer or agreement is involved, such person has filed with the Commission and has sent to the insurer a statement containing the information required by this section and the offer, request, invitation, agreement, or acquisition has been approved by the Commission pursuant to this article.

B. If the merger or acquisition of an insurer not covered by subsection A causes or tends to cause a substantial lessening of competition in any line of insurance and such lessening of competition is detrimental to policyholders or the public in general, then the Commission may suspend such insurer's license after giving the insurer 10 days' notice and the opportunity to be heard.

C. Any notice issued pursuant to the provisions of subsection B shall be accompanied by a request for such information as required by § 38.2-1324. Any hearing held pursuant to the provisions of this section shall begin, unless waived by the insurer, within 40 days of the receipt by the Commission of all material required by this subsection.

D. For purposes of this section, any controlling person of a domestic insurer seeking to divest its controlling interest in the domestic insurer, in any manner, shall file with the Commission, with a copy to the insurer, confidential notice of its proposed divestiture at least 30 days prior to the cessation of control. The Commission shall determine those instances in which the party or parties seeking to divest or to acquire a controlling interest in an insurer will be required to file for and obtain approval of the transaction. The information shall remain confidential until the conclusion of the transaction unless the Commission, in its discretion, determines that confidential treatment will interfere with enforcement of this section. If the statement referred to in subsection A is otherwise filed, this subsection shall not apply.

E. With respect to a transaction subject to this section, the acquiring person may also be required to file a pre-acquisition notification as established by the Commission.

F. For purposes of this section:

"Domestic insurer" includes any person controlling a domestic insurer unless the person, as determined by the Commission, is either directly or through its affiliates primarily engaged in business other than the business of insurance.

"Person" does not include any securities broker holding, in the usual and customary broker's function, less than 20 percent of the voting securities of an insurance company or of any person that controls an insurance company.

1977, c. 414, § 38.1-178.1:1; 1986, c. 562; 1992, c. 588; 1993, c. 158; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1324. Contents of application.

A. The application filed with the Commission under § 38.2-1323 shall be made under oath or affirmation and shall contain the following information:

1. The name and address of each acquiring person including:

a. If the acquiring person is a natural person, his principal occupation, all offices and positions held during the past five years, and any conviction of crimes other than minor traffic violations during the past 10 years; and

b. If the acquiring person is not a natural person, (i) a report of the nature of its business operations during the existence of the acquiring person and any of its predecessors, not to exceed five years; (ii) an informative description of the business intended to be done by the person and the person's subsidiaries; and (iii) a list of all individuals who are or who have been selected to become directors or executive officers of the person or who perform or will perform functions appropriate to those positions. The report shall include the information required by subdivision 1 a.

2. The source, nature, and amount of the consideration used or to be used in effecting the acquisition of control, a description of any transaction in which funds were or are to be obtained for that purpose, and the identity of persons furnishing the consideration. However, where a source of the consideration is a loan made in the lender's ordinary course of business, the identity of the lender shall remain confidential if requested by the person filing the application;

3. Fully audited financial information regarding the earnings and financial condition of each acquiring person during the existence of the acquiring person or the predecessors, not to exceed five years, and similar unaudited information as of a date not earlier than 90 days prior to the filing of the application;

4. Any plans or proposals that each acquiring person may have to liquidate the insurer, to sell its assets or merge or consolidate it with any person, or to make any other material change in its business or corporate structure or management;

5. The number of shares of any security of the insurer that each acquiring person proposes to acquire and the terms of the acquisition;

6. The amount of each class of any such security that each acquiring person beneficially owns or has a right to acquire beneficial ownership of;

7. A full description of any contracts, arrangements, or understandings with respect to any security in which an acquiring person is involved, including but not limited to transfer of any of the securities, joint ventures, loan or option arrangements, puts or calls, guarantees of loans, guarantees against loss or guarantees of profits, division of losses or profits, or the giving or withholding of proxies. The description shall identify the persons with whom the contracts, arrangements, or understandings have been made;

8. A description of any acquiring person's purchase of any such security during the 12 calendar months preceding the filing of the application, including the dates of purchases, names of the purchasers, and consideration paid or agreed to be paid for the security;

9. A description of any recommendations to purchase any such security made by any acquiring person or by any person based upon interviews or at the suggestion of any acquiring person during the 12 calendar months preceding the filing of the application;

10. Copies of all tender offers, requests or invitations for tenders of exchange offers and agreements to acquire or exchange any such security and of additional related soliciting material which has been distributed;

11. The terms of any agreement, contract, or understanding made with any broker-dealer as to solicitation of these securities for tender and the amount of any associated fees, commissions, or other compensation to be paid to broker-dealers;

12. An agreement by the person required to file the statement referred to in subsection A of § 38.2-1323 that it will provide the annual enterprise risk report specified in subsection L of § 38.2-1329, for so long as control exists;

13. An acknowledgment by the person required to file the statement referred to in subsection A of § 38.2-1323 that the person and all subsidiaries within its control in the insurance holding company system will provide information to the Commission upon request as necessary to evaluate enterprise risk to the insurer; and

14. Any additional information the Commission may prescribe as necessary or appropriate for the protection of the policyholders or the public.

B. If the person required to file the application referred to in § 38.2-1323 is a partnership, limited partnership, syndicate, or other group, the Commission may require that the information called for by subsection A be given with respect to (i) each partner of the partnership or limited partnership, (ii) each member of the syndicate or group, and (iii) each person who controls any partner or member. If any partner, member, or person is a corporation, or if the person required to file the application referred to in § 38.2-1323 is a corporation, the Commission may require that information be given for the corporation, each officer and director of the corporation, and each person who is directly or indirectly the beneficial owner of more than 10 percent of the outstanding voting securities of the corporation as required by subsection A.

