Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 44. Military and Emergency Laws
10/29/2020

Chapter 1. Military Laws of Virginia.

Article 1. Classification of Militia.

§ 44-1. Composition of militia.

The militia of the Commonwealth of Virginia shall consist of all able-bodied residents of the Commonwealth who are citizens of the United States and all other able-bodied persons resident in the Commonwealth who have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, who are at least 16 years of age and, except as hereinafter provided, not more than 55 years of age. The militia shall be divided into three classes: the National Guard, which includes the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard; the Virginia Defense Force; and the unorganized militia.

1930, p. 948; 1942, p. 642; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(1); 1944, p. 24; 1958, c. 393; 1970, c. 662; 1973, c. 401; 1976, c. 399; 1979, c. 647; 1984, c. 765; 1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-2. Composition of National Guard.

A. The National Guard shall consist of the regularly enlisted militia and of commissioned and warrant officers, who shall be residents of the Commonwealth of Virginia and shall fall within the age limits and qualifications as prescribed in existing or subsequently amended National Guard regulations (army and air), organized, armed and equipped as hereinafter provided. Upon original enlistment members of the National Guard shall not be less than 17 nor more than 55 years of age, or, in subsequent enlistments not more than 64 years of age.

B. Notwithstanding the above, persons otherwise qualified but residing outside the Commonwealth of Virginia, may enlist or serve as commissioned or warrant officers in the National Guard.

1930, p. 948; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(2); 1958, c. 393; 1976, c. 399; 1979, c. 647; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-2.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1989, c. 414.

§ 44-3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 221, cl. 2.

§ 44-4. Composition of unorganized militia.

The unorganized militia shall consist of all able-bodied persons as set out in § 44-1, except such as may be included in §§ 44-2 and 44-54.6 and except such as may be exempted as hereinafter provided.

1930, p. 949; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(4); 1970, c. 662; 1973, c. 401; 1984, c. 765; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-5. Exemptions from militia duty.

In addition to those exempted by the laws of the United States, the following persons shall be exempt from military duty under a state call:

1. The officers, judicial and executive, of the governments of the United States and the Commonwealth of Virginia;

2. The members of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia and of the Congress of the United States;

3. Persons in the active military or naval services of the United States;

4. Persons employed by the United States in the transmission of the mail;

5. The judges and clerks of courts of record;

6. The mayor and councilmen of incorporated cities and towns;

7. Members of the governing bodies of counties;

8. Sheriffs, United States district attorneys, attorneys for the Commonwealth and city attorneys;

9. Marine pilots;

10. All persons who because of religious belief shall claim exemption from military service, if the conscientious holding of such belief by such person shall be established under such regulations as the President of the United States shall prescribe, shall be exempted from militia service in any capacity that the President shall declare to be combatant; and

11. Such other persons as may be designated by the Governor in the best interests of the public and of the Commonwealth.

1930, p. 949; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(5); 1958, c. 393; 1976, c. 399; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-6. Maintenance of other troops.

In time of peace the Commonwealth shall maintain only such troops as may be authorized by the President of the United States; but nothing in this chapter shall be construed as limiting the rights of the Commonwealth in the use of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force within or without its borders in time of peace and nothing contained in this chapter shall prevent the organization and maintenance of State Police or constabulary.

1930, p. 949; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(6); 1958, c. 393; 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-7. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 221, cl. 2.

Article 2. General Administrative Officers.

§ 44-8. Governor as Commander in Chief.

The Governor shall be Commander in Chief of the armed forces of the Commonwealth, and shall have power to employ such forces to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, and enforce the execution of the laws.

1930, p. 950; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(8); R. P. 1948, § 44-8; 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227.

§ 44-9. Commander in Chief to prescribe regulations.

The Commander in Chief shall have the power, and it shall be his duty, from time to time, to issue such orders and to prescribe such regulations relating to the organization of the armed forces of the Commonwealth as will cause the same at all times to conform to the federal requirements of the United States government relating thereto.

1930, p. 950; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(9); R. P. 1948, § 44-9; 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-9.1. Censorship of certain sermons prohibited.

Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of law, the religious content of sermons, homilies, preaching, religious messages, or other speeches within religious services made by chaplains of the Virginia National Guard while in Title 32 or State Active Duty status or of the Virginia Defense Force shall not be censored or restricted by any state government official or agency, so long as (i) the religious content offered is not in any way a precursor of, introduction to, or part of any official ceremony, gathering, or formation that is not part of the religious service; (ii) the content does not urge disobedience of lawful orders; and (iii) members of the National Guard or Defense Force are not required to attend the service or event where such content is delivered.

2015, c. 283.

§ 44-10. Divisions of military staff.

The military staff shall be divided into (a) the personal staff of the Governor and (b) the administrative staff.

The personal staff of the Governor shall be constituted as now prescribed by law.

The administrative staff shall be as is authorized by the Secretary of Defense of the United States and shall perform such duties as the commander in chief may direct.

1930, p. 950; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(10); R. P. 1948, § 44-10; 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-11. Department of Military Affairs; Adjutant General.

There is hereby created the Department of Military Affairs to which is transferred all of the functions, powers and duties of the former Division of Military Affairs.

The Governor shall appoint an Adjutant General with the rank of brigadier general, major general or lieutenant general as the Governor may prescribe, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly if in session, and if not in session, then at its next succeeding session. The Adjutant General shall not hold the rank of lieutenant general unless such rank is federally recognized. The Adjutant General shall be in direct charge of the Department of Military Affairs and shall be responsible to the Governor and commander in chief for the proper performance of his duties. All the powers conferred and the duties imposed by law upon the Adjutant General shall be exercised or performed by him under the direction and control of the Governor. The Adjutant General shall serve at the pleasure of the Governor for a term coincident with that of the Governor. No person shall be appointed Adjutant General who shall not have had at least ten years' commissioned service in the Virginia National Guard in at least field grade. The Adjutant General, while serving as such, may be a member of the Virginia National Guard.

The Adjutant General shall receive a salary prescribed by law.

1927, p. 106; 1930, p. 951; Michie Code 1942, §§ 585(62), 2673(12); 1948, p. 48; R. P. 1948, § 44-11; 1964, c. 227.

§ 44-11.1. Duties of the Department of Military Affairs.

A. The Department of Military Affairs shall support the objectives of the Governor and federal authorities by:

1. Administering and employing the Virginia Militia, as set forth in § 44-1;

2. Integrating into state operations all supporting Department of Defense capabilities and those forces provided by supporting states in a Title 32 or State Active Duty status;

3. Providing for the safety of citizens of the Commonwealth by maintaining order and public safety and assisting in counter-drug efforts, in cooperation with Virginia State Police and local law-enforcement agencies;

4. Preparing and executing contingency plans to provide for a timely and capable response to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive incidents;

5. Preparing and executing contingency plans necessary for the provision of homeland defense;

6. Ensuring the support to families of service members of the Virginia National Guard;

7. Administering a state at-risk program for youth; and

8. Recruiting a force sufficiently manned and trained to accomplish the above duties.

B. The Department of Military Affairs shall perform such other duties as may be designated by the Governor.

2007, cc. 127, 728.

§ 44-12. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 12.

§ 44-13. Powers of Adjutant General.

As head of the Department of Military Affairs, the Adjutant General shall have command of all of the militia of the Commonwealth, subject to the orders of the Governor as Commander in Chief, and shall distribute all orders from the Governor pertaining to the military service and shall perform all duties imposed upon him or that Department by this title in the manner prescribed by law.

1927, p. 106; 1930, p. 951; Michie Code 1942, §§ 585(62), 2673(13); R. P. 1948, § 44-13; 1958, c. 393; 1989, c. 414.

§ 44-13.1. Virginia National Guard Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Program established.

The Adjutant General is authorized to establish a Virginia National Guard Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Program (the MWR Program) to provide leisure, recreation, and lodging opportunities for Virginia National Guard members and their families, Virginia Defense Force members and their families, employees of the Department of Military Affairs and their families, and other users of Department facilities as authorized by the Adjutant General.

2016, c. 622.

§ 44-13.2. Administration of the MWR Program.

The Adjutant General may authorize the MWR Program to (i) contract for goods and services; (ii) hire employees; and (iii) receive funds from patrons in exchange for goods or services provided within the MWR Program. The Adjutant General is authorized to establish MWR Program facilities throughout the Commonwealth that, in the Adjutant General's judgment, are necessary for military purposes. The Adjutant General shall promulgate regulations to govern the operation of the MWR Program. The Adjutant General may appoint a director for the MWR Program. The Adjutant General shall establish a system of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing procedures for the proper handling of funds derived from the MWR Program's operations.

2016, c. 622.

§ 44-13.3. Virginia National Guard MWR Fund.

There is created within the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Virginia National Guard MWR Fund, referred to in this section as "the Fund." The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All (i) proceeds collected under the MWR Program and (ii) donations made to the Virginia National Guard MWR Program shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys from the Fund shall be used for the enhancement of morale, welfare, and recreation and the administration of the MWR Program, including paying the costs of (a) salaries of MWR Program employees; (b) public liability insurance, when needed; (c) infrastructure improvements on military property used in support of the MWR Program; and (d) any other expenses considered necessary in furtherance of the MWR Program by the Adjutant General. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Adjutant General.

2016, c. 622.

§ 44-13.4. Risk management.

The MWR Program shall be eligible to participate in the state risk management pool. The MWR Program shall procure separate insurance policies to cover liability associated with activities and operations not otherwise covered in the state risk management pool or by the Division of Risk Management.

2016, c. 622.

§ 44-14. Expenditures for Department.

All payments and disbursements payable out of the appropriation to the Department of Military Affairs shall be made by the State Treasurer upon warrants of the Comptroller issued upon vouchers signed by the Adjutant General or such person as the Adjutant General may designate for such purpose. Expenditures not specifically provided for but manifestly for the benefit of the military service may be made by the Adjutant General with the written approval of the Governor.

1930, p. 950; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(11); 1944, p. 24; R. P. 1948, § 44-13; 2004, c. 12.

§ 44-15. Reports to Secretary of Defense.

The Adjutant General shall make such returns and reports to the Secretary of Defense, or to such officers as he may designate, at such times and in such form as may from time to time be prescribed.

1930, p. 951; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(13); R. P. 1948, § 44-14; 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-16. Records of Adjutant General.

The Adjutant General shall keep a record of all officers and enlisted personnel, and shall also keep all records and papers required by law or regulations to be filed therein.

1930, p. 951; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(13); R. P. 1948, § 44-15; 1970, c. 662; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-17. Regulations as to reports and care of property.

The Adjutant General is empowered to make such regulations pertaining to the preparation and rendering of reports and returns and to the care and preservation of public property as in his opinion the conditions demand, such regulations to be operative and in force when promulgated in the form of general orders, circulars, circular letters, or other regulations and documents.

1930, p. 951; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(13); R. P. 1948, § 44-17; 1964, c. 227.

§ 44-18. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 221, cl. 2.

§ 44-19. Adjutant General to have charge of military property.

The Adjutant General shall have charge and care of all state military property and all United States military property issued to the Commonwealth of Virginia, and shall cause to be kept an accurate and careful account of all receipts and issues of the same. He shall require to be kept careful memoranda of all public military property on hand in the state arsenal or storehouses, and in the possession of the several organizations of the Virginia National Guard or issued to the Virginia Defense Force, and shall guard such property against injury and loss to the extent of his ability. He shall require every accountable and responsible officer of the National Guard to account for every deficiency in public military property in his possession immediately after such deficiency is discovered. The Adjutant General shall have the care and control of the state military reservation near Virginia Beach, and of such other real estate as the Commonwealth may acquire for military purposes, and it shall be the duty of the Adjutant General to provide for the proper care of such property and buildings thereon. For the maintenance, upkeep and improvement of the military reservation or reservations, the Adjutant General may expend from the appropriation to the Department of Military Affairs such amounts as may be necessary.

