Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 54.1. Professions and Occupations
Subtitle III. Professions and Occupations Regulated by Boards within the Department of Health Professions
Chapter 28. Funeral Services
11/29/2022

Chapter 28. Funeral Services.

Article 1. Board of Funeral Directors and Embalmers.

§ 54.1-2800. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Advertisement" means any information disseminated or placed before the public.

"At-need" means at the time of death or while death is imminent.

"Board" means the Board of Funeral Directors and Embalmers.

"Cremate" means to reduce a dead human body to ashes and bone fragments by the action of fire.

"Cremator" means a person or establishment that owns or operates a crematory or crematorium or cremates dead human bodies.

"Crematory" or "crematorium" means a facility containing a furnace for cremation of dead human bodies.

"Embalmer" means any person engaged in the practice of embalming.

"Embalming" means the process of chemically treating the dead human body by arterial injection and cavity treatment or, when necessary, hypodermic tissue injection to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms to temporarily retard organic decomposition.

"Funeral directing" means the for-profit profession of directing or supervising funerals, preparing human dead for burial by means other than embalming, or making arrangements for funeral services or the financing of funeral services.

"Funeral director" means any person engaged in the practice of funeral directing.

"Funeral service establishment" means any main establishment, branch, or chapel that is permanently affixed to the real estate and for which a certificate of occupancy has been issued by the local building official where any part of the profession of funeral directing, the practice of funeral services, or the act of embalming is performed.

"Funeral service intern" means a person who is preparing to be licensed for the practice of funeral services under the direct supervision of a practitioner licensed by the Board.

"Funeral service licensee" means a person who is licensed in the practice of funeral services.

"In-person communication" means face-to-face communication and telephonic communication.

"Next of kin" means any of the following persons, regardless of the relationship to the decedent: any person designated to make arrangements for the disposition of the decedent's remains upon his death pursuant to § 54.1-2825, the legal spouse, child aged 18 years or older, parent of a decedent aged 18 years or older, custodial parent or noncustodial parent of a decedent younger than 18 years of age, siblings over 18 years of age, guardian of minor child, guardian of minor siblings, maternal grandparents, paternal grandparents, maternal siblings over 18 years of age and paternal siblings over 18 years of age, or any other relative in the descending order of blood relationship.

"Practice of funeral services" means engaging in the care and disposition of the human dead, the preparation of the human dead for the funeral service, burial or cremation, the making of arrangements for the funeral service or for the financing of the funeral service and the selling or making of financial arrangements for the sale of funeral supplies to the public.

"Preneed" means at any time other than at-need.

"Preneed funeral contract" means any agreement where payment is made by the consumer prior to the receipt of services or supplies contracted for, which evidences arrangements prior to death for (i) the providing of funeral services or (ii) the sale of funeral supplies.

"Preneed funeral planning" means the making of arrangements prior to death for (i) the providing of funeral services or (ii) the sale of funeral supplies.

"Solicitation" means initiating contact with consumers with the intent of influencing their selection of a funeral plan or funeral service provider.

Code 1950, § 54-260.1; 1956, c. 220; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.67; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 684; 1991, c. 539; 1997, c. 116; 1998, cc. 718, 867; 2003, c. 505; 2006, c. 56; 2015, cc. 534, 670.

§ 54.1-2801. Exemptions.

A. The provisions of this chapter shall not apply to any officer of local or state institutions or to the burial of the bodies of inmates of state institutions when buried at the expense of the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions.

B. Any person holding a license as a funeral director or embalmer or an equivalent in another state, having substantially similar requirements as the Board, may apply to the Board for courtesy card privileges to remove bodies from and to arrange funerals or embalm bodies in this Commonwealth. However, these privileges shall not include the right to establish or engage generally in the business of funeral directing and embalming in Virginia.

Code 1950, §§ 54-260.1, 54-260.22 through 54-260.30, 54-260.32; 1956, c. 220; 1966, c. 284, § 54-260.70; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.67; 1973, c. 296; 1974, c. 686; 1978, c. 849; 1986, c. 43; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-2802. Board; appointment; terms; vacancies; meetings; quorum.

The Board of Funeral Directors and Embalmers shall consist of nine members as follows: seven funeral service licensees of the Board with at least five consecutive years of funeral service practice in the Commonwealth immediately prior to appointment and two nonlegislative citizen members. The terms of office shall be for four years from July 1. Appointments shall be made annually on or before June 30 as the terms of the members respectively expire. Appointments to the Board should generally represent the geographical areas of the Commonwealth. The Board shall annually elect a president, a vice-president, and a secretary-treasurer.

The Board shall hold at least two meetings each year. In addition, the Board may meet as often as its duties require. Five members shall constitute a quorum.