C. If any material change occurs in the facts set forth in the application filed with the Commission and sent to an insurer pursuant to § 38.2-1323, an amendment setting forth the change, together with copies of all documents and other material relevant to the change, shall be filed with the Commission and sent to the insurer within two business days after the person filing the application learns of the change.

1977, c. 414, § 38.1-178.1:2; 1986, c. 562; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1325. Alternate filing materials.

If any acquisition referred to in § 38.2-1323 is proposed to be made by means of a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 or in circumstances requiring the disclosure of similar information under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the person required by § 38.2-1323 to file an application may use these documents in furnishing the required information.

1977, c. 414, § 38.1-178.1:3; 1986, c. 562; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1326. Approval by Commission.

The Commission shall approve the application required by § 38.2-1323 unless, after giving notice and opportunity to be heard, it determines that:

1. After the change of control, the insurer would not be able to satisfy the requirements for the issuance of a license to write the classes of insurance for which it is presently licensed;

2. The acquisition of control would lessen competition substantially or tend to create a monopoly in insurance in this Commonwealth;

3. The financial condition of any acquiring person might jeopardize the financial stability of the insurer, or prejudice the interest of its policyholders;

4. Any plans or proposals of the acquiring party to liquidate the insurer, sell its assets or consolidate or merge it with any person, or to make any other material change in its business or corporate structure or management, are unfair and unreasonable to policyholders of the insurer and not in the public interest;

5. The competence, experience, and integrity of those persons who would control the operation of the insurer are such that it would not be in the interest of policyholders of the insurer and of the public to permit the acquisition of control;

6. After the change of control, the insurer's surplus as regards policyholders would not be reasonable in relation to its outstanding liabilities or adequate to its financial needs; or

7. The acquisition is likely to be hazardous or prejudicial to the insurance-buying public.

1977, c. 414, § 38.1-178.1:4; 1986, c. 562; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1327. Time for hearing; order of Commission.

A. Any hearing held pursuant to § 38.2-1326 shall begin within 40 days of the date the application is filed with the Commission. In approving any application filed pursuant to § 38.2-1323, the Commission may include in its order any conditions, stipulations, or provisions that the Commission determines to be necessary to protect the interests of the policyholders of the insurer and the public.

B. The Commission may retain at the acquiring person's expense any attorneys, actuaries, accountants, and other experts not otherwise a part of the Commission's staff as may be reasonably necessary to assist the Commission in reviewing the proposed acquisition of control.

1977, c. 414, § 38.1-178.1:6; 1986, c. 562; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1328. Exemption.

The provisions of §§ 38.2-1323 through 38.2-1327 shall not apply to any acquisition that the Commission, by order, exempts from those sections. Acquisitions granted exemption shall include those which (i) have not been made or entered into for the purpose of and do not have the effect of changing or influencing the control of a domestic insurer, or (ii) otherwise are not comprehended within these sections.

1977, c. 414, § 38.1-178.1:7; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1329. Registration of insurers that are members of holding company system.

A. Each insurer licensed to do business in the Commonwealth that is a member of an insurance holding company system shall register with the Commission.

B. 1. This section shall not apply to any foreign insurer subject to disclosure requirements and standards adopted by statute or regulation in the jurisdiction of its domicile that are substantially similar to those contained in this section, subsection A of § 38.2-1330, subsection D of § 38.2-1330, § 38.2-1330.1, and either (i) a provision substantially similar to subsection B of § 38.2-1330 or (ii) a provision such as the following: "Each registered insurer shall keep current the information required to be disclosed in its registration statement by reporting all material changes or additions within 15 days after the end of the month in which it learns of each change or addition."

2. Any insurer that is subject to registration under this section shall register within 15 days after it becomes subject to registration, and annually thereafter by April 30 of each year for the previous calendar year, unless the Commission for good cause shown extends the time for registration, and then within the extended time.

3. Any licensed insurer that is a member of an insurance holding company system but not subject to registration under this section may be required by the Commission to furnish a copy of the registration statement, or other information filed by the insurer, with the insurance regulatory authority of its domiciliary jurisdiction.

C. Each insurer subject to registration under this section shall file a registration statement on a form provided by the Commission. Such statement shall contain current information on:

1. The capital structure, general financial condition, ownership, and management of the insurer and any person controlling the insurer;

2. The identity of every member of the insurance holding company system;

3. The following agreements in force, continuing relationships and transactions currently outstanding between the insurer and its affiliates:

a. Loans, other investments, or purchases, sales or exchanges of securities of the affiliates by the insurer or of the insurer by its affiliates;

b. Purchases, sales, or exchanges of assets;

c. Transactions not in the ordinary course of business;

d. Guarantees or undertakings for the benefit of an affiliate that result in an actual contingent exposure of the insurer's assets to liability, other than insurance contracts entered into in the ordinary course of the insurer's business;

e. All management and service contracts and all cost-sharing arrangements;

f. Reinsurance agreements or other risk-sharing arrangements;

g. Dividends and other distributions to shareholders; and

h. Consolidated tax allocation agreements;

4. Any pledge of the insurer's stock, including stock of any subsidiary or controlling affiliate, for a loan made to any member of the insurance holding company system;

5. If requested by the Commission, financial statements of or within an insurance holding company system, including all affiliates. Financial statements may include but are not limited to annual audited financial statements filed with the SEC pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. An insurer required to file financial statements pursuant to this subdivision may satisfy the request by providing the Commission with the most recently filed parent corporation financial statements that have been filed with the SEC;

6. Other matters relating to transactions between registered insurers and any affiliates which may be included from time to time in any registration forms adopted or approved by the Commission;

7. Statements that the corporate governance and internal controls are managed under the direction of the insurer's board of directors in a manner consistent with § 13.1-673 or § 13.1-853 as applicable, and that the insurer's officers or senior management have approved, implemented, and continue to maintain and monitor corporate governance and internal control procedures; and

8. Any other information required by the Commission by rule or regulation.

D. All registration statements shall contain a summary outlining all items in the current registration statement representing changes from the prior registration statement.