1930, pp. 950, 952; Michie Code 1942, §§ 2673(11), 2673(13); 1944, p. 24; R. P. 1948, § 44-19; 1958, c. 393; 1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-20. Deputy Adjutant General (Army and Air) and Assistant Adjutant General (Army); assistants and clerical forces of Adjutant General.

The Adjutant General shall have a Deputy Adjutant General (Air), a Deputy Adjutant General (Army) and an Assistant Adjutant General (Army) whose grades shall not exceed that of brigadier general and he shall have other assistants and such clerical forces as may be necessary who shall serve at the pleasure of the Adjutant General, subject to the provisions of general law, and shall perform such duties as he may assign them. The Adjutant General shall have such other clerks and employees as may be necessary for the administration of his office.

1930, p. 952; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(13); R.P. 1948, § 44-20; 1964, c. 227; 1979, c. 504; 1983, c. 74.

§ 44-21. Bonds of Adjutant General and fiscal clerks.

The Adjutant General and his fiscal clerks shall each give bond, with sufficient sureties, to be approved by the Governor, as provided by law for other state officers.

1930, p. 952; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(13); R. P. 1948, § 44-21; 1964, c. 227; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-22. Auditing accounts of Adjutant General.

The office and accounts of the Adjutant General pertaining to the Commonwealth of Virginia shall be audited by the direction of the Governor in the same manner as the office and accounts of other state officers are audited, as provided by law.

1930, p. 952; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(13); R. P. 1948, § 44-22.

§ 44-23. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1984, c. 734.

§ 44-24. United States Property and Fiscal Officer.

The Governor shall appoint, designate or detail, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense, an officer of the National Guard of the Commonwealth to serve as a United States Property and Fiscal Officer. Any officer of the National Guard who has been so appointed and is serving as United States Property and Fiscal Officer, may be removed for just cause by the Governor with the approval of the Secretary of Defense. The Adjutant General is hereby declared ineligible to serve as United States Property and Fiscal Officer. The duties and remuneration of said United States Property and Fiscal Officer shall be such as are prescribed by existing or subsequently amended regulations of the armed forces of the United States.

1930, p. 952; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(14); R. P. 1948, § 44-24; 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-24.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 221, cl. 2.

Article 3. National Guard in General.

§ 44-25. Organization; composition of units.

Except as otherwise specifically provided by the laws of the United States, the organization of the National Guard, including the composition of all units thereof, shall be the same as that prescribed for the active army, air force and navy, subject in time of peace to such general exceptions as may be authorized by the Secretary of Defense.

1930, p. 952; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(15); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227.

§ 44-26. Location of units and headquarters.

The Governor shall determine and fix the location of the units and headquarters of the National Guard within the Commonwealth.

1930, p. 953; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(16); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-27. Appointment and promotion of officers.

All officers of the National Guard shall be appointed and commissioned by the Governor, through the Adjutant General.

Within the organization, insofar as practicable, all appointments and promotions shall be based on professional qualifications, efficiency, length of service in grade, length of commissioned service, and demonstrated command and staff ability at the appropriate level, and will be effected only when an appropriate vacancy exists in the applicable table of organization and equipment or table of organization or distribution.

1930, p. 953; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(17); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227; 1970, c. 662; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-28. Qualifications of commanding or staff officers.

No person shall be appointed a commanding or staff officer unless such person shall have had federally recognized commissioned military service, nor shall any officer be appointed who fails to qualify as to fitness for military service under such regulations as the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe. Such officers may hold their positions until they have reached the age or length of service as prescribed in existing or subsequently amended National Guard regulations, unless separated from the service prior to that time by reason of resignation, disability, withdrawal or termination of federal recognition or commission, or upon finding of a legally convened court-martial.

1930, p. 953; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(18); 1958, c. 393; 1970, c. 662.

§ 44-29. Qualifications of National Guard officers.

The qualifications of National Guard officers shall be as prescribed in current and subsequently amended National Guard regulations.

1930, p. 953; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(19); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-30. Tests as to fitness for officers; examining board.

No person shall hereafter be appointed an officer of the National Guard unless such person first shall have successfully passed such tests as to physical, moral, and professional fitness as the President shall prescribe. The examination to determine such qualifications for commission shall be conducted by a board of three commissioned officers appointed by the Secretary of Defense from the active army or the National Guard, or both.

1930, p. 954; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(20); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227; 1970, c. 662.

§ 44-31. Relative rank of officers.

Relative rank among officers of the same grade shall be determined according to current and subsequently amended Department of Defense and National Guard regulations.

1930, p. 954; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(21); 1964, c. 227.

§ 44-32. Oath of National Guard officers.

Commissioned officers of the National Guard shall take and subscribe to the following oath of office:

"I............................… do solemnly swear that I will support and

defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the
Commonwealth of Virginia, against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I
will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will obey the orders
of the President of the United States and of the Governor of the Commonwealth
of Virginia; that I make this obligation freely, without mental reservation or
purpose of evasion, and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties
of the office of..............................… in the National Guard of the

United States and of the Commonwealth of Virginia, upon which I am about to

enter; so help me God."

1930, p. 954; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(22); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-32.1. Administration of oaths of office and enlistment.

Any duly commissioned officer or warrant officer of the Virginia National Guard or any commissioned officer of any of the armed services of the United States may administer the oaths of office and enlistment to prospective officers and enlisted personnel desirous of becoming members of the Virginia National Guard and the National Guard of the United States. Any duly commissioned officer of the Virginia Defense Force, when called into service by the Governor, may administer oaths to prospective officers and enlisted personnel desirous of becoming members of the Virginia Defense Force.

1947, p. 143; Michie Suppl. 1948, § 2673(22a); 1958, c. 393; 1979, c. 647; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-33. Elimination and disposition of officers.

At any time the moral character, capacity, and general fitness for the service of any National Guard officer may be determined by an efficiency board of three commissioned officers senior in rank to the officer whose fitness for service shall be under investigation, said board to be appointed by the Adjutant General and convened on his order. If the findings of such board be unfavorable to such officer and be approved by the Adjutant General, such officer shall be discharged. Commissions of officers of the National Guard may be vacated upon resignation, if approved by the Adjutant General, absence without leave for three months, upon the recommendation of an efficiency board, pursuant to sentence of a court-martial, upon physical disqualification, when convicted of a felony in a civil court, when appointed or inducted into the armed forces of the United States, when federal recognition is withdrawn from such officer or from the unit to which assigned, upon reaching maximum age limitation, and when it has been determined that an officer is subversive or disloyal. Officers of the Virginia National Guard rendered surplus by the disbandment of their organization shall be placed in another unit, providing an appropriate vacancy exists, otherwise such officers shall be separated from the Virginia National Guard and automatically revert to the reserve.

1930, p. 954; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(23); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227; 1970, c. 662.

§ 44-34. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-35. Enlistments in National Guard.

Enlistments in the National Guard shall be as prescribed in existing or subsequently amended National Guard regulations.

1930, p. 954; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(25); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-36. Enlistment contract and oath.

Enlisted persons shall not be recognized as members of the National Guard until they shall have signed an enlistment contract and taken and subscribed to the oath of enlistment prescribed by present or subsequently amended National Guard regulations; or such oath of enlistment as shall be prescribed by the Governor of Virginia for members of the Virginia Defense Force.

1930, p. 955; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(26); 1958, c. 393; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-37. Discharge of enlisted persons.

An enlisted person discharged from service in the Virginia National Guard shall receive a discharge in writing. The form and classification of such discharge shall be as prescribed by existing or subsequently amended National Guard regulations.

1930, p. 955; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(27); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-38. Membership continued in National Guard after termination of federal service.

When inducted into the active military service of the United States and thereafter discharged or separated from the armed forces, all persons so inducted and thereafter discharged or separated shall resume their membership in the Virginia National Guard and shall continue to serve therein as though their service had not been so interrupted.

1930, p. 955; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(28); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-39. Uniforms, arms and equipment.

The National Guard shall, as far as practicable, be uniformed, armed, and equipped with the same type of uniform, arms, and equipment as are or shall be provided for the armed forces of the United States.

1930, p. 955; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(29); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-39.1. Possession of handguns by members at National Guard facilities.

To the extent permitted by federal law and by the terms of any contract between the Virginia National Guard and a privately owned facility, any member of the Virginia National Guard who possesses a valid concealed handgun permit issued pursuant to Article 6.1 (§ 18.2-307.1 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2 shall be permitted to possess a concealed handgun owned by such member at all facilities of the Virginia National Guard and at all privately owned facilities under contract with the Virginia National Guard. Nothing herein precludes the commanding officer of any member from prohibiting such member from possessing a concealed handgun while such member is participating in any training or other exercises where the commanding officer determines that (i) such possession would interfere with the conduct of such training or other exercises, (ii) such possession may result in mission impairment, or (iii) the member is unfit to carry a handgun.

2016, c. 740.

§ 44-40. Discipline and training.

The discipline and training of the Virginia National Guard shall conform to that of the Armed Forces of the United States, and to that end, the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, including but not limited to the Uniform Code of Military Justice as now existing or subsequently amended, is hereby incorporated as a part of the military laws of Virginia except where in conflict with other provisions of this chapter. Officers and soldiers of the National Guard shall have such powers in the performance of their duty under this title as officers and soldiers of the active armed services have in the performance of like duty under the Uniform Code of Military Justice and Manual for Courts-Martial, United States. However, should a person commit an offense punishable under the criminal laws of Virginia, then prosecution under the criminal laws shall bar prosecution under this chapter. The Adjutant General shall by regulation adapt to state usage the provisions and terminology of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, including but not limited to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.

1930, p. 955; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(30); 1958, c. 393; 1976, c. 399; 1984, c. 7; 1987, c. 32.

§ 44-40.01. Nonjudicial disciplinary proceedings.

Service members of the Virginia National Guard, not in federal service, are subject to nonjudicial punishment pursuant to Part V of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States. A commander's authority to impose nonjudicial punishment shall not include the authority to impose correctional custody, arrest in quarters, restriction, or extra duties. Reduction in rank shall not be imposed if the service member has more than 10 years of military service and is in the rank of E-5 or above. When nonjudicial punishment is to be imposed by a commanding officer of the rank of major or above, a service member shall not be allowed to demand trial by court-martial in lieu of nonjudicial punishment. Service members shall retain all appeal rights available under the Manual for Courts-Martial, and the appeal shall include a review for abuse of discretion and legal sufficiency of the evidence.

2015, c. 194.

§ 44-40.1. Persons subject to the Virginia military laws.

All members of the Virginia National Guard are subject to the military laws of Virginia when under orders to be present for duty under Title 32 of the United States Code or while in a state active duty status.

1976, c. 399; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-40.2. Administration of oaths and taking of sworn statements by commissioned officers.

In addition to those powers set forth in § 44-40, commissioned officers in the Virginia National Guard may administer oaths and take sworn statements in connection with any investigation required by law or regulation pertaining to the Virginia National Guard in the performance of their duties.

1987, c. 32.

§ 44-41. Armory drills, inactive training, annual active duty training, etc.

Training, including inactive training, armory drills, annual active duty for training, active duty training and other exercises, shall be conducted in accordance with existing or subsequently amended National Guard regulations.

1930, p. 955; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(31); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227.

§ 44-41.1. Failure to report; etc.

If any person, being an active member of the Virginia National Guard, in violation of valid orders, fails to initially report to his appointed place of duty at the appointed time of duty under Title 32 of the United States Code or for state active duty, or having initially reported absents himself without leave, he shall be guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor. A warrant for such offense may be sworn by any officer of the unit to which the soldier or airman who failed to report, or absented himself, is assigned. Any such warrant shall be withdrawn upon the written request of the soldier or airman's commanding officer.

1977, c. 315; 1978, c. 342; 1983, c. 65; 1984, c. 206; 2011, cc. 72, 108.