1988, cc. 42, 765; 2000, c. 773; 2015, c. 534.

§ 54.1-2803. Specific powers and duties of Board.

In addition to the general powers and duties conferred in this subtitle, the Board shall have the following specific powers and duties to:

1. Establish standards of service and practice for the funeral service profession in the Commonwealth.

2. Regulate and inspect funeral service establishments, their operation and licenses.

3. Require licensees and funeral service interns to submit all information relevant to their practice or business.

4. Enforce the relevant regulations of the Board of Health.

5. Enforce local ordinances relating to funeral service establishments.

6. Advise the Department of Health Professions of any training appropriate for inspectors serving as the Board's agents.

7. Establish, supervise, regulate and control, in accordance with the law, programs for funeral service interns.

8. Establish standards for and approve schools of mortuary science or funeral service.

9. Regulate preneed funeral contracts and preneed funeral trust accounts as prescribed by this chapter, including, but not limited to, the authority to prescribe preneed contract forms, disclosure requirements and disclosure forms and to require reasonable bonds to insure performance of preneed contracts.

10. Inspect crematories and their operations.

Code 1950, §§ 54-260.3, 54-260.4, 54-260.6, 54-260.7, 54-260.11 through 54-260.14, 54-260.16 through 54-260.18, 54-260.20, 54-260.21, 54-260.45 through 54-260.49; 1956, c. 220; 1960, c. 61, § 54-260.69; 1966, c. 283, § 54-260.65; 1970, c. 385; 1972, c. 797, §§ 54-260.64, 54-260.68; 1978, c. 849; 1979, c. 650; 1980, c. 728; 1984, cc. 627, 704; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 684; 2000, c. 773; 2003, c. 505; 2006, c. 56.

§ 54.1-2804. Licensing authority.

The Board is authorized to determine the qualifications to enable any person to engage in the practice of funeral service, preneed funeral planning, funeral directing, embalming and the operation of a funeral service establishment. The Board shall promulgate regulations that establish the requirements of licensure for funeral directors and embalmers.

Code 1950, § 54-260.70; Code 1950, §§ 54-260.22 through 54-260.30, 54-260.32; 1956, c. 220; 1966, c. 284, § 54-260.70; 1972, c. 797; 1973, c. 296; 1974, c. 686; 1978, c. 849; 1986, c. 43; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 684; 2020, c. 943.

§ 54.1-2805. Engaging in the practice of funeral services or the business of preneed funeral planning or acting as a funeral director or embalmer without a license.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to engage in or hold himself out as engaging in the practice of funeral services or the business of preneed funeral planning, to operate a funeral service establishment, or to act as a funeral director or embalmer or hold himself out as such unless he is licensed by the Board. Engaging in the practice of funeral services, preneed funeral planning, operating a funeral service establishment, or acting as a funeral director or embalmer shall be recognized as that of a health profession.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, a person who is duly enrolled in a mortuary education program in the Commonwealth may assist in embalming while under the immediate supervision of a funeral service licensee or embalmer with an active, unrestricted license issued by the Board, provided that such embalming occurs in a funeral service establishment licensed by the Board and in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board.

1974, c. 257, § 54-260.73:1; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 684; 2000, c. 773; 2018, c. 186.

§ 54.1-2806. Refusal, suspension, or revocation of license, registration, or courtesy card.

A. As used in this section, "license" shall include any license, registration, or courtesy card issued by the Board.

B. The Board may refuse to admit a candidate to any examination, refuse to issue a license to any applicant and may suspend a license for a stated period or indefinitely, or revoke any license or censure or reprimand any licensee or place him on probation for such time as it may designate for any of the following causes:

1. Conviction of any felony or any crime involving moral turpitude;

2. Unprofessional conduct that is likely to defraud or to deceive the public or clients;

3. Misrepresentation or fraud in the conduct of the funeral service profession, or in obtaining or renewing a license;

4. False or misleading advertising or solicitation;

5. Solicitation at-need or any preneed solicitation using in-person communication by the licensee, his agents, assistants or employees; however, general advertising and preneed solicitation, other than in-person communication, shall be allowed;

6. Employment by the licensee of persons known as "cappers" or "steerers," or "solicitors," or other such persons to obtain the services of a holder of a license for the practice of funeral service;

7. Employment directly or indirectly of any agent, employee or other person, on part or full time, or on a commission, for the purpose of calling upon individuals or institutions by whose influence dead human bodies may be turned over to a particular funeral establishment;

8. Direct or indirect payment or offer of payment of a commission to others by the licensee, his agents, or employees for the purpose of securing business;