E. If information is not material for the purposes of this section, it need not be disclosed on the registration statement filed pursuant to subsection C. Unless the Commission prescribes otherwise, sales, purchases, exchanges, loans or extensions of credit, investments, or guarantees involving one-half of one percent or less of an insurer's admitted assets as of the immediately preceding December 31 shall not be deemed material for purposes of this section.

F. Each registered insurer shall report all additional material transactions with affiliates and any material changes in previously reported material transactions with affiliates on amendment forms provided by the Commission. Each insurer shall make its report within 15 days after the end of the month in which it learns of each additional material transaction or material change in material transaction. Subject to § 38.2-1330.1, each insurer shall report to the Commission all dividends and other distributions to shareholders within five business days following their declaration, and such declaration shall confer no rights upon shareholders until:

1. The Commission has approved the payment of such dividend or distribution; or

2. Thirty days after the Commission has received written notice of the declaration thereof and has not within such period disapproved such payment.

Each registered insurer shall also keep current the information required by subsection C by filing an amendment to its registration statement within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the ultimate controlling person of the insurance holding company system.

G. The Commission shall terminate the registration of any insurer that demonstrates it no longer is a member of an insurance holding company system.

H. The Commission may require or allow two or more affiliated insurers subject to registration under this section to file a consolidated registration statement or consolidated reports amending their consolidated registration statement or their individual registration statements.

I. The Commission may allow an insurer that is authorized to do business in this Commonwealth and that is part of an insurance holding company system to register on behalf of any affiliated insurer required to register under subsection A and to file all information and material required to be filed under this section.

J. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any insurer, information, or transaction if and to the extent that the Commission by rule, regulation, or order shall exempt the same from the provisions of this section.

K. Any person may file with the Commission a disclaimer of affiliation with any authorized insurer. The disclaimer shall fully disclose all material relationships and bases for affiliation between the person and the insurer as well as the basis for disclaiming the affiliation. A disclaimer of affiliation shall be deemed to have been granted unless the Commission, within 30 days following receipt of a complete disclaimer, notifies the filing party the disclaimer is disallowed. In the event of disallowance, the disclaiming party may request a hearing. The disclaiming party shall be relieved of its duty to register under this section if approval of the disclaimer has been granted by the Commission or if the disclaimer is deemed to have been approved.

L. The ultimate controlling person of every insurer subject to registration shall also file an annual enterprise risk report. The report shall be appropriate to the nature, scale, and complexity of the operations of the insurance holding company system, and shall, to the best of the ultimate controlling person's knowledge and belief, identify the material risks within the insurance holding company system that could pose enterprise risk to the insurer. The report shall be filed with the insurance commissioner, director, or superintendent of the lead state of the insurance holding company system as determined by the procedures within the Financial Analysis Handbook adopted by the NAIC.

M. The failure to file a registration statement or any summary of the registration statement or enterprise risk filing required by this section within the time specified for filing shall be a violation of this section.

1973, c. 505, § 38.1-178.2; 1977, c. 414; 1986, c. 562; 1992, c. 588; 2000, c. 46; 2006, c. 577; 2009, c. 717; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1330. Standards for transactions within an insurance holding company system; adequacy of surplus.

A. Transactions within an insurance holding company system to which an insurer subject to registration is a party shall be subject to the following standards:

1. The terms shall be fair and reasonable;

2. Agreements for cost-sharing services and management shall include such provisions as required by rule or regulation promulgated by the Commission;

3. Charges or fees for services performed shall be reasonable;

4. Expenses incurred and payments received shall be allocated to the insurer in conformity with customary insurance accounting practices consistently applied;

5. The books, accounts, and records of each party shall disclose clearly and accurately the precise nature and details of the transactions, including such accounting information as is necessary to support the reasonableness of the charges or fees to the respective parties; and

6. The insurer's surplus as regards policyholders following any dividends or distributions to shareholder affiliates shall be reasonable in relation to the insurer's outstanding liabilities and adequate to meet its financial needs.

B. Transactions described in subdivisions 1 through 7 that involve a domestic insurer and any person in its insurance holding company system, including amendments or modifications of affiliate agreements previously filed pursuant to this section, that are subject to materiality standards contained in such subdivisions may not be entered into unless the insurer has notified the Commission in writing of its intention to enter into the transaction at least 30 days prior thereto, or such shorter period as the Commission may permit, and the Commission has not disapproved it within that period. The notice for amendments or modifications shall include the reasons for the change and the financial impact on the domestic insurer. Informal notice shall be reported, within 30 days after a termination of a previously filed agreement, to the Commission for determination of the type of filing required, if any. Transactions to which this subsection applies, with their materiality standards, are:

1. Sales, purchases, exchanges, loans, extensions of credit, or investments, provided the transactions are equal to or exceed:

a. With respect to nonlife insurers, the lesser of three percent of the insurer's admitted assets or 25 percent of surplus as regards policyholders as of the immediately preceding December 31; or

b. With respect to life insurers, three percent of the insurer's admitted assets as of the immediately preceding December 31;

2. Loans or extensions of credit to any person who is not an affiliate, where the insurer makes loans or extensions of credit with the agreement or understanding that the proceeds of the transactions, in whole or in substantial part, are to be used to make loans or extensions of credit to, to purchase assets of, or to make investments in, any affiliate of the insurer making the loans or extensions of credit, provided the transactions are equal to or exceed:

a. With respect to nonlife insurers, the lesser of three percent of the insurer's admitted assets or 25 percent of surplus as regards policyholders as of the immediately preceding December 31; or

b. With respect to life insurers, three percent of the insurer's admitted assets as of the immediately preceding December 31;