§ 44-41.2. Sharing of information with Virginia Employment Commission upon separation.

The Adjutant General shall, in consultation with the Commissioner of the Virginia Employment Commission, establish a program under which the Department of Military Affairs shall, upon request of a member of the Virginia National Guard, provide information on the member to the Virginia Employment Commission, including (i) the individual's name; (ii) the date, or anticipated date, of the individual's discharge, separation, or release from the Virginia National Guard; (iii) the characterization, or anticipated characterization, of the individual's discharge from the Virginia National Guard; (iv) the individual's level of education; (v) contact information for the individual; (vi) the individual's military job classification and list of military training and certifications; (vii) the individual's civilian skills, training, and certification, as self-selected by the individual; and (viii) the industry, employment sector, profession, or other career classification, as self-identified by the individual, in which the individual will seek employment.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the collection and maintenance of information for records required to be kept by the Virginia Employment Commission pursuant to 16VAC5-32-10 or pursuant to any other regulation adopted in accordance with § 60.2-111.

2014, cc. 42, 302.

Article 4. National Guard Courts-Martial.

§ 44-42. Kinds of courts-martial; how constituted and powers.

In the National Guard not in federal service, there shall be special and summary courts-martial, constituted like similar courts of the army and the air force. They shall have the jurisdiction and powers, except as to punishments, and shall follow the forms and procedures provided for such courts as are enumerated in the Manual for Courts-Martial United States.

1930, p. 956; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(32); 1976, c. 399; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-43. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 572 and 586, cl. 2.

§ 44-44. Special courts-martial.

A. In the National Guard for servicemembers on orders for duty under Title 32 of the United States Code or state active duty, the first commanding officer in the rank of colonel or above may convene special courts-martial.

B. A special court-martial may not try a commissioned officer.

C. A special court-martial shall have the authority to impose any of the following fines and penalties:

1. A fine of not more than $1,000;

2. Forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for six months;

3. A reprimand;

4. Bad Conduct discharge;

5. Restriction to limits;

6. Imposition of extra duty;

7. Confinement for not more than three months;

8. Reduction of enlisted persons one or more pay grades; or

9. Any combination of these punishments.

1930, p. 956; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(34); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227; 1976, c. 399; 1977, c. 74; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-45. Summary courts-martial.

A. In the National Guard for servicemembers on orders for duty under Title 32 of the United States Code or active state duty, the first commanding officer in the rank of lieutenant colonel or above may convene a summary court-martial, consisting of one commissioned officer. Proceedings conducted under the provisions of this section shall be informal.

B. A summary court-martial shall have the authority to impose fines of not more than $500, to impose forfeitures of two-thirds pay for one month, to restrict to limits, to impose extra duty, to require confinement for not more than seven days, and to reduce enlisted persons one or more pay grades.

1930, p. 956; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(35); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227; 1976, c. 399; 1977, c. 74; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-46. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1977, c. 74.

§ 44-46.1. Military judges.

A military judge shall be a commissioned officer of the National Guard, shall be so assigned as a legal officer, shall be admitted to the practice of law, and shall be certified for such duty by the Adjutant General.

The Adjutant General shall designate a military judge on a case-by-case basis to preside over courts-martial of the Virginia National Guard.

1976, c. 399; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-47. Process and procedure.

In the Virginia National Guard military judges whenever they sit on a military court, and otherwise presidents of courts-martial and summary court officers, shall have power to issue warrants to arrest accused persons and to bring them before the court for trial whenever such persons shall have disobeyed an order in writing from the convening authority to appear before such court, a copy of the charge or charges having been delivered to the accused with such order, and to issue commitments in carrying out sentences of confinement, and to issue subpoenas and subpoenas duces tecum, and to enforce by attachment attendance of witnesses and the production of books and papers, and to sentence for a refusal to be sworn or to answer as provided in actions before civil courts. They shall also have power to punish for contempt occurring in the presence of the court.

1930, p. 957; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(37); 1976, c. 399; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-48. Review of judgments of courts-martial; procedure.

Judgments of special and summary courts-martial shall be subject to review by the Adjutant General only, except that sentences of Bad Conduct discharge shall also be subject to review by the Governor; and such judgments may be affirmed, set aside or modified; provided, however, no higher or greater sentence, punishment, penalty, fine or forfeiture than that imposed by the court-martial shall be approved; otherwise trials and proceedings, including nonjudicial punishment, pretrial proceedings, post-trial proceedings, search and seizure proceedings and proceedings by all courts and boards, including review proceedings, shall be in accordance with the Manual for Courts-Martial United States, as now existing or subsequently amended, procedure for courts of inquiry, and retiring boards, and other procedures under military law, as may from time to time be prescribed by the appropriate secretary of the respective services.

1930, p. 957; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(38); 1964, c. 227; 1976, c. 399; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-49. Where sentences executed.

All sentences to confinement imposed by any military court of this Commonwealth shall be executed in such penal institutions of the Commonwealth as may be appropriate for similar terms of confinement sentenced for violations of criminal laws of the Commonwealth.

1930, p. 957; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(39); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227; 1976, c. 399.

§ 44-50. How process and sentence executed.

All processes and sentences of any of the military courts of this Commonwealth shall be executed by any sheriff, deputy sheriff, sergeant, or police officer into whose hands the same may be placed for service or execution, and such officer shall make return thereof to the officer issuing or imposing the same. Such service or execution of process or sentence shall be made by such officer without tender or advancement of fee therefor, but all costs in such cases shall be paid from funds appropriated for military purposes. The actual necessary expenses of conveying a prisoner from one county or city in the Commonwealth to another, when the same is authorized and directed by the Adjutant General of the Commonwealth, shall be paid from the military fund of the Commonwealth upon a warrant approved by the Adjutant General.

1930, p. 957; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(40); 1958, c. 393; 1976, c. 399.

§ 44-51. Certificates.

Where any sentence to fine or imprisonment shall be imposed by any military court of this Commonwealth, it shall be the duty of the military judge whenever one sits on such court, and otherwise the president of the court or summary court officer, upon the approval of the findings and sentence of such court, to make out and sign a certificate entitling the case, giving the name of the accused, the date and place of trial, the date of approval of sentence, the amount of fine, or manner, place, and duration of confinement, and deliver such certificate to the sheriff, or deputy sheriff, sergeant or police officer of the county, city or town wherein the sentence is to be executed; and it shall thereupon be the duty of such officer to carry such sentence into execution in the manner prescribed by law for the collection of fines or commitments to service of terms of imprisonment in criminal cases determined in the courts of this Commonwealth.

1930, p. 957; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(41); 1958, c. 393; 1976, c. 399.

§ 44-52. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 572 and 586, cl. 2.

§ 44-53. Collection of fines.

For the purpose of collecting any fines or penalties imposed by a court-martial, the military judge whenever one sits on such court, and otherwise the president of the court, or the summary court officer, shall, within fifteen days after the fines or penalties have been imposed and approved, make a list of all the persons fined, describing them distinctly, and showing the sums imposed as fines or penalties on each person, and shall draw his warrant, under his official signature, directed to any marshal of the court, or to the sheriff, sergeant, or any policeman of any city or county, as the case may be, thereby commanding him to levy such fines or penalties, together with the costs, on the goods and chattels of such delinquent, and the warrant shall thereupon have the force and effect of fieri facias, but such delinquent shall not be entitled to the benefit of any exemption law of this Commonwealth, as against such warrant and the lien thereof. In default of sufficient personal property to satisfy the same, the officer executing the same shall make report accordingly to the drawing authority of the warrant which may then require the fined person to show whether or not he possesses sufficient property to satisfy the fine and if such property is found to exist and the fined person fails to deliver it over the executing officer shall be ordered to take the body of the delinquent and convey him to the jail of the city or county in which he may be found, whose jailer shall closely confine him without bail until the fine or penalty and jailer's fees be paid. No such imprisonment shall extend beyond the period of ten days.

1930, p. 958; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(44); 1976, c. 399; 1977, c. 74.

§ 44-54. Disposition of fines.

All fines imposed by courts-martial or other military courts, whether collected by such courts or by the civil authorities, shall be turned over by the courts or by the civil officer collecting the same to the Adjutant General, who shall keep an accurate account of the same. The Adjutant General, after deducting the costs of holding the courts and the collection of the fines, shall annually turn the balance in to the treasury of the Commonwealth, to be placed to the credit of the Literary Fund.

1930, p. 958; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(43); 1958, c. 393.

Article 4.1. National Guard Mutual Assistance Compact.

§ 44-54.1. Compact enacted into law; terms.

The National Guard Mutual Assistance Compact is hereby enacted into law and entered into by the Commonwealth of Virginia with all other states legally joining therein, in the form substantially as follows:

NATIONAL GUARD MUTUAL ASSISTANCE COMPACT

Article I. Purposes.

The purposes of this compact are to:

1. Provide for mutual aid among the party states in the utilization of the national guard to cope with emergencies.

2. Permit and encourage a high degree of flexibility in the deployment of national guard forces in the interest of efficiency.

3. Maximize the effectiveness of the national guard in those situations which call for its utilization under this compact.

4. Provide protection for the rights of national guard personnel when serving in other states on emergency duty.

Article II. Entry into Force and Withdrawal.

(a) This compact shall enter into force when enacted into law by any two states. Thereafter, this compact shall become effective as to any other state upon its enactment thereof.

(b) Any party state may withdraw from this compact by enacting a statute repealing the same, but no such withdrawal shall take effect until one year after the governor of the withdrawing state has given notice in writing of such withdrawal to the governors of all other party states.

Article III. Mutual Aid.

(a) As used in this article:

1. "Emergency" means an occurrence or condition, temporary in nature, in which police and other public safety officials and locally available national guard forces are, or may reasonably be expected to be, unable to cope with substantial and imminent danger to the public safety.

2. "Requesting state" means the state whose governor requests assistance in coping with an emergency.

3. "Responding state" means the state furnishing aid, or requested to furnish aid.

(b) Upon request of the governor of a party state for assistance in an emergency, the governor of a responding state shall have authority under this compact to send without the borders of his state and place under the temporary command of the appropriate national guard or other military authorities of the requesting state all or any part of the national guard forces of his state as he may deem necessary, and the exercise of his discretion in this regard shall be conclusive.

(c) The governor of a party state may withhold the national guard forces of his state from such use and recall any forces or part or member thereof previously deployed in a requesting state.

(d) Whenever national guard forces of any party state are engaged in another state in carrying out the purposes of this compact, the members thereof so engaged shall have the same powers, duties, rights, privileges and immunities as members of national guard forces in such other state. The requesting state shall save members of the national guard forces of responding states harmless from civil liability for acts or omissions in good faith which occur in the performance of their duty while engaged in carrying out the purposes of this compact, whether the responding forces are serving the requesting state within its borders or are in transit to or from such service.

(e) Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (f), (g) and (h) of this article, all liability that may arise under the laws of the requesting state, the responding state, or a third state on account of or in connection with a request for aid, shall be assumed and borne by the requesting state.

(f) Any responding state rendering aid pursuant to this compact shall be reimbursed by the requesting state for any loss or damage to, or expense incurred in the operation of any equipment answering a request for aid, and for the cost of the materials, transportation and maintenance of national guard personnel and equipment incurred in connection with such request: Provided, that nothing herein contained shall prevent any responding state from assuming such loss, damage, expense or other cost.

(g) Each party state shall provide, in the same amounts and manner as if they were on duty within their state, for the pay and allowances of the personnel of its national guard units while engaged without the state pursuant to this compact and while going to and returning from such duty pursuant to this compact. Such pay and allowances shall be deemed items of expense reimbursable under paragraph (f) by the requesting state.

(h) Each party state providing for the payment of compensation and death benefits to injured members and the representatives of deceased members of its national guard forces in case such members sustain injuries or are killed within their own state, shall provide for the payment of compensation and death benefits in the same manner and on the same terms in case such members sustain injury or are killed while rendering aid pursuant to this compact. Such compensation and death benefits shall be deemed items of expense reimbursable pursuant to paragraph (f) of this article.

