Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 45.2. Mines, Minerals, and Energy
Chapter 9. Requirements Applicable to Surface Coal Mines

Article 6. Surface Equipment.

§ 45.2-915. Haulage and mobile equipment; operating condition.

A. All mobile equipment shall be maintained in a safe operating condition.

B. Positive-acting stopblocks shall be used where necessary to protect persons from the danger of moving or runaway haulage equipment.

C. Where it is necessary for persons to cross conveyors regularly, suitable crossing facilities shall be provided.

D. No person shall get on or off moving equipment.

E. When the equipment operator is present, any person getting on or off mobile equipment shall notify the operator before doing so.

F. Mobile equipment shall not be left unattended unless the brakes are set. Mobile equipment with wheels or tracks, when parked on a grade, shall either be blocked or turned in to a bank unless the lowering of the bucket or blade to the ground will prevent movement and such bucket or blade is lowered.

G. No person shall work on or from a piece of mobile equipment in a raised position unless the equipment is specifically designed to lift a person.

H. Water, debris, or spilled materials that could create a hazard to moving equipment shall be removed.

I. Where seating facilities are provided on self-propelled mobile equipment, the operator shall be seated before such equipment is moved. No person shall be allowed to ride on top of self-propelled mobile equipment.

J. The operator of a piece of self-propelled haulage equipment shall sound a warning before he starts such equipment and as he approaches any place where a person is or is likely to be.

K. Each mantrip shall be operated independently under the charge of an authorized person.

L. Each mantrip shall be maintained in safe operating condition. Mantrips shall be provided in sufficient number to prevent any mantrip from becoming overloaded.

M. No employee shall board or leave a moving mantrip. Each employee shall remain seated while in a moving car and shall proceed in an orderly manner to and from a mantrip.

Code 1950, §§ 45-69.1 to 45-69.3, 45-69.5; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, §§ 45.1-71 to 45.1-74; 1979, c. 315; 1983, c. 70; 1985, cc. 296, 302; 1994, c. 28, § 45.1-161.268; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

§ 45.2-916. Equipment operation.

A. Equipment operating speeds, conditions, and characteristics shall be prudent and consistent with the conditions of the roadway, grade, clearance, visibility, and traffic and the type and use of equipment.

B. Any vehicle that follows another vehicle shall do so at a safe distance; passing shall be limited to areas of adequate clearance and visibility.

C. Mobile equipment shall be operated under power control at all times and each mobile equipment operator shall have full control of the equipment while in motion.

D. Before starting or moving equipment, an equipment operator shall be certain by signal or other means that all persons are clear.

1994, c. 28, § 45.1-161.269; 1999, c. 256; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

§ 45.2-917. Safety measures on equipment.

A. Every rubber-tired or crawler-mounted piece of equipment shall have a rollover protective structure to the extent required by 30 C.F.R. § 77.403-1.

B. Each seat belt provided in mobile equipment shall be maintained in safe working condition. Every operator of such equipment shall wear a seat belt when the equipment is in motion.

C. Mobile equipment shall be equipped with adequate brakes and parking brakes.

D. Cab windows shall be of safe design, kept in good condition, and clean for adequate visibility.

E. Any tire shall be deflated before any repair on it is started, and adequate means shall be provided to prevent wheel-locking rims from creating a hazard during tire inflation.

F. An audible warning device and headlights shall be provided on each piece of self-propelled mobile equipment.

G. An automatic backup alarm that is audible above surrounding noise levels shall be provided on each piece of mobile equipment. An automatic reverse-activated strobe light may be substituted for an audible alarm when mobile equipment is operated at night.

H. Each piece of equipment that is raised for repairs or other work shall be securely blocked before any person positions himself where the falling of such equipment could create a hazardous condition.

Code 1950, § 45-69.1; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, § 45.1-73; 1979, c. 315; 1983, c. 70; 1985, c. 302; 1994, c. 28, § 45.1-161.270; 1996, c. 774; 1999, c. 256; 2005, c. 3; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

§ 45.2-918. Transportation of personnel.

No person shall be permitted to ride or otherwise be transported (i) on or in a dipper, shovel, bucket, fork, or clamshell; (ii) on or in the cargo space of a dump truck; (iii) outside the cab or bed of a piece of heavy equipment; or (iv) on or in a chain, belt, or bucket conveyor, unless the item described in clauses (i) through (iv) is specifically designed to transport persons.

1994, c. 28, § 45.1-161.271; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

§ 45.2-919. Lighting.

A. Lights shall be provided on or in surface structures as needed.

B. Roads, paths, and walks outside of surface structures shall be kept free from obstructions and shall be well-illuminated if used at night.

1966, c. 594, § 45.1-38; 1994, c. 28, § 45.1-161.272; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

§ 45.2-920. Shop and other equipment.

A. The following shall be guarded and maintained adequately:

1. Gears, sprockets, pulleys, fan blades or propellers, friction devices, and couplings with protruding bolts or nuts.

2. Shafting and projecting shaft ends that are within seven feet of the floor or the platform level.

3. Belt, chain, or rope drives that are within seven feet of the floor or the platform.

4. Fly wheels. Any fly wheel that extends more than seven feet above the floor shall be guarded to a height of at least seven feet.

5. Circular and band saws and planers.

6. Repair pits. Guards shall be kept in place when a pit is not in use.

7. Counterweights.

8. Mine fans. The approach to any mine fan shall be guarded.

9. Lighting and other electrical equipment that could create a shock hazard or cause personal injury.

B. No machinery shall be repaired or oiled while in motion unless a safe remote oiling device is used.

C. A guard or safety device that is removed from any machine shall be replaced before the machine is put in operation.

D. Every mechanically operated grinding wheel shall be equipped with:

1. Safety washers and tool rests;

2. A substantial retaining hood, the hood opening of which shall not expose more than a 90-degree sector of the wheel. Each such hood shall include a device to control and collect excess rock, metal, or dust particles. If no such device is provided, equivalent protection shall be provided to each employee operating such machinery; and

3. Eyeshields, unless goggles are worn by the operator.

E. The operator or his agent shall develop proper procedures for examining for potential hazards, completing maintenance, and operating each type of centrifugal pump. The procedures shall, at a minimum, address the manufacturers' recommendations for start-up and shutdown of each type of pump, the proper actions to be taken when a pump is suspected of overheating, the safe location of start and stop switches, and the actions to be taken when signs of structural metal fatigue, such as cracks in the frame, damaged cover mounting brackets, or missing bolts or other components, are detected. Every miner who repairs, maintains, or operates any such pump shall be trained in these procedures.

Code 1950, § 45-85.3; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, § 45.1-88; 1978, c. 118; 1994, c. 28, § 45.1-161.273; 2005, c. 3; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

§ 45.2-921. Hydraulic hoses.

Every hydraulic hose that is used on equipment shall have the hydraulic hose manufacturer's rated pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) permanently affixed on the outer surface of the hose and repeated at least every two feet. Every hose installed on an automatic displacement hydraulic system shall either (i) have a four-to-one safety factor based on the ratio between minimum burst pressure and the setting of the hydraulic unloading system, such as a relief valve, or (ii) meet the minimum hose pressure requirements set by the hydraulic equipment manufacturer per the applicable hose standards for each type of equipment. No hydraulic hose shall be used in an application where the hydraulic unloading system is set higher than the hose's rated pressure.

1985, c. 612, § 45.1-88.1; 1988, c. 301; 1994, c. 28, § 45.1-161.274; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.