3. Reinsurance agreements or modifications thereto, including:

a. All reinsurance pooling agreements; and

b. Agreements in which the reinsurance premium or a change in the insurer's liabilities, or the projected reinsurance premium or a change in the insurer's liabilities in any of the next three years, equals or exceeds five percent of the insurer's surplus as regards policyholders, as of the immediately preceding December 31, including those agreements that may require as consideration the transfer of assets from an insurer to a nonaffiliate, if an agreement or understanding exists between the insurer and nonaffiliate that any portion of the assets will be transferred to one or more affiliates of the insurer;

4. All management agreements, service contracts, tax allocation agreements, guarantees, and cost-sharing arrangements;

5. Guarantees when made by a domestic insurer, provided, however, that a guarantee that is quantifiable as to amount is not subject to the notice requirements of this subdivision unless it exceeds the lesser of one-half of one percent of the insurer's admitted assets or 10 percent of surplus as regards policyholders as of the immediately preceding December 31. Further, all guarantees that are not quantifiable as to amount are subject to the notice requirements of this subdivision;

6. Direct or indirect acquisitions or investments in a person that controls the insurer or in an affiliate of the insurer in an amount that, together with its present holdings in such investments, exceeds two and one-half percent of the insurer's surplus to policyholders. The Commission may exempt such a transaction by regulation; and

7. Any material transactions that the Commission determines may adversely affect the interests of the insurer's policyholders.

Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to authorize or permit any transactions that, in the case of an insurer not a member of the same insurance holding company system, would be otherwise contrary to law.

C. In addition:

1. Notwithstanding the control of a domestic insurer by any person, the officers and directors of the insurer shall not thereby be relieved of any obligation or liability to which they would otherwise be subject by law, and the insurer shall be managed so as to assure its separate operating identity consistent with this article;

2. Nothing in this section shall preclude a domestic insurer from having or sharing a common management or cooperative or joint use of personnel, property, or services with one or more other persons under arrangements meeting the standards of subsection A;

3. Not less than one-third of the directors of a domestic insurer, and not less than one-third of the members of each committee of the board of directors of any domestic insurer, shall be persons who are not officers or employees of the insurer or of any entity controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the insurer and who are not beneficial owners of a controlling interest in the voting stock of the insurer or entity. At least one such person shall be included in any quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the board of directors or any committee thereof;

4. The board of directors of a domestic insurer shall establish one or more committees composed solely of directors who are not officers or employees of the insurer or of any entity controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the insurer and who are not beneficial owners of a controlling interest in the voting stock of the insurer or any such entity. The committee or committees shall have responsibility for nominating candidates for director for election by shareholders or policyholders, evaluating the performance of officers deemed to be principal officers of the insurer, and recommending to the board of directors the selection and compensation of the principal officers;

5. The provisions of subdivisions 3 and 4 shall not apply to a domestic insurer if the person controlling the insurer, such as an insurer, a mutual insurance holding company, or a publicly held corporation, has a board of directors and committees thereof that meet the requirements of subdivisions 3 and 4 with respect to such controlling entity; and

6. An insurer may make application to the Commission for a waiver from the requirements of this subsection if the insurer's annual direct written and assumed premium, excluding premiums reinsured with the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation and National Flood Insurance Program, is less than $300 million. An insurer may also make application to the Commission for a waiver from the requirements of this subsection based upon unique circumstances. The Commission may consider various factors including the type of business entity, volume of business written, availability of qualified board members, or ownership or organizational structure of the entity.

D. For purposes of this article, in determining whether an insurer's surplus as regards policyholders is reasonable in relation to the insurer's outstanding liabilities and adequate to meet its financial needs, the following factors, among others, shall be considered:

1. The size of the insurer as measured by its assets, capital and surplus, reserves, premium writings, insurance in force, and other appropriate criteria;

2. The extent to which the insurer's business is diversified among different lines of insurance;

3. The number and size of risks insured in each line of business;

4. The extent of the geographical dispersion of the insurer's insured risk;

5. The nature and extent of the insurer's reinsurance program;

6. The quality, diversification, and liquidity of the insurer's investment portfolio;

7. The recent past and projected future trend in the size of the insurer's surplus to policyholders;

8. The recent past and projected future trend in the size of the insurer's investment portfolio;

9. The surplus as regards policyholders maintained by other comparable insurers;

10. The adequacy of the insurer's reserves;

11. The quality of the insurer's earnings and the extent to which the reported earnings of the insurer include extraordinary items; and

12. The quality and liquidity of investments in affiliates. The Commission in its judgment may classify any investment as a nonadmitted asset for the purpose of determining the adequacy of surplus as regards policyholders.

E. No domestic insurer shall enter into transactions that are part of a plan or series of like transactions with persons within the insurance holding company system if the purpose of those separate transactions is to avoid the statutory threshold amount and thus avoid the review that otherwise would be required. If the Commission determines that separate transactions were entered into over any 12-month period for that purpose, the Commission may exercise its authority under § 38.2-1334.2:2.

F. The Commission, in reviewing transactions pursuant to subsection B, shall consider whether the transactions comply with the standards set forth in subsection A and whether they may adversely affect the interests of policyholders.

G. The Commission shall be notified in writing within 30 days of any investment of the domestic insurer in any one corporation if the total investment in such corporation by the insurance holding company system exceeds 10 percent of such corporation's voting securities.

1973, c. 505, § 38.1-178.3; 1986, c. 562; 1987, c. 417; 1992, c. 588; 2006, c. 577; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1330.1. Dividends and other distributions.