Article IV. Delegation.

Nothing in this compact shall be construed to prevent the governor of a party state from delegating any of his responsibilities or authority respecting the national guard, provided that such delegation is otherwise in accordance with law. For purposes of this compact, however, the governor shall not delegate the power to request assistance from another state.

Article V. Limitations.

Nothing in this compact shall:

1. Expand or add to the functions of the national guard, except with respect to the jurisdictions within which such functions may be performed.

2. Authorize or permit national guard units to be placed under the field command of any person not having the military or national guard rank or status required by law for the field command position in question.

Article VI. Construction and Severability.

This compact shall be liberally construed so as to effectuate the purposes thereof. The provisions of this compact shall be severable and if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision of this compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any state or of the United States or the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any state participating herein, the compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the remaining party states and in full force and effect as to the state affected as to all severable matters.

1968, c. 36.

§ 44-54.2. Payment of liability of State pursuant to Article III (f) of compact.

Upon presentation of a claim therefor by an appropriate authority of a state whose national guard forces have aided this State pursuant to the compact, any liability of this State pursuant to Article III (f) of the compact shall be paid out of funds appropriated to the Department of Military Affairs.

1968, c. 36; 1980, c. 221.

§ 44-54.3. Members of National Guard deemed to be in state service when engaged pursuant to compact.

In accordance with Article III (h) of the compact, members of the National Guard forces of this Commonwealth shall be deemed to be in state service at all times when engaged pursuant to this compact, and shall be entitled to all rights and benefits provided pursuant to this title as amended.

1968, c. 36.

Article 4.2. Virginia Defense Force.

§ 44-54.4. Organization; definitions.

The Virginia Defense Force with a targeted membership of at least 1,200 shall be organized within and subject to the control of the Department of Military Affairs.

When called to state active duty, the mission of the Virginia Defense Force shall be to (i) provide for an adequately trained organized reserve militia to assume control of Virginia National Guard facilities and to secure any federal and state property left in place in the event of the mobilization of the Virginia National Guard, (ii) assist in the mobilization of the Virginia National Guard, (iii) support the Virginia National Guard in providing family assistance to military dependents within the Commonwealth in the event of the mobilization of the Virginia National Guard, and (iv) provide a military force to respond to the call of the Governor in those circumstances described in § 44-75.1.

Nothing in this article shall be construed as authorizing the Virginia Defense Force or any part thereof to be called, ordered or in any manner drafted by federal authorities into the military service of the United States. However, no person by reason of his enlistment or appointment in the Virginia Defense Force shall be exempted from military service under any law of the United States.

Members of the Virginia Defense Force may serve in either of the following duty statuses:

1. "Training duty," which is the normal service and training performed by the Virginia Defense Force in order to be prepared for state active duty, and which includes but is not limited to organization, administration, recruiting, maintenance of equipment, armory drills, annual duty training, and training exercises.

2. "State active duty," which is the performance of actual military service for the Commonwealth when called by the Governor or his designee to active duty in service of the Commonwealth in accordance with Article 7 (§ 44-75.1 et seq.).

"Military duty" and "military service," as used in this title, shall include the activities of the members of the Virginia Defense Force while in training duty and state active duty status.

1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2016, c. 614.

§ 44-54.5. Composition of units.

The organization and composition of units and force structure shall be as prescribed by the Adjutant General.

1989, c. 414.

§ 44-54.6. Members, appointment and enlistment.

The age limitations of § 44-1 to the contrary notwithstanding, the Virginia Defense Force shall consist of:

1. Such volunteers who of their own volition agree to service in conformity with regulations prescribed by the Adjutant General who are (i) residents of the Commonwealth or any contiguous state, (ii) at least 16, provided that any volunteer under the age of 18 shall have the written consent of at least one parent or guardian, and (iii) less than 65 years of age may join the Virginia Defense Force, except that the Adjutant General may, on a case-by-case basis, authorize volunteer members of the Virginia Defense Force to be accessed or retained beyond the age of 65 to the age of 75.

2. Such persons of the unorganized militia who may be drafted to fill the force structure of the Virginia Defense Force or who may be ordered out for active duty until released from such service.

The officers of the Virginia Defense Force shall be appointed by the Governor in conformity with regulations prescribed by the Adjutant General.

Enlisted members shall be enlisted and retained in conformity with regulations prescribed by the Adjutant General.

1989, c. 414; 1996, c. 70; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2020, c. 488.

§ 44-54.7. Regulations.

Recruiting, enlistment, retention, organization, administration, equipment, facilities, training, discipline, discharge, dismissal, wearing of the uniform, appearance and standards of conduct shall be governed by regulations prescribed by the Adjutant General in conformity with this chapter and federal law and regulations pertaining to state defense forces. Such regulations shall, to the extent practicable, be consistent with regulations governing the Army National Guard.

1989, c. 414.

§ 44-54.8. Administration of oaths.

All commissioned officers of the Virginia Defense Force and such other persons or officials as the Adjutant General prescribes are hereby authorized and empowered to administer oaths and affirmations in all matters pertaining to and concerning the Virginia Defense Force, including but not limited to the enlistment of soldiers and the appointment of officers therein.

1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-54.9. Uniform; rank in precedence; command.

The Virginia Defense Force shall be uniformed and shall conform to standards of dress and appearance in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Adjutant General. The uniform and insignia of the Virginia Defense Force shall include distinctive devices identifying it as a state defense force and distinguishing it from the National Guard or the armed forces of the United States. The wearing of permanent military decorations awarded in the service of the armed forces of the United States or in the national guards of the several states is authorized.

The grade structure of the Virginia Defense Force, to the extent practicable, shall be the same as that prescribed for the Army National Guard.

1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-54.10. Discipline.

All members of the Virginia Defense Force on training duty or state active duty shall be subject to military discipline. Infractions of military discipline by members of the Virginia Defense Force on training duty or state active duty shall be punishable under the provisions of §§ 44-40 and 44-40.01.

1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2016, c. 339.

§ 44-54.11. Discharge; dismissal.

Upon expiration of the term of service for which appointed or enlisted, a member of the Virginia Defense Force shall be entitled to a discharge. However, no member shall be discharged by reason of expiration of his term of service while on state active duty.

A member of the Virginia Defense Force may be dismissed or discharged prior to the expiration of his term of service by sentence of a court-martial or for misconduct, inefficiency, unsatisfactory participation, personal hardship or for the convenience of the Commonwealth. Discharge proceedings shall be prescribed by the Adjutant General.

The Adjutant General may prescribe appropriate discharge certificates reflecting the character of the member's service.

1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-54.12. Arms, equipment and facilities.

The Virginia Defense Force, to the extent authorized by the Governor and funded by the General Assembly, shall be equipped as needed for training and for state active duty. The Adjutant General, by regulation or otherwise, may authorize the use of privately owned real and personal property if deemed in the best interest of the Commonwealth.

To the extent permitted by federal law and contracts with the federal government or localities and to the extent that space is available, the Adjutant General in his discretion may authorize the use of armories and other facilities of the National Guard, other state facilities under his control, and all or portions of privately owned facilities under contract for the storage and maintenance of arms, equipment and supplies of the Virginia Defense Force and for the assembly, drill, training and instruction of its members.

Members of the Virginia Defense Force shall not be armed with firearms during the performance of training duty or state active duty, except under circumstances and in instances authorized by the Governor.

1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

Article 5. Naval Militia in General.

§ 44-55. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 221, cl. 2.

Article 6. Naval Militia Courts-Martial.

§ 44-67. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 221, cl. 2.

Article 7. Regulations As to Active Service.

§ 44-75. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 352.

§ 44-75.1. Militia state active duty.

A. The Governor or his designee may call forth the militia or any part thereof to state active duty for service in any of the following circumstances:

1. In the event of invasion or insurrection or imminent threat of either;

2. When any combination of persons becomes so powerful as to obstruct the execution of laws in any part of this Commonwealth;

3. When the Governor determines that a state agency or agencies having law-enforcement responsibilities are in need of assistance to perform particular law-enforcement functions, which functions he shall specify in his call to the militia;

4. In the event of flood, hurricane, fire or other forms of natural or man-made disaster wherein human life, public or private property, or the environment is imperiled;

5. In emergencies of lesser magnitude than those described in subdivision 4, including but not limited to the disruption of vital public services, wherein the use of militia personnel or equipment would be of assistance to one or more departments, agencies, institutions, or political subdivisions of the Commonwealth;

6. When the Governor determines that the National Guard and its assets would be of valuable assistance to state, local or federal agencies having a drug law-enforcement function to combat the flow of or use of illegal drugs in the Commonwealth, he may provide for the National Guard or any part thereof to support drug interdiction, counterdrug and demand reduction activities within the Commonwealth, or outside the Commonwealth under the National Guard Mutual Assistance Counterdrug Activities Compact. In calling forth the National Guard under this section, the Governor shall specify the type of support that the National Guard shall undertake with state, local or federal law-enforcement agencies. Once called forth by the Governor, the National Guard is also specifically authorized to enter into mutual assistance and support agreements with any law-enforcement agencies, state or federal, operating within or outside this Commonwealth so long as those activities are consistent with the Governor's call. All activities undertaken by the National Guard in the areas of drug interdiction, counterdrug and drug demand reduction shall be reported by the Adjutant General's office to the Governor and reviewed by the Governor no less frequently than every three months; and

7. When the Governor or his designee, in consultation with the Adjutant General, determines that the militia or any part thereof is in need of specific training to be prepared for being called forth for any of the circumstances expressed in subdivisions 1 through 6 above. Such training may be conducted with a state or federal agency or agencies having the capability or responsibility to coordinate or assist with any of the circumstances set forth in subdivisions 1 through 6 above.

B. The Virginia National Guard shall be designated as a state law-enforcement agency for the sole purpose of receiving property and revenues pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 981 (e) (2), 19 U.S.C. § 1616a, and 21 U.S.C. § 881 (e) (1) (A).

1988, c. 352; 1993, c. 932; 1995, c. 49; 1996, cc. 71, 805.

§ 44-75.1:1. Compact enacted into law; terms.

The National Guard Mutual Assistance Counterdrug Activities Compact is hereby enacted into law and entered into by the Commonwealth of Virginia with all other states legally joining therein, in the form substantially as follows:

INTERSTATE COMPACT ON NATIONAL GUARD COUNTERDRUG OPERATIONS

ARTICLE I. PURPOSE.

The purposes of this compact are to:

1. Provide for mutual assistance and support among the party states in the utilization of the National Guard in drug interdiction, counterdrug and demand reduction activities.

2. Permit the National Guard of this Commonwealth to enter into mutual assistance and support agreements, on the basis of need, with one or more law-enforcement agencies operating within this Commonwealth, for activities within this Commonwealth, or with a National Guard of one or more other states, whether said activities are within or without this Commonwealth in order to facilitate and coordinate efficient, cooperative enforcement efforts directed toward drug interdiction, counterdrug activities, and demand reduction.

3. Permit the National Guard of this Commonwealth to act as a requesting or a responding state as defined within this compact and to ensure the prompt and effective delivery of National Guard personnel, assets, and services to agencies or areas that are in need of increased support and presence.

4. Permit and encourage a high degree of flexibility in the deployment of National Guard forces in the interest of efficiency.

5. Maximize the effectiveness of the National Guard in those situations which call for its utilization under this compact.

6. Provide protection for the rights of National Guard personnel when performing duty in other states in counterdrug activities.

7. Ensure uniformity of state laws in the area of National Guard involvement in interstate counterdrug activities by incorporating said uniform laws within the compact.

ARTICLE II. ENTRY INTO FORCE AND WITHDRAWAL.

A. This compact shall enter into force when enacted by any two states. Thereafter, this compact shall become effective as to any other state upon its enactment thereof.

B. Any party state may withdraw from this compact by enacting a statute repealing the same, but no such withdrawal shall take effect until one year after the governor of the withdrawing state has given notice in writing of such withdrawal to the governors of all other party states.

ARTICLE III. MUTUAL ASSISTANCE AND SUPPORT.

A. As used in this article:

"Demand reduction" means providing available National Guard personnel, equipment, support and coordination to federal, state, local and civic organizations, institutions, and agencies for the purposes of the prevention of drug abuse and the reduction in the demand for illegal drugs.

"Drug interdiction and counterdrug activities" means the use of National Guard personnel, while not in federal service, in any law-enforcement support activities that are intended to reduce the supply or use of illegal drugs in the United States. These activities include, but are not limited to:

1. Providing information obtained, during either the normal course of military training or operations or during counterdrug activities, to federal, state or local law-enforcement officials that may be relevant to a violation of any federal or state law within the jurisdiction of such officials;

2. Making available any equipment, including associated supplies or spare parts, base facilities, or research facilities of the National Guard to any federal, state or local civilian law-enforcement official for law-enforcement purposes, in accordance with other applicable laws or regulations;

3. Providing available National Guard personnel to train federal, state or local civilian law-enforcement personnel in the operation and maintenance of equipment, including equipment made available above, in accordance with other applicable laws;

4. Providing available National Guard personnel to operate and maintain equipment provided to federal, state or local law-enforcement officials pursuant to activities defined and referred to in this compact;

5. Operating and maintaining equipment and facilities of the National Guard or other law-enforcement agencies used for the purposes of drug interdiction and counterdrug activities;

6. Providing available National Guard personnel to operate equipment for the detection, monitoring and communication of the movement of air, land and sea traffic; to facilitate communications in connection with law-enforcement programs; to provide transportation for civilian law-enforcement personnel; and to operate bases of operations for civilian law-enforcement personnel;

7. Providing available National Guard personnel, equipment and support for administrative, interpretive, analytic or other purposes; and

8. Providing available National Guard personnel and equipment to aid federal, state and local officials and agencies otherwise involved in the prosecution or incarceration of individuals processed within the criminal justice system who have been arrested for criminal acts involving the use, distribution or transportation of controlled substances as defined in 21 U.S.C. § 801 et seq. or otherwise by law, in accordance with other applicable law.

"Law-enforcement agency" means a lawfully established federal, state, or local public agency that is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of penal, traffic, regulatory, game, immigration, postal, customs or controlled substances laws.

"Mutual assistance and support agreement" or "agreement" means an agreement between the National Guard of this Commonwealth and one or more law-enforcement agencies or between the National Guard of this Commonwealth and the National Guard of one or more other states, consistent with the purposes of this compact.

"Official" means the appointed, elected, designated or otherwise duly selected representative of an agency, institution or organization authorized to conduct those activities for which support is requested.

"Party state" refers to a state that has lawfully enacted this compact.

"Requesting state" means the party state whose governor requested assistance in the area of counterdrug activities.

"Responding state" means the party state furnishing assistance, or requested to furnish assistance, in the area of counterdrug activities.

"State" means each of the several states of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or a territory or possession of the United States.

B. Upon the request of a governor of a party state for assistance in the area of drug interdiction, counterdrug and demand reduction activities, the governor of a responding state shall have authority under this compact to send without the borders of his state and place under the temporary operational control of the appropriate National Guard or other military authority of the requesting state, for the purposes of providing such requested assistance, all or any part of the National Guard forces of his state as he may deem necessary, and the exercise of his discretion in this regard shall be conclusive.

C. The governor of a party state may, within his discretion, withhold the National Guard forces of his state from such use and recall any forces or part or member thereof previously deployed in a requesting state.

D. The National Guard of this Commonwealth is hereby authorized to engage in counterdrug activities and demand reduction.

E. The Adjutant General of this Commonwealth, in order to further the purposes of this compact, may enter into a mutual assistance and support agreement with one or more law-enforcement agencies of this Commonwealth, including federal law-enforcement agencies operating within this Commonwealth, or with the National Guard of one or more other party states to provide personnel, assets, and services in the area of counterdrug activities and demand reduction, provided that all parties to the agreement are not specifically prohibited by law to perform said activities.

The agreement shall set forth the powers, rights, and obligations of the parties to the agreement, where applicable, as follows:

1. Its duration;

2. The organization, composition, and nature of any separate legal entity created thereby;

3. The purpose of the agreement;

4. The manner of financing the agreement and establishing and maintaining its budget;

5. The method to be employed in accomplishing the partial or complete termination of the agreement and for disposing of property upon such partial or complete termination;

6. A provision for administering the agreement, which may include creation of a joint board responsible for such administration;

7. The manner of acquiring, holding, and disposing of real and personal property used in this agreement, if necessary;

8. The minimum standards for National Guard personnel implementing the provisions of this agreement;

9. The minimum insurance required of each party to the agreement, as necessary;

10. The chain of command or delegation of authority to be followed by National Guard personnel acting under the provisions of the agreement;

11. The duties and authority that the National Guard personnel of each party state may exercise; and

12. Any other necessary and proper matters.

Agreements prepared under the provisions of this compact are exempt from any general law pertaining to intergovernmental agreements.

F. As a condition precedent to an agreement becoming effective under this article, the agreement must be submitted to and receive the approval of the Office of the Attorney General of Virginia. The Attorney General of Virginia may delegate his approval authority to the appropriate attorney for the Virginia National Guard subject to those conditions which he decides are appropriate. Such delegation must be in writing.

1. The Attorney General, or his agent for the Virginia National Guard as stated above, shall approve an agreement submitted to him under this article unless he finds that it is not in proper form, does not meet the requirements set forth in this article, or otherwise does not conform to the laws of Virginia. If the Attorney General disapproves an agreement, he shall provide a written explanation to the Adjutant General of the National Guard.

2. If the Attorney General, or his authorized agent, does not disapprove an agreement within thirty days after its submission to him, it shall be considered approved by him.

G. Whenever National Guard forces of any party state are engaged in the performance of their duties, in the area of drug interdiction, counterdrug and demand reduction activities, pursuant to orders, they shall not be held personally liable for any acts or omissions which occur during the performance of their duty.

ARTICLE IV. RESPONSIBILITIES.

A. Nothing in this compact shall be construed as a waiver of any benefits, privileges, immunities, or rights otherwise provided for National Guard personnel performing duty pursuant to Title 32 of the United States Code nor shall anything in this compact be construed as a waiver of coverage provided for under the Federal Tort Claims Act. In the event that National Guard personnel performing counterdrug activities do not receive rights, benefits, privileges and immunities otherwise provided for National Guard personnel as stated above, the following provisions shall apply:

1. Whenever National Guard forces of any responding state are engaged in another state in carrying out the purposes of this compact, the members thereof so engaged shall have the same powers, duties, rights, privileges and immunities as members of National Guard forces of the requesting state. The requesting state shall save and hold members of the National Guard forces of responding states harmless from civil liability, except as otherwise provided herein, for acts or omissions which occur in the performance of their duties while engaged in carrying out the purposes of this compact, whether the responding forces are serving the requesting state within the borders of the responding state or are attached to the requesting state for purposes of operational control.

2. Subject to the provisions of subdivisions 3, 4, and 5 of this section, all liability that may arise under the laws of the requesting state or the responding state, in connection with a request for assistance or support, shall be assumed and borne by the requesting state.

3. Any responding state rendering aid or assistance pursuant to this compact shall be reimbursed by the requesting state for any loss or damage to, or expense incurred in the operation of, any equipment answering a request for aid and for the cost of the materials, transportation and maintenance of National Guard personnel and equipment incurred in connection with such request; however, nothing herein contained shall prevent any responding state from assuming such loss, damage, expense, or other cost.

4. Unless there is a written agreement to the contrary, each party state shall provide, in the same amounts and manner as if its National Guard units were on duty within their own state, for pay and allowances of personnel of its National Guard units while engaged without the state pursuant to this compact and while going to and returning from such duty pursuant to this compact.

5. Each party state providing for the payment of compensation and death benefits to injured members and the representatives of deceased members of its National Guard forces, in case such members sustain injuries or are killed within their own state, shall provide for the payment of compensation and death benefits in the same manner and on the same terms in the event such members sustain injury or are killed while rendering assistance or support pursuant to this compact. Such benefits and compensation shall be deemed items of expense reimbursable pursuant to subdivision 3 of this section.

B. Officers and enlisted personnel of the National Guard performing duties subject to proper orders pursuant to this compact shall be subject to and governed by the provisions of their home state code of military justice whether they are performing duties within or without their home state. In the event that any National Guard member commits, or is suspected of committing, a criminal offense while performing duties pursuant to this compact without his home state, he may be returned immediately to his home state and the home state shall be responsible for any disciplinary action to be taken. However, nothing in this section shall abrogate the general criminal jurisdiction of the state in which the offense occurred.

ARTICLE V. DELEGATION.

Nothing in this compact shall be construed to prevent the governor of a party state from delegating any of his responsibilities or authority respecting the National Guard, provided that such delegation is otherwise in accordance with law. For purposes of this compact, however, the governor shall not delegate the power to request assistance from another state.

ARTICLE VI. LIMITATIONS.

Nothing in this compact shall:

1. Authorize or permit National Guard units or personnel to be placed under the operational control of any person not having the National Guard rank or status required by law for the command in question.

2. Deprive a properly convened court of jurisdiction over an offense or a defendant merely because of the fact that the National Guard, while performing duties pursuant to this compact, was utilized in achieving an arrest or indictment.

3. Authorize the National Guard to directly engage in the personal apprehension, arrest and incarceration of any individual or the physical search and seizure of any person. The National Guard may indirectly support any such law-enforcement activities by an otherwise appropriate law-enforcement agency. The National Guard may engage in direct or indirect legal searches and seizures of any property through the use of aerial surveillance, provided that appropriate law-enforcement agents are present to provide supervision of such activity.

ARTICLE VII. CONSTRUCTION AND SEVERABILITY.

This compact shall be liberally construed so as to effectuate the purposes thereof. The provisions of this compact shall be severable, and, if any phrase, clause, sentence or provision of this compact is declared to be contrary to the Constitution of the United States or of any state or the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person or the circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any state participating herein, the compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the remaining party states and in full force and effect as to the state affected as to all severable matters.

1993, c. 932; 1996, cc. 153, 566.

§ 44-75.2. Militia training duty.

Subject to the direction and orders of the Governor, the Adjutant General shall provide for the training and administration of the National Guard and the Virginia Defense Force and shall require the members of the National Guard and the Virginia Defense Force to attend such training when scheduled. Members of the National Guard may assist on an unpaid, volunteer basis in the training and administration of the Virginia Defense Force. Whether training in a paid or unpaid status, members of the National Guard and Virginia Defense Force shall at all times be subject to the orders of their respective commanders.

1988, c. 352; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-76. Transportation, equipment and support of militia.

Whenever the Governor shall call forth the militia, whether by virtue of the Constitution or of § 44-75.1, he shall issue such orders and take such measures for procuring and transporting the elements thereof as to him shall seem best; and for their accommodation, equipment and support, he shall appoint such a staff as to him shall seem proper.

1930, p. 962; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(62); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-77. Orders to officers and appointment of rendezvous.

Such orders shall be sent to such officers and in such manner as the Governor may deem expedient, with a notification of the place of rendezvous; and the officers to whom the orders are sent shall proceed immediately to execute the same.

1930, p. 962; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(63).

§ 44-78. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 352.

§ 44-78.1. Request for assistance by localities.

In the event of the circumstances described in subdivision A 2, 4 or 5 of § 44-75.1 arise within a county, city or town of the Commonwealth, either the governing body or the chief law-enforcement officer of the county, city or town may call upon the Governor for assistance from the militia. The Governor may call forth the militia or any part thereof to provide such assistance as he may deem proper in responding to such circumstances, but in all instances the militia shall remain subject to military command and not to civilian authorities of the county, city or town receiving assistance.