A. Except as otherwise provided by law, a domestic insurer shall not declare or pay a dividend or other distribution from any source other than earned surplus without the Commission's prior written approval. For purposes of this section, "earned surplus" means an amount equal to the unassigned funds (surplus) of an insurer as set forth in the most recent annual statement of the insurer filed with the Commission including all or part of the surplus arising from unrealized capital gains or revaluation of assets. No domestic insurer shall pay an extraordinary dividend or make any other extraordinary distribution to its shareholders until the earlier of:

1. Thirty days after the Commission has received written notice of the declaration thereof and has not within such period disapproved such payment; or

2. The Commission's approval of such payment.

B. For purposes of this section, an extraordinary dividend or distribution includes any dividend or distribution of cash or other property whose fair market value together with that of other dividends or distributions made within the preceding 12 months exceeds the greater of (i) 10 percent of such insurer's surplus as regards policyholders as of the immediately preceding December 31 or (ii) the net gain from operations of such insurer, if such insurer is a life insurer, or the net income, if such insurer is not a life insurer, not including realized capital gains, for the 12-month period ending the immediately preceding December 31, but shall not include pro rata distributions of any class of the insurer's own securities.

C. In determining whether a dividend or distribution is extraordinary, an insurer other than a life insurer may carry forward net income from the previous two calendar years that has not already been paid out as dividends. This carry-forward shall be computed by taking the net income from the second and third preceding calendar years, not including realized capital gains, less dividends paid in the second and immediate preceding calendar years.

D. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an insurer may declare an extraordinary dividend or distribution that is conditional upon the Commission's approval thereof, and such declaration shall confer no rights upon shareholders until:

1. The Commission has approved the payment of such dividend or distribution; or

2. The Commission has not disapproved such payment within the 30-day period described in subsection A.

E. The Commission may limit or disallow the payment of ordinary dividends by a domestic insurer if the insurer is presently or potentially financially distressed or troubled. The Commission shall set forth the specific reasons for limiting or disallowing the payment of any ordinary dividends.

2006, c. 577; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1331. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2014, c. 309, cl. 2. For applicability, see Editor's note.

§ 38.2-1332. Examinations.

A. In addition to the powers the Commission has under Article 4 (§ 38.2-1317 et seq.), the Commission shall have the power to examine any insurer registered under § 38.2-1329 and its affiliates to ascertain the financial condition of the insurer, including the enterprise risk to the insurer by the ultimate controlling party, or by any entity or combination of entities within the insurance holding company system, or by the insurance holding company system on a consolidated basis.

B. The Commission may order any insurer registered under § 38.2-1329 to produce such records, books, or other information papers in the possession of the insurer or its affiliates as are reasonably necessary to determine compliance with this article.

C. To determine compliance with this article, the Commission may order any insurer registered under § 38.2-1329 to produce information not in the possession of the insurer if the insurer can obtain access to such information pursuant to contractual relationships, statutory obligations, or other method. In the event the insurer cannot obtain the information requested by the Commission, the insurer shall provide the Commission a detailed explanation of the reason that the insurer cannot obtain the information and the identity of the holder of such information. Whenever it appears to the Commission that the detailed explanation is without merit, the Commission may require, after notice and hearing, the insurer to pay a penalty pursuant to § 38.2-218 for each day's delay or may suspend or revoke the insurer's license.

D. The Commission may retain at the registered insurer's expense any attorneys, actuaries, accountants and other experts reasonably necessary to assist in the conduct of the examination under subsection A. Any persons so retained shall be under the direction and control of the Commission and shall act in a purely advisory capacity.

E. Each insurer producing books and papers for examination records pursuant to subsection B shall be liable for and shall pay the expense of the examination in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 (§ 38.2-1317 et seq.).

F. In the event the insurer fails to comply with an order, the Commission shall have the power to examine the affiliates to obtain the information.

1973, c. 505, § 38.1-178.4; 1986, c. 562; 1992, c. 588; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1332.1. Supervisory colleges.

A. With respect to any insurer registered under § 38.2-1329, and in accordance with subsection C, the Commission shall also have the power to participate in a supervisory college for any domestic insurer that is part of an insurance holding company system with international operations in order to determine compliance by the insurer with this article. The powers of the Commission with respect to supervisory colleges include the following:

1. Initiating the establishment of a supervisory college;

2. Clarifying the membership and participation of other supervisors in the supervisory college;

3. Clarifying the functions of the supervisory college and the role of other regulators, including the establishment of a group-wide supervisor;

4. Coordinating the ongoing activities of the supervisory college, including planning meetings, supervisory activities, and processes for information sharing; and

5. Establishing a crisis management plan.

B. Each registered insurer subject to this section shall be liable for and shall pay the necessary traveling and other expenses reasonably attributable to other regulators or incurred by the Commission for its participation in a supervisory college in accordance with subsection C. For purposes of this section, a supervisory college may be convened as either a temporary or permanent forum for communication and cooperation between the regulators charged with the supervision of the insurer or its affiliates, and the Commission may establish a regular assessment to the insurer for the payment of these expenses. If an assessment is required by this subsection, it shall be collected by the Commission and paid directly into the state treasury and credited to the "Bureau of Insurance Special Fund -- State Corporation Commission" for the maintenance of the Bureau of Insurance as provided in subsection B of § 38.2-400.

C. In order to assess the business strategy, financial position, legal and regulatory position, risk exposure, risk management, and governance processes, and as part of the examination of individual insurers in accordance with § 38.2-1332, the Commission may participate in a supervisory college with other regulators charged with supervision of the insurer or its affiliates, including other state, federal, and international regulatory agencies. The Commission may enter into agreements in accordance with subsection C of § 38.2-1333 providing the basis for cooperation between the Commission and the other regulatory agencies and the activities of the supervisory college. Nothing in this section shall delegate to the supervisory college the authority of the Commission to regulate or supervise the insurer or its affiliates within its jurisdiction.