1988, c. 352.

§ 44-79. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 352.

§ 44-80. Order in which classes of militia called into service.

The National Guard, the Virginia Defense Force, and the unorganized militia or any part thereof may be ordered into service by the Governor in such order as he determines.

1930, p. 963; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(66); 1964, c. 227; 1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-81. Length of service when called out.

The National Guard, the Virginia Defense Force, or the unorganized militia, when called into service by the Governor, shall serve for such time as, in the Governor's judgment, may be necessary.

1930, p. 963; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(67); 1958, c. 393; 1989, c. 414; 1993, c. 112; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-82. How troops paid while in service; transportation to be furnished; movement of troops and supplies not to be delayed.

All officers and enlisted personnel of the National Guard or Virginia Defense Force, whenever called out in aid of the civil authorities, shall receive the compensation herein provided, and such compensation, and the necessary expenses incurred in furnishing supplies, subsistence, quartering, and transporting troops, shall be paid no later than 10 work days after the receipt of required payroll documentation by the Payroll Services Bureau of the Department of Accounts by the State Treasurer. Such payments shall be made on warrants to be drawn by the Comptroller, on the State Treasurer, upon certificates of the officer in actual command of the troops, and upon payrolls prepared according to such forms as the state regulations shall prescribe. Such payrolls and certificates are to be transmitted to the Adjutant General through the regular military channels, and he shall approve them before such warrants shall be drawn. The Comptroller and the State Treasurer are hereby authorized and directed to draw the warrants and make the payments herein provided for in accordance with current or subsequently amended pay and allowances of United States armed forces.

The several transportation companies in this Commonwealth shall furnish transportation for troops so called out, stores, munitions and equipments, upon application of the officer in actual command, accompanied by a certificate from him of the number of personnel to be carried and their destination, and a copy of the order calling them out. For such transportation the transportation company shall be entitled to receive compensation from the Commonwealth.

Transportation of troops and military supplies shall be as speedy as possible and have the right-of-way over all passenger and freight traffic on transportation lines within the Commonwealth, and failure to furnish transportation when called upon, or unnecessary delay in transporting such troops and supplies, shall be punishable by a fine of not less than $1,000 or more than $10,000.

1930, p. 963; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(68); 1958, c. 393; 1973, c. 401; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-83. Pay and allowance of members.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, when called into state active duty, not in the service of the United States, members of the National Guard and members of the Virginia Defense Force shall receive pay and allowances equal to their rank and years of service, as determined by the Department of Military Affairs. The Adjutant General may increase state active duty pay on an annual basis by a rate not to exceed the most recent percentage increase in basic pay for members of the Armed Forces.

1930, p. 964; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(69); 1958, c. 393; 1988, c. 352; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2016, c. 341; 2020, c. 832.

§ 44-84. Regulations enforced on actual service.

Whenever any portion of the militia shall be called into service to execute the law, suppress riot or insurrection, or to repel invasion, the military justice opinions as set forth in Article 4 (§ 44-42 et seq.) of this chapter, and the regulations prescribed for the National Guard of the United States, and the regulations issued thereunder, shall be enforced and regarded as a part of this chapter until such forces shall be duly relieved from such duty.

1930, p. 964; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(70); 1958, c. 393.

Article 8. Unorganized Militia.

§ 44-85. Regulations and penalties.

Whenever any part of the unorganized militia is ordered out, it shall be governed by the same rules and regulations and be subject to the same penalties as the National Guard.

1930, p. 965; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(71); 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-86. When ordered out for service.

The commander in chief may at any time, in order to execute the law, suppress riots or insurrections, or repel invasion, or aid in any form of disaster wherein the lives or property of citizens are imperiled or may be imperiled, order out the National Guard and the inactive National Guard or any parts thereof, or the whole or any part of the unorganized militia. When the militia of this Commonwealth, or a part thereof, is called forth under the Constitution and laws of the United States, the Governor shall order out for service the National Guard, or such part thereof as may be necessary; and he may likewise order out such a part of the unorganized militia as he may deem necessary. During the absence of organizations of the National Guard in the service of the United States, their state designations shall not be given to new organizations.

1930, p. 965; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(72); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-87. Manner of ordering out for service.

The Governor shall, when ordering out the unorganized militia, designate the number to be so called. He may order them out either by calling for volunteers or by draft.

1930, p. 965; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(73); 1944, p. 25; 1958, c. 393; 1984, c. 765.

§ 44-88. Incorporation into the Virginia Defense Force.

Whenever the Governor orders out the unorganized militia or any part thereof, it shall be incorporated into the Virginia Defense Force until relieved from service.

1944, p. 25; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 2673(73); 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-89. Draft of unorganized militia.

If the unorganized militia is ordered out by draft, the Governor shall designate the persons in each county and city to make the draft, and prescribe rules and regulations for conducting the same.

1930, p. 965; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(74).

§ 44-90. Punishment for failure to appear.

Every member of the militia ordered out for duty, or who shall volunteer or be drafted, who does not appear at the time and place ordered, shall be liable to such punishment as a court-martial may direct.

1930, p. 965; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(75); 1958, c. 393.

Article 9. Pay of Militia.

§ 44-91. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1958, c. 393.

Article 10. Privileges of United States Reserve, National Guard, and Naval Militia.

§ 44-93. Leaves of absence for employees of Commonwealth or political subdivisions.

A. All officers and employees of the Commonwealth or of any political subdivision of the Commonwealth who are former members of the armed services or members of the organized reserve forces of any of the armed services of the United States or National Guard shall be entitled to leaves of absence from their respective duties, without loss of seniority, accrued leave, or efficiency rating, on all days during which they are engaged in federally funded military duty, to include training duty, or when called forth by the Governor pursuant to the provisions of § 44-75.1 or § 44-78.1.

There shall be no loss of regular employer pay during such leaves of absence, except that paid leaves of absence for federally funded military duty, to include training duty, shall not exceed fifteen workdays per federal fiscal year, and except that no officers or employees shall receive paid leave for more than fifteen workdays per federally funded tour of active military duty.

When relieved from such duty, they shall be restored to positions held by them when ordered to duty. If the office or position has been abolished or otherwise has ceased to exist during such leave of absence, they shall be reinstated in a position of like seniority, status and pay, if the position exists, or in a comparable vacant position for which they are qualified, unless to do so would be unreasonable.

For the purposes of this section, with respect to employees of the Commonwealth or its political subdivisions who do not normally work approximately equal workdays on five or more days of each calendar week, the term "workday" shall mean 1/260 of the total working hours such employee would be scheduled to work during an entire federal fiscal year, not taking into account any state holidays, annual leave, military leave, or other absences. Where such employee returns from federally funded military duty and the eight-hour rest period required by the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (38 U.S.C. § 4301 et seq.) overlaps such employee's scheduled work shift, the employee shall receive paid military leave to the extent of such overlap.

B. In addition to the provisions of subsection A, any local government may pay such employee when activated for federally funded military duty all or any portion of the difference between his regular pay and the military pay received during all or any part of the term of active federally funded duty.

1930, p. 966; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(78); 1958, c. 393; 1964, c. 227; 1966, c. 295; 1968, c. 503; 1983, c. 590; 1984, c. 540; 1985, c. 103; 1986, c. 611; 1989, cc. 414, 474; 1991, c. 653; 2002, cc. 212, 354; 2006, c. 621; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-93.1. Supplement of military pay and additional life insurance benefits for employees of Commonwealth or political subdivisions.

A. In addition to the paid military leave provisions of § 44-93, the Commonwealth or any political subdivision of the Commonwealth may supplement the military pay of its officers and employees who are reservists or national guard members called to federally funded military duty in an amount necessary to bring their total salary, inclusive of their base military pay, to the level earned at the time they were called to federally funded military duty. The employer may also, in its discretion, continue to provide any health insurance and other existing benefits to such officers and employees.

B. In addition to any other benefit provided by law, if an employee of the Commonwealth or of any political subdivision has been called to federal active duty services under Title 10 of the United States Code, the Commonwealth shall provide an additional death benefit in the amount of $20,000 to be paid if the employee is killed in action in any armed conflict while serving with any reserve component of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard or with any unit of these respective services of the United States.

2002, c. 354; 2005, cc. 907, 910.

§ 44-93.2. Leaves of absence from nongovernmental employment.

A member of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force, or a person who is a member of the National Guard of another state and who is otherwise employed in the Commonwealth, called to state active duty or military duty pursuant to Title 32 of the United States Code shall have the right to take leave without pay from his nongovernmental employment. No member of the National Guard or Virginia Defense Force, or person who is a member of the National Guard of another state, shall be forced to use or exhaust his vacation or other accrued leaves from his nongovernmental employment for a period of active service. The choice of leave shall be solely within the discretion of the member.

2002, c. 354; 2007, cc. 167, 214; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221; 2016, c. 327; 2018, c. 216.

§ 44-93.3. Reemployment rights.

Upon honorable release from state active duty or military duty pursuant to Title 32 of the United States Code, a member of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force, or a person who is a member of the National Guard of another state and who was previously employed in the Commonwealth, shall make written application to his previous employer for reemployment within (i) 14 days of his release from duty or from hospitalization following release if the length of the member's absence by reason of service in the uniformed services does not exceed 180 days or (ii) 90 days of his release from duty or from hospitalization following release if the length of the member's absence by reason of service in the uniformed services exceeds 180 days. When released from such duty, they shall be restored to positions held by them when ordered to duty. If the office or position has been abolished or otherwise has ceased to exist during such leave of absence, they shall be reinstated in a position of like seniority, status and pay if the position exists, or to a comparable vacant position for which they are qualified, unless to do so would be unreasonable. This section shall not apply when the cumulative length of the absence and of all previous absences from a position of employment with that employer by reason of service in the uniformed services exceeds five years.

2002, c. 354; 2007, cc. 167, 214; 2010, c. 253; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221; 2016, c. 327; 2018, c. 216.

§ 44-93.4. Discrimination against persons who serve in the Virginia National Guard, Virginia Defense Force, or National Guard of another state and acts of reprisal prohibited.

A. A member of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force, or a person who is a member of the National Guard of another state, who performs, has performed, applies to perform, or has an obligation to perform state active duty or military duty pursuant to Title 32 of the United States Code shall not be denied initial employment, reemployment, retention in employment, promotion, or any benefit of employment by an employer within the Commonwealth on the basis of that membership, application for membership, performance of service, application for service, or obligation.

B. A person shall be considered to have denied a member of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force, or a person who is a member of the National Guard of another state, initial employment, reemployment, retention in employment, promotion, or a benefit of employment within the Commonwealth in violation of this section if the member's membership, application for membership, performance of service, application for service, or obligation for service is a motivating factor in that person's action, unless the person can prove by the greater weight of the evidence that the same unfavorable action would have taken place in the absence of the member's membership, application for membership, performance of service, application for service, or obligation for service.

2002, c. 354; 2007, cc. 167, 214; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221; 2016, c. 327; 2018, c. 216.

§ 44-93.5. Penalties for denial.

If any employer fails or refuses to comply with the provisions of §§ 44-93, 44-93.2, 44-93.3 and 44-93.4, the circuit court having jurisdiction over the employer's place of business may, upon the filing of a motion, petition, or other appropriate pleading by the employee, require the employer to comply with §§ 44-93, 44-93.2, 44-93.3 and 44-93.4 and to compensate the employee for any loss of wages or benefits and reasonable attorney fees and costs incurred by reason of the employer's unlawful failure or refusal. Upon request of the affected employee, the Attorney General may represent personally or through one of his assistants, such employee denied the benefits of §§ 44-93, 44-93.2, 44-93.3 and 44-93.4 while in the performance of state active duty.

2002, c. 354; 2004, c. 147; 2007, cc. 167, 214.

§ 44-94. Exemption from jury duty.

The active officers and members of the National Guard shall be exempt from serving on juries in civil and criminal cases upon presentation to the clerk of the court of a certificate of such membership signed by the commanding officer of the unit of which the person summoned for jury service is a member.

1930, p. 966; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(79); 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-95. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-96. Military property exempt from levy and sale.

The uniforms, arms, and equipment required by law or regulations of every commissioned and warrant officer and every enlisted person of the Virginia National Guard and Virginia Defense Force shall be exempt from sale under any execution, distress, or other process for debt and taxes.

1930, p. 966; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(81); 1958, c. 393; 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-97. Exemption from arrest.

No person belonging to the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force shall be arrested on any process issued by or from any civil officer or court, except in cases of felony or breach of the peace, while going to, remaining at or returning from any place at which he may be required to attend for military duty; nor in any case whatsoever while actually engaged in the performance of his military duties, except with the consent of his commanding officer.

1930, p. 966; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(82); 1984, c. 765; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-97.1. Continuance or time for filing pleading, etc., where party or attorney is on active duty.

Any party to or attorney in an action or proceeding in any court, including the Supreme Court of Virginia, commission, or other tribunal having judicial or quasi-judicial powers or jurisdiction who has been ordered to participate in state active duty, annual active duty for training, or temporary active duty in the reserve forces of any of the armed services of the United States or National Guard shall be entitled to a continuance, not to exceed three weeks, as a matter of right during the period of such duty, provided the continuance is requested at least four days prior to the first day for which the continuance is sought. The period required by any statute or rule for the filing of any pleading or the performance of any act relating thereto shall be extended for seven days after such active duty, provided a request is made four days prior to the date the pleading or act is due. The failure of any court, commission, or other tribunal to allow such continuance when requested to do so or the returning of such filing or act during the period hereinabove specified shall constitute reversible error. This section shall not prevent the granting of temporary injunctive relief or the dissolution or extension of a temporary injunction, but the right to such relief shall remain in the sound discretion of the court or other such tribunal.

1981, c. 288; 1990, c. 790; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-98. Interference with employment of members of Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force.

A person who, either by himself or with another, deprives a member of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force of his employment, or prevents, by himself or another, such member being employed, or obstructs or annoys such member or his employer at his trade, business, or employment, because such member of such organization is such member, or dissuades any person from enlistment in the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force by threat or injury to him in his trade, business, or employment in case he shall so enlist, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be fined in a sum not exceeding $500, or imprisonment in jail not more than 30 days, or shall suffer both fine and imprisonment.

1930, p. 967; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(83); 1958, c. 393; 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-99. Organizations may own property; suits.

Companies or other organizations of the Virginia National Guard and Virginia Defense Force shall have the right to own and keep real and personal property necessary for their use, which shall belong to and be under control of the active members of the unit; and the commanding officer of any unit shall have the right and power to maintain any suit, in his own name, to recover for the use of the unit any debts or effects belonging to the unit, or damages for the injury thereof; and no suit pending in his name shall be abated by his ceasing to be the commanding officer of the unit; but upon motion of the commander succeeding him, such commander shall be admitted to prosecute the suit in like manner and with like effect as if it had been originally instituted by him. Armories owned by such units shall be exempt from all state, county and municipal taxation.

1930, p. 967; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(84); 1958, c. 393; 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-100. No action allowed on account of military duties; counsel for members sued or prosecuted.

No action or proceeding shall be prosecuted or maintained against a member of a military court, or officer or person acting under its authority or reviewing its proceedings, on account of the approval or imposition or execution of any sentence, or the imposition or collection of fine or penalty, or the execution of any warrant, writ, execution, process, or mandate of a military court, nor shall any member of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force be liable to civil action or suit or criminal prosecution for any act done while in the discharge of his military duty.

If any member of the Virginia National Guard or Virginia Defense Force is sued civilly or arrested, indicted, or otherwise prosecuted for any act committed in the discharge of his official duty while on state duty, the Adjutant General may employ special counsel approved by the Attorney General to defend such member. The compensation for special counsel employed pursuant to this section shall, subject to the approval by the Attorney General, be paid out of the funds appropriated for the administration of the Department of Military Affairs.

1930, p. 967; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(85); 1972, c. 416; 1973, c. 401; 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-101. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1958, c. 544.

§ 44-102. Commission not to vacate civil office.

Any citizen of the Commonwealth may accept and hold a commission in the Virginia National Guard and receive pay therefrom or a commission in the Virginia Defense Force or armed forces reserve of the United States, without thereby vacating any civil office or position or commission held by him; and the acceptance or holding of any such commission, and receiving pay therefrom shall not constitute such holding of an office of trust and profit under the government of the Commonwealth and of the United States as shall be incompatible with the holding of any civil office, legislative or judicial, or position or commission under the government of the Commonwealth.

1930, p. 968; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(87); 1958, c. 393; 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-102.1. Rights, benefits and protections upon call to active duty; contract termination.

A. Any right, benefit, or protection that may accrue to a member of the Virginia National Guard under the federal Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50 U.S.C. § 3901 et seq.), as a result of a call to federal active duty service under Title 10 of the United States Code shall be extended to a member of the Virginia National Guard called to active duty service under Title 32 of the United States Code, or to state active duty by the Governor, if the active duty orders are for a period of 30 consecutive days or more. In addition, if a member of the Virginia National Guard is called to state active duty by the Governor, the employer shall ensure that the member has the option of continuing, at the member's expense, his health care coverage, life insurance, or long-term care insurance.

B. Any member of the United States Armed Forces or Virginia National Guard who receives permanent change of station orders or has received temporary duty orders in excess of three months' duration, his spouse, or his dependent may, at any time prior to the conclusion of his period of service, terminate without penalty a contract for the following services:

1. Telecommunications services;

2. Internet services;

3. Television services;

4. Athletic club or gym memberships;

5. Satellite radio services; or

6. Service for an alarm system as defined in § 15.2-911.

It shall be a violation of the Virginia Consumer Protection Act (§ 59.1-196 et seq.) for a service provider to fail to comply with the provisions of this subsection.

2003, c. 769; 2010, cc. 811, 861; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2017, c. 293.

§ 44-102.2. Virginia Military Family Relief Fund established.

A. There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Virginia Military Family Relief Fund (the Fund). The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller and administered by the Office of the Adjutant General for the purposes set forth herein. All moneys as may be appropriated by the General Assembly, private gifts, grants, or donations contributed to the Fund, and revenues received by the Commonwealth for the Fund pursuant to § 58.1-344.3 shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used solely for the purposes of assisting members of the Virginia National Guard and Virginia residents who are members of the reserves of the armed forces of the United States who have been called to extended federal active duty for periods in excess of 90 days and missions in support of Virginia civil authorities, including state active duty and federal defense support to civil authority missions, for periods in excess of 30 days, and their families, with living expenses including, but not limited to food, housing, utilities, and medical services. Assistance may be provided from the Fund from the date of entry into active duty until 180 days after release from active duty. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Adjutant General.

B. The Adjutant General shall submit an annual report to the Governor and the chairmen of the House Appropriations Committee and the Senate Committee on Finance of the General Assembly. The report shall detail:

1. The expenditures of the Fund, including the amount of awards provided from the Fund to each branch of service, the amount of individual and family assistance provided, the qualifications of the recipients, and the balance available in the Fund for future disbursements; and

2. The name, address, rank, branch of service, deployment location, and amount of financial assistance provided to each recipient. The information provided under this subdivision that identifies a recipient or members of the recipient's family or the deployment location of any member of the Virginia National Guard or the reserves of the armed forces of the United States shall be confidential and shall not be subject to public disclosure.

2006, cc. 103, 479; 2007, cc. 73, 911; 2015, c. 320.

Article 11. Care of Military Property.

§ 44-103. Deposit in armories or headquarters for safekeeping.

All arms, equipment and ordnance stores, which shall be furnished to the several commands under the provisions of this chapter, shall be deposited in the armories or headquarters of such commands for safekeeping.

1930, p. 968; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(88).

§ 44-104. Care required and liability of officers.

All commissioned officers of the Virginia National Guard and Virginia Defense Force shall exercise the strictest care and vigilance for the preservation of the uniforms, arms, supplies, equipment and military property furnished to their several commands under the provisions of this chapter. Any officer receiving public property for military use shall be responsible for the articles so received by him; and he shall not transfer such property, or any portion thereof, to another, either as a loan or permanently, without the authority of the Adjutant General, or his duly authorized representative.

1930, p. 968; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(89); 1958, c. 393; 1984, c. 765; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-105. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-106. Upon disbandment of organization, or call into active federal service, commanding officer to return certain property to Adjutant General.

Upon the disbandment of any organization, or call into active federal service of such organization, which has received arms, supplies or equipment from the Adjutant General, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, the commanding officer of such organization shall be responsible for the safe return to the custody of the Adjutant General of all such public property in possession of the organization, except for such federally owned property that may be required by federal law to be retained by such organization in the federal service.

1930, p. 968; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(91); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-107. Use for private purposes forbidden.

No officer or enlisted person shall use, except upon military duty any article of military property belonging to the United States or to the Commonwealth.

1930, p. 969; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(92); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-108. Officers and enlisted persons personally liable for military property.

Every officer and enlisted person to whom any article of military property is delivered in pursuance of the provisions of this chapter shall be held personally responsible for its care, safekeeping, and return. He shall use the same for military purposes only, and upon receiving a discharge, or otherwise leaving the military service, or upon demand of his commanding officer or the Adjutant General, shall forthwith surrender and deliver such property in as good order and condition as the same was at the time he received it, reasonable fair wear and tear excepted. As insurance for compliance with the provisions of this chapter, the Adjutant General may require the bonding of any or all such officers or enlisted persons in an amount that he may deem appropriate, commensurate with the responsibilities of such officers or enlisted persons. The cost of such bonds shall be borne from funds appropriated for the operation of the Department of Military Affairs, and shall be without cost to the individual officer and/or enlisted person bonded.

1930, p. 969; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(93); 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-109. Punishment for injuries to military property.

Whoever shall willfully or maliciously destroy, injure, or deface any arms or articles of military property belonging to the United States or to the Commonwealth, or receive any property in violation of the preceding sections of this chapter, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be fined not exceeding double the amount of the value of the property so injured or defaced, or, in the discretion of the jury, be imprisoned in jail not less than two weeks nor more than two months.

1930, p. 969; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(94).

§ 44-110. Punishment for sale, etc., of military property.

Whoever shall secrete, sell, dispose of, offer for sale, or in any manner pawn or pledge, or receive in pawn or pledge, buy, or intentionally fail to return after having been legally discharged from the National Guard any of the arms, uniforms, or equipments, being the property of the United States or of the Commonwealth, knowing or having reason to believe the same to be the property of the United States or the Commonwealth, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof, be imprisoned in jail for not less than six months nor more than one year, or in the discretion of the jury or judge, be fined not less than $50 nor more than $1,000.

1930, p. 969; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(95); 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-111. Replacement of lost or damaged property.

Whenever any military property issued to the militia of the Commonwealth shall have been lost, damaged, or destroyed, and upon report of a disinterested survey officer of the armed forces or militia it shall appear that the loss, damage or destruction of property was due to carelessness or neglect, or that its loss, damage or destruction could have been avoided by the exercise of reasonable care, the money value of such property shall be charged against the bond of the officer or enlisted person, if bonded. If such officer or enlisted person is not bonded, the value of such property shall be charged to such officer or enlisted person, and the pay of such officer or enlisted person from both federal and state funds at any time accruing may be stopped and applied to the payment of any such indebtedness until the same is discharged. In addition thereto, any officer accountable or responsible for military property shall be liable on his bond to the Commonwealth and the United States Property and Fiscal Officer as accounting, accountable and responsible officer for any lost, damaged, or destroyed property for which he is accountable or responsible.

1930, p. 969; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(96); 1958, c. 393.

Article 12. Support of Militia.

§ 44-112. Requisition for federal funds.