2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1332.2. Group-wide supervision of internationally active insurance groups.

A. The Commission is authorized to act as the group-wide supervisor for any internationally active insurance group in accordance with the provisions of this section. However, the Commission may otherwise acknowledge another regulatory official as the group-wide supervisor where the internationally active insurance group:

1. Does not have substantial insurance operations in the United States;

2. Has substantial insurance operations in the United States but not in the Commonwealth; or

3. Has substantial insurance operations in the United States and the Commonwealth, but the Commission has determined pursuant to the factors set forth in subsections B and F that the other regulatory official is the appropriate group-wide supervisor.

An insurance holding company system that does not otherwise qualify as an internationally active insurance group may request that the Commission make a determination or acknowledgment as to a group-wide supervisor pursuant to this section.

B. In cooperation with other state, federal, and international regulatory agencies, the Commission shall identify a single group-wide supervisor for an internationally active insurance group. The Commission may determine that the Commission is the appropriate group-wide supervisor for an internationally active insurance group that conducts substantial insurance operations concentrated in the Commonwealth. However, the Commission may acknowledge that a regulatory official from another jurisdiction is the appropriate group-wide supervisor for the internationally active insurance group. The Commission shall consider the following factors when making a determination or acknowledgment under this subsection:

1. The place of domicile of the insurers within the internationally active insurance group that holds the largest share of the internationally active insurance group's written premiums, assets, or liabilities;

2. The place of domicile of the top-tiered insurer or insurers in the insurance holding company system of the internationally active insurance group;

3. The location of the executive offices or largest operational offices of the internationally active insurance group;

4. Whether another regulatory official is acting or is seeking to act as the group-wide supervisor under a regulatory system that the Commission determines to be:

a. Substantially similar to the system of regulation provided under the laws of the Commonwealth; or

b. Otherwise sufficient in terms of providing for group-wide supervision, enterprise risk analysis, and cooperation with other regulatory officials; and

5. Whether another regulatory official acting or seeking to act as the group-wide supervisor provides the Commission with reasonably reciprocal recognition and cooperation.

However, a regulatory official identified under this section as the group-wide supervisor may determine that it is appropriate to acknowledge another supervisor to serve as the group-wide supervisor. The acknowledgment of the group-wide supervisor shall be made after consideration of the factors listed in subdivisions 1 through 5, and shall be made in cooperation with and subject to the acknowledgment of other regulatory officials involved with supervision of members of the internationally active insurance group and in consultation with the internationally active insurance group.

C. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Commission's regulatory authority under this section shall not be impaired. To the extent that the Commission acknowledges a regulatory official from another jurisdiction as a group-wide supervisor and in the event of a material change in the internationally active insurance group that results in (i) the internationally active insurance group's insurers domiciled in the Commonwealth holding the largest share of the group's premiums, assets, or liabilities or (ii) the Commonwealth being the place of domicile of the top-tiered insurer or insurers in the insurance holding company system of the internationally active insurance group, the Commission may make a determination or acknowledgment as to the appropriate group-wide supervisor for such an internationally active insurance group pursuant to subsection B.

D. Pursuant to § 38.2-1332, the Commission is authorized to collect from any insurer registered pursuant to § 38.2-1329 all information necessary to determine whether the Commission may act as the group-wide supervisor of an internationally active insurance group or if the Commission may acknowledge another regulatory official to act as the group-wide supervisor. Prior to issuing a determination that an internationally active insurance group is subject to group-wide supervision by the Commission, the Commission shall notify the insurer registered pursuant to § 38.2-1329 and the ultimate controlling person within the internationally active insurance group. The internationally active insurance group shall have not less than 30 days to provide the Commission with additional information pertinent to the pending determination. The Commission shall publish in any manner it considers appropriate and on its website the identity of internationally active insurance groups that the Commission has determined are subject to group-wide supervision by the Commission.

E. If the Commission is the group-wide supervisor for an internationally active insurance group, the Commission is authorized to engage in any of the following group-wide supervision activities:

1. Assess the enterprise risks within the internationally active insurance group to ensure that:

a. The material financial condition and liquidity risks to the members of the internationally active insurance group that are engaged in the business of insurance are identified by management; and

b. Reasonable and effective mitigation measures are in place;

2. Request, from any member of an internationally active insurance group subject to the Commission's supervision, information necessary and appropriate to assess enterprise risk, including information about the members of the internationally active insurance group regarding:

a. Governance, risk assessment, and management;

b. Capital adequacy; and

c. Material intercompany transactions;

3. Coordinate and, through the authority of the regulatory officials of the jurisdictions where members of the internationally active insurance group are domiciled, compel development and implementation of reasonable measures designed to ensure that the internationally active insurance group is able to timely recognize and mitigate enterprise risks to members of such internationally active insurance group that are engaged in the business of insurance;

4. Communicate with other state, federal, and international regulatory agencies for members within the internationally active insurance group and share relevant information, subject to the confidentiality provisions of § 38.2-1333, through supervisory colleges as set forth in § 38.2-1332.1 or otherwise;

5. Enter into agreements with or obtain documentation from any insurer registered under § 38.2-1329, any member of the internationally active insurance group, and any other state, federal, or international regulatory agencies for members of the internationally active insurance group, providing the basis for or otherwise clarifying the Commission's role as group-wide supervisor, including provisions for resolving disputes with other regulatory officials. Such agreements or documentation shall not serve as evidence in any proceeding that any insurer or person within an insurance holding company system not domiciled or incorporated in the Commonwealth is doing business in the Commonwealth or is otherwise subject to jurisdiction in the Commonwealth; and

6. Engage in other group-wide supervision activities, consistent with the authorities and purposes enumerated above, as considered necessary by the Commission.