The Governor or such other state officer as may be authorized by law, shall make requisition upon the Secretary of Defense, through the National Guard Bureau, for such state allotment from federal funds as may be necessary for the support of the militia and as may be authorized by the laws and regulations of the United States.

1930, p. 970; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(97); R. P. 1948, § 44-112; 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-113. County, city and town appropriations.

Counties, cities, and towns may appropriate such sums of money and real and personal property as they may deem proper to the various organizations of the National Guard or the Virginia Defense Force, when such organizations are maintained within the limits of the counties, cities, and towns respectively; and counties may appropriate such sums of money and real and personal property as they may deem proper to the various organizations of the National Guard if such organizations are maintained in any incorporated town or city of the second class located within the geographical limits of such counties respectively.

1930, p. 970; 1940, p. 54; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(98); R. P. 1948, § 44-113; 1958, c. 393; 2014, cc. 30, 547; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-114. Allowances made to organizations from state appropriations.

For the necessary expenses of the maintenance of the National Guard and the Virginia Defense Force, to include the providing of one flag of the Commonwealth of Virginia to the next of kin of any individual, upon his death, who was serving in, or honorably served for a period of 20 years in and retired from, the Virginia National Guard, the Virginia Defense Force, or a combination of both, the Adjutant General shall annually allot to each organization or unit such amounts as may in his judgment be advisable, and as may be available from the appropriation to the Department of Military Affairs, such allotment to be based upon such scheme of distribution as may appear equitable to the Adjutant General and best suited to the needs of the military forces of the Commonwealth.

1930, p. 970; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(99); R. P. 1948, § 44-114; 1999, c. 667; 2004, c. 12; 2013, cc. 150, 198; 2015, c. 221.

Article 12.1. Orders Inducting State Militia into Federal Service.

§ 44-114.1. Orders transmitted to and through the Governor.

All orders from the federal government or any of its officers, agencies, or departments to the state militia of Virginia, including the National Guard and the unorganized militia, that relate to the call, induction, or drafting of Virginia state troops of any type or description into the federal service for active duty or otherwise and withdrawing them from the control of the Governor of Virginia shall be first transmitted to and through the Governor of Virginia. The Governor, as commander in chief of the state militia, shall not approve, consent to, or concur in any such order that has not been transmitted as herein required.

1958, c. 540, § 1; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-114.2. Governor to be notified of receipt of order; no action taken until his instructions complied with.

If the Adjutant General of Virginia, or during his absence, any of his assistants, or anyone else in the Department of Military Affairs of the Commonwealth of Virginia, either in a civilian or military status, shall receive an order of the nature required in § 44-114.1 to be transmitted to the Governor, he shall immediately notify the Governor of Virginia of such receipt and the contents of this order by the most expeditious means, and no action shall be taken by anyone towards notifying the individuals of organizations of the Virginia militia of the contents of such orders or directions received from the federal government on this subject by any of its agencies or representatives until the Governor has been first advised and instructions from him have been complied with fully.

1958, c. 540, § 2.

§ 44-114.3. Orders void if transmitted to militia before Governor notified.

If the Adjutant General or anyone else in the Department of Military Affairs should receive such a message of the kind referred to in § 44-114.1 and fail to notify the Governor immediately, and subsequently transmits such orders, for the purpose of having such orders executed, to any personnel of the state militia, or to any person other than the Governor, then such order or orders shall be illegal, null and void.

1958, c. 540, § 3.

§ 44-114.4. Governor not prevented from drafting into state military service.

Nothing in this article shall prevent the Governor from drafting all citizens into the state military service if he may so desire in accordance with the military laws of Virginia.

1958, c. 540, § 4; 1973, c. 401.

Article 13. General Provisions.

§ 44-115. Custom and usage of United States army, air force and navy; applicability of §§ 44-40, 44-40.01 and Article 4 (§ 44-42 et seq.).

All matters relating to the organization, discipline and government of the Virginia National Guard, not otherwise provided for by law or by regulations, shall be decided by the custom and usage of the United States army, air force or navy, as appropriate. In addition, all members of the Virginia Defense Force and the unorganized militia on training duty or state active duty shall be subject to military discipline. Infractions of military discipline for the Virginia National Guard shall be punishable under the provisions of §§ 44-40 and 44-40.01 and Article 4 (§ 44-42 et seq.). Infractions of military discipline for the Virginia Defense Force and unorganized militia shall be punishable under the provisions of §§ 44-40 and 44-40.01.

1930, p. 970; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(100); 1964, c. 227; 1984, c. 765; 1989, c. 414; 2011, cc. 572, 586; 2015, c. 221; 2016, c. 339.

§ 44-116. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 572 and 586, cl. 2.

§ 44-117. Officers of Virginia Military Institute, the Virginia Women's Institute for Leadership at Mary Baldwin College, the Fishburne Military School, the Massanutten Military Academy, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to be officers of militia.

The officers of the Virginia Military Institute, the Virginia Women's Institute for Leadership at Mary Baldwin College, the Fishburne Military School, the Massanutten Military Academy, and the Commandant of Cadets and Assistant Commandants of Cadets of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University shall be commissioned officers of the Virginia militia, unorganized, and subject to the orders of the Governor and the same rules and regulations as to discipline provided for other commissioned officers of the military organizations of the Commonwealth. The Governor is authorized and directed to issue commissions to the professors, assistant professors and other officers of the Virginia Military Institute, the Fishburne Military School, the Massanutten Military Academy, and the Virginia Women's Institute for Leadership at Mary Baldwin College, according to the rank prescribed by those institutions; and to the Commandant of Cadets and Assistant Commandants of Cadets of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Such persons shall be eligible to receive and to continue to hold such commissions, regardless of age, for so long as they continue to be officers, professors or assistant professors of the Virginia Military Institute, the Virginia Women's Institute for Leadership at Mary Baldwin College, the Fishburne Military School, the Massanutten Military Academy, or the Commandant of Cadets or Assistant Commandants of Cadets of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The governing boards of each institution shall recommend to the Governor the rank to which such eligible persons shall be commissioned, but the following determination of such rank shall be made by the Governor. Commissions in such militia issued such persons by the Governor shall not entitle any person holding the same to any pay or emolument by reason thereof unless he be assigned to duty by order of the Governor with the Virginia National Guard; and in such event, the rank of such officer shall be relatively inferior to that of all other officers of the same grade in the Virginia National Guard.

1930, p. 970; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(102); 1958, c. 393; 1978, c. 384; 2001, c. 77; 2006, c. 123; 2007, c. 818.

§ 44-117.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1958, c. 393.

§ 44-119. Retired list of officers, warrant officers and enlisted persons.

There shall be a retired list of officers, warrant officers and enlisted persons of the Virginia National Guard.

The following persons, upon their written applications through regular military channels to the Adjutant General, may be placed on the retired list of the Virginia National Guard:

1. Former Adjutant Generals who have resigned or been relieved;

2. Officers or enlisted persons in the guard who have been honorably discharged and have served for at least ten years in active service of the guard, or ten years computing the period served in the Virginia National Guard and the period of active service in the United States armed forces.

Officers who have served honorably and efficiently in the Virginia National Guard or the Virginia militia shall be commissioned on the retired list of the Virginia militia, unorganized, in their respective grade, or the highest grade held by them in the military service of the Commonwealth, except that officers who have to their credit fifteen years or more of exemplary service may, at the discretion of the Adjutant General, be retired with commission of the next higher grade to the highest grade held by them in the military service of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Warrant officers and noncommissioned officers shall be placed on the retired list with the highest rank held by them in the Virginia National Guard.

Reentry into the active military service of the Commonwealth or of the United States shall discharge officers, warrant officers and enlisted persons from the retired list, and for any future retirement new application shall be made.

1930, p. 971; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(104); 1958, c. 393; 1983, c. 157; 2015, c. 221.

§ 44-120. Protection of the uniform.

It shall be unlawful for any person, not an officer, warrant officer or enlisted person in the armed forces of the United States, to wear the duly prescribed uniform thereof, or any distinctive part of such uniform, or a uniform any part of which is similar to a distinctive part of the duly prescribed uniform of the armed forces of the United States.

The foregoing provision shall not be construed so as to prevent officers, warrant officers or enlisted persons of the National Guard, nor to prevent members of the organization known as the Boy Scouts of America, or such other organizations as the Secretary of Defense may designate, from wearing their prescribed uniforms; nor to prevent persons who in time of war have served honorably as officers of the armed forces of the United States and whose most recent service was terminated by an honorable discharge, muster out, or resignation, from wearing, upon occasions of ceremony, the uniform of the highest grade they have held in such service; nor to prevent any person who has been honorably discharged from the armed forces of the United States from wearing his uniform from the place of his discharge to his home, within three months after his discharge; nor to prevent the members of military societies composed entirely of honorably discharged officers and enlisted persons, or both, of the armed forces of the United States from wearing, upon occasions of ceremony, the uniform duly prescribed by such societies to be worn by members thereof; nor to prevent the instructors and members of the duly organized cadet corps of any educational institution offering a regular course in military instruction from wearing the uniform duly prescribed by appropriate respective authority to be worn by instructors and members of such cadet corps; nor to prevent the instructors and members of such duly organized cadet corps of such institution of learning offering a regular course in military instruction and at which an officer, warrant officer or enlisted person of the armed forces of the United States is lawfully detailed for duty as instructor in military science and tactics, from wearing the uniform duly prescribed by appropriate authority to be worn by instructors and members of such cadet corps; nor to prevent civilians attending a course of military instruction authorized and conducted by the military authorities of the United States from wearing while attending such a course the uniform authorized and prescribed by such military authorities to be worn during such course of instruction; nor to prevent any person from wearing the uniform of the armed forces of the United States, in any playhouse or theater or in motion picture films or television while actually engaged in representing therein a military character not tending to bring discredit or reproach upon the armed forces of the United States.

The uniform worn by members of military societies, or the instructors and members of the cadet corps referred to in the preceding paragraph, shall include some distinctive mark or insignia approved by the Secretary of Defense, to distinguish such uniforms from the uniform of the armed forces of the United States. The members of the military societies and the instructors and members of the cadet corps hereinbefore mentioned shall not wear the insignia of rank prescribed to be worn by the officers of the armed forces of the United States, or any insignia of rank similar thereto, unless otherwise authorized.

Any person who offends against the provisions of this section shall, on conviction, be punished by a fine not exceeding $100, or by imprisonment not exceeding 30 days, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

1930, p. 971; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(105); 1958, c. 393; 2011, cc. 572, 586.

§ 44-120.1. Manufacture of Virginia military medals and decorations in United States.

Virginia military medals and decorations shall be made in the United States. Existing stocks of Virginia military medals and decorations which are of foreign origin may be consumed without violating the provisions of this act. All Virginia military medals and decorations shall have the words "Made in the USA" stamped on the reverse side. This act shall not limit the country of origin of United States military medals and decorations that are presented to members of the Virginia National Guard.

1999, c. 22.

§ 44-120.2. Commonwealth's Twenty marksmanship award.

There is hereby established the Commonwealth's Twenty marksmanship award to recognize the top 20 marksmen in Virginia. These top 20 marksmen shall be chosen from the Virginia state residents who compete at the annual Virginia State Championship matches sanctioned by the Virginia Shooting Sports Association (the Association). The award shall be administered by the Association and shall consist of (i) an enamel metal tab pin with gray background and white lettering, similar in style, shape, and size to the "President's Hundred" pin awarded by the United States Army; (ii) a fabric patch with hook and loop backing with a green background and black letters, similar in style, shape, and size to the "President's Hundred" patch awarded by the United States Army; and (iii) a certificate.

2015, c. 747; 2017, c. 224.

§ 44-121. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2009, c. 108, cl. 1.

§ 44-122. Citation of chapter.

This chapter may be cited as the "Military Laws of Virginia."

1930, p. 973; Michie Code 1942, § 2673(107).

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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