F. If the Commission acknowledges that another regulatory official from a jurisdiction that is not accredited by the NAIC is the group-wide supervisor, the Commission is authorized to reasonably cooperate, through supervisory colleges or otherwise, with group-wide supervision undertaken by the group-wide supervisor, provided that:

1. The Commission's cooperation is in compliance with the laws of the Commonwealth; and

2. The regulatory official acknowledged as the group-wide supervisor also recognizes and cooperates with the Commission's activities as a group-wide supervisor for other internationally active insurance groups where applicable. Where such recognition and cooperation is not reasonably reciprocal, the Commission is authorized to refuse recognition and cooperation.

G. The Commission is authorized to enter into agreements with or obtain documentation from any insurer registered under § 38.2-1329, any affiliate of the insurer, and other state, federal, or international regulatory agencies for members of the internationally active insurance group that provide the basis for or otherwise clarify a regulatory official's role as group-wide supervisor.

H. Each registered insurer subject to this section shall be liable for and shall pay the necessary traveling and other expenses incurred by the Commission for its participation in the administration of this section. The Commission may retain at the registered insurer's expense any attorneys, actuaries, accountants, and other experts reasonably necessary to assist in the administration of this section. Any persons so retained shall be under the direction and control of the Commission and shall act in a purely advisory capacity. The Commission may establish a regular assessment to the insurer for the payment of these expenses. If an assessment is required by this subsection, it shall be collected by the Commission and paid directly into the state treasury and credited to the "Bureau of Insurance Special Fund — State Corporation Commission" for the maintenance of the Bureau of Insurance as provided in subsection B of § 38.2-400.

2019, c. 692.

§ 38.2-1333. Confidential treatment of information and documents.

A. All documents, materials, or other information obtained by or disclosed to the Commission or any other person in the course of an examination or investigation made pursuant to § 38.2-1332, and all information reported or provided to the Commission pursuant to subdivisions A 12 and 13 of § 38.2-1324 and §§ 38.2-1329, 38.2-1330, 38.2-1330.1, and 38.2-1332.2 shall be confidential by law and privileged, shall not be subject to subpoena, and shall not be subject to discovery or admissible in evidence in any private civil action. However, the Commission is authorized to use the documents, materials, or other information in the furtherance of any regulatory or legal action brought as a part of the Commission's official duties. The Commission shall not otherwise make the documents, materials, or other information public without the prior written consent of the insurer to which they pertain. After an insurer and its affiliates have been given notice and opportunity to be heard, the Commission may publish all or any part of the documents, materials, or other information referred to in this section in any manner it considers appropriate if it determines that the interests of policyholders or the public will be served by the publication.

B. Neither the Commission nor any person who received documents, materials, or other information while acting under the authority of the Commission or with whom such documents, materials, or other information are shared pursuant to this article shall be permitted or required to testify in any private civil action concerning any confidential documents, materials, or information subject to subsection A.

C. In order to assist in the performance of the Commission's duties, the Commission:

1. May share documents, materials, or other information, including the confidential and privileged documents, materials, or information subject to subsection A, with other state, federal, and international regulatory agencies; with the NAIC and its affiliates and subsidiaries; and with state, federal, and international law-enforcement authorities, including members of any supervisory college described in § 38.2-1332.1, provided that the recipient agrees in writing to maintain the confidentiality and privileged status of the document, material, or other information and has verified in writing the legal authority to maintain confidentiality;

2. May, notwithstanding subdivision 1, only share confidential and privileged documents, materials, or information reported pursuant to subsection L of § 38.2-1329 with insurance commissioners in any states that have statutes or regulations substantially similar to subsection A and that have agreed in writing not to disclose such information;

3. May receive documents, materials, or information, including otherwise confidential and privileged documents, materials, or information, from the NAIC and its affiliates and subsidiaries and from regulatory and law-enforcement officials of other foreign or domestic jurisdictions, and shall maintain as confidential or privileged any documents, materials, or information received with notice or the understanding that it is confidential or privileged under the laws of the jurisdiction that is the source of the document, material, or information; and

4. Shall enter into written agreements with the NAIC governing sharing and use of information provided pursuant to this article consistent with this subsection that shall:

a. Specify procedures and protocols regarding the confidentiality and security of information shared with the NAIC and its affiliates and subsidiaries pursuant to this article, including procedures and protocols for sharing by the NAIC with other state, federal, or international regulators;

b. Specify that ownership of information shared with the NAIC and its affiliates and subsidiaries pursuant to this article remains with the Commission and that the NAIC's use of the information is subject to the direction of the Commission;

c. Require prompt notice to be given to an insurer whose confidential information in the possession of the NAIC pursuant to this article is subject to a request or subpoena to the NAIC for disclosure or production; and

d. Require the NAIC and its affiliates and subsidiaries to consent to intervention by an insurer in any judicial or administrative action in which the NAIC and its affiliates and subsidiaries may be required to disclose confidential information about the insurer shared with the NAIC and its affiliates and subsidiaries pursuant to this article.

D. The sharing of information by the Commission pursuant to this article shall not constitute a delegation of regulatory authority or rulemaking, and the Commission is solely responsible for the administration, execution, and enforcement of the provisions of this article.

E. No waiver of any applicable privilege or claim of confidentiality in the documents, materials, or information shall occur as a result of disclosure to the Commission under this section or as a result of sharing as authorized in subsection C.

F. Documents, materials, or other information in the possession or control of the NAIC pursuant to this article shall be confidential by law and privileged, shall not be subject to subpoena, and shall not be subject to discovery or admissible in evidence in any private civil action.

1973, c. 505, § 38.1-178.5; 1986, c. 562; 2001, c. 519; 2014, c. 309; 2019, c. 692.

§ 38.2-1334. Revocation, suspension, or nonrenewal of insurer's license.

Whenever it appears to the Commission that any person has committed a violation of this article that makes the continued operation of an insurer contrary to the interests of policyholders or the public, the Commission after giving notice and an opportunity to be heard, may suspend, revoke or refuse to renew the insurer's license to transact business in this Commonwealth for whatever period it finds is required for the protection of policyholders or the public. Any such action shall be supported by specific findings of fact and conclusions of law.

1973, c. 505, § 38.1-178.9; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1334.1. Voting of securities, injunctions, and sequestration of voting securities.

A. No security that is the subject of any agreement or arrangement regarding acquisition, or that is acquired or to be acquired, in contravention of the provisions of this article or of any rule, regulation, or order issued by the Commission hereunder, may be voted at any shareholders' meeting, or may be counted for quorum purposes, and any action of shareholders requiring the affirmative vote of a percentage of shares may be taken as though such securities were not issued and outstanding. However, no action taken at any such meeting shall be invalidated by the voting of such securities, unless the action would materially affect control of an insurer subject to any provision of this article or unless the Commission or other court of the Commonwealth has so ordered. If the insurer or Commissioner of Insurance has reason to believe that any security of the insurer has been or is about to be acquired in contravention of the provisions of this article or of any rule, regulation or order issued by the Commission hereunder, the insurer or Commissioner of Insurance may apply to the Commission to enter an order (i) enjoining any offer, request, invitation, agreement, or acquisition made in contravention of § 38.2-1323; (ii) enforcing any rule, regulation, or order issued by the Commission under the foregoing sections to enjoin the voting of any security so acquired; or (iii) voiding any vote of such security already cast at any meeting of shareholders or providing for such other equitable relief as the nature of the case and the interest of the insurer's policyholders, creditors, and shareholders or the public may require.

B. Whenever it appears to the Commission that any person has committed or is about to commit a violation of this article, the Commission may enter an order enjoining such person from violating or continuing to violate this article or any such rule or order, and for such other equitable relief as the nature of the case and the interests of the domestic insurer's policyholders or the public may require.

C. In any case where a person has acquired or is proposing to acquire any voting securities in violation of this article or any rule, regulation, or order issued by the Commission hereunder, the Commission may, after reasonable notice, upon application of the insurer or application of the Commissioner of Insurance, seize or sequester any voting securities of the insurer owned directly or indirectly by the person, and issue the order with respect thereto as may be appropriate to effectuate the provisions of this article.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, for the purposes of this article, the situs of the ownership of the securities of domestic insurers shall be deemed to be in the Commonwealth.

D. The actions authorized by this section are in addition to any remedies provided for by other sections of this title and may be imposed, in addition to or in lieu of any other penalties or actions provided for by law, whenever such actions involve a person that is neither domiciled nor licensed in this Commonwealth.

1993, c. 158; 2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1334.2. Recovery.

A. If an order for liquidation or rehabilitation of a domestic insurer has been entered, the receiver appointed under such order shall have a right to recover on behalf of the insurer (i) from any parent corporation or holding company or person or affiliate who otherwise controlled the insurer, the amount of distributions (other than distributions of shares of the same class of stock) paid by the insurer on its capital stock or (ii) any payment in the form of a bonus, termination settlement or extraordinary lump sum salary adjustment made by the insurer or its subsidiary or subsidiaries to a director, officer or employee, where the distribution or payment pursuant to (i) or (ii) is made at any time during the one year preceding the petition for liquidation, conservation or rehabilitation, as the case may be, subject to the limitations of subsections B, C and D of this section.

B. No such distribution shall be recoverable if the parent or affiliate shows that, when paid, such distribution was lawful and reasonable and that the insurer did not know and could not reasonably have known that such distribution might adversely affect the ability of the insurer to fulfill its contractual obligations.

C. Any person who was a parent corporation or holding company or a person who otherwise controlled the insurer or affiliate at the time such distributions were paid shall be liable up to the amount of distributions or payments under subsection A of this section. Any person who otherwise controlled the insurer at the time such distributions were declared shall be liable up to the amount of distributions he would have received if they had been paid immediately. If two or more persons are liable with respect to the same distributions, they shall be jointly and severally liable.

D. The maximum amount recoverable under this section shall be the amount needed in excess of all other available assets of the impaired or insolvent insurer to pay its obligations and to reimburse any guaranty funds.

E. To the extent that any person liable under subsection C of this section is insolvent or otherwise fails to pay claims due from it pursuant to such subsection, its parent corporation, holding company, or person who otherwise controlled it at the time the distribution was paid shall be jointly and severally liable for any resulting deficiency in the amount recovered from such parent corporation, holding company, or person who otherwise controlled it.

1993, c. 158.

§ 38.2-1334.2:1. Rules and regulations.

The Commission may adopt rules and regulations implementing the provisions of this article.

2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1334.2:2. Sanctions.

Whenever it appears to the Commission that any person has committed a violation of §§ 38.2-1323 through 38.2-1328 and the violation prevents the full understanding of the enterprise risk to the insurer by affiliates or by the insurance holding company system, the violation may serve as an independent basis for disapproving dividends or distributions and for instituting delinquency proceedings pursuant to § 38.2-1503.

2014, c. 309.

§ 38.2-1334.2:3. Statutory construction and relationship to other laws.

Provisions of this title, insofar as they are not inconsistent with this article, shall be applicable to any insurer subject to registration under this article.

2014, c. 309.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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