9. Use of alcohol or drugs to the extent that such use renders him unsafe to practice his licensed activity;

10. Aiding or abetting an unlicensed person to practice within the funeral service profession;

11. Using profane, indecent, or obscene language within the immediate hearing of the family or relatives of a deceased, whose body has not yet been interred or otherwise disposed of;

12. Solicitation or acceptance by a licensee of any commission or bonus or rebate in consideration of recommending or causing a dead human body to be disposed of in any crematory, mausoleum, or cemetery;

13. Violation of any statute, ordinance, or regulation affecting the handling, custody, care, or transportation of dead human bodies;

14. Refusing to surrender promptly the custody of a dead human body upon the express order of the person lawfully entitled to custody;

15. Knowingly making any false statement on a certificate of death;

16. Violation of any provisions of Chapter 7 (§ 32.1-249 et seq.) of Title 32.1;

17. Failure to comply with § 54.1-2812, and to keep on file an itemized statement of funeral expenses in accordance with Board regulations;

18. Knowingly disposing of parts of human remains, including viscera, that are received with the body by the funeral establishment, in a manner different from that used for final disposition of the body, unless the persons authorizing the method of final disposition give written permission that the body parts may be disposed of in a manner different from that used to dispose of the body;

19. Violating or failing to comply with Federal Trade Commission rules regulating funeral industry practices;

20. Violating or cooperating with others to violate any provision of Chapter 1 (§ 54.1-100 et seq.), Chapter 24 (§ 54.1-2400 et seq.), this chapter, or the regulations of the Board of Funeral Directors and Embalmers or the Board of Health;

21. Failure to comply with the reporting requirements as set forth in § 54.1-2817 for registered funeral service interns;

22. Failure to provide proper and adequate supervision and training instruction to registered funeral service interns as required by regulations of the Board;

23. Violating any statute or regulation of the Board regarding the confidentiality of information pertaining to the deceased or the family of the deceased or permitting access to the body in a manner that is contrary to the lawful instructions of the next-of-kin of the deceased;

24. Failure to include, as part of the general price list for funeral services, a disclosure statement notifying the next of kin that certain funeral services may be provided off-premises by other funeral service providers;

25. Disciplinary action against a license, certificate, or registration issued by another state, the District of Columbia, or territory or possession of the United States;

26. Failure to ensure that a dead human body is maintained in refrigeration at no more than approximately 40 degrees Fahrenheit or embalmed if it is to be stored for more than 48 hours prior to disposition. A dead human body shall be maintained in refrigeration and shall not be embalmed in the absence of express permission by a next of kin of the deceased or a court order; and

27. Mental or physical incapacity to practice his profession with safety to the public.

Code 1950, §§ 54-260.50, 54-260.59; 1956, c. 220; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.74; 1979, c. 720; 1981, c. 258; 1986, c. 91; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 684; 1990, c. 363; 1996, c. 142; 2003, c. 505; 2006, c. 56; 2010, c. 324; 2015, c. 534; 2020, c. 885.

§ 54.1-2807. Other prohibited activities.

A. A person licensed for the practice of funeral service shall not (i) remove or embalm a body when he has information indicating the death was such that an investigation by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner is required pursuant to § 32.1-283 or 32.1-285.1 or (ii) cremate or bury at sea a body until he has obtained permission of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner as required by § 32.1-309.3.

B. Except as provided in § 32.1-301 and Chapter 8.1 (§ 32.1-309.1 et seq.) of Title 32.1, funeral service establishments shall not accept a dead human body from any public officer, except the Chief Medical Examiner, an Assistant Chief Medical Examiner, or a medical examiner appointed pursuant to § 32.1-282, or from any public or private facility or person having a professional relationship with the decedent without having first inquired about the desires of the next of kin and the persons liable for the funeral expenses of the decedent. The authority and directions of any next of kin shall govern the disposal of the body, subject to the provisions of § 54.1-2807.01 or 54.1-2825.

Any funeral service establishment violating this subsection shall not charge for any service delivered without the directions of the next of kin. However, in cases of accidental or violent death, the funeral service establishment may charge and be reimbursed for the removal of bodies and rendering necessary professional services until the next of kin or the persons liable for the funeral expenses have been notified.

C. No company, corporation, or association engaged in the business of paying or providing for the payment of the expenses for the care of the remains of deceased certificate holders or members or engaged in providing life insurance when the contract might or could give rise to an obligation to care for the remains of the insured shall contract to pay or pay any benefits to any licensee of the Board or other individual in a manner which could restrict the freedom of choice of the representative or next of kin of a decedent in procuring necessary and proper services and supplies for the care of the remains of the decedent.

D. No person licensed for the practice of funeral service or preneed funeral planning or any of his agents shall interfere with the freedom of choice of the general public in the choice of persons or establishments for the care of human remains or of preneed funeral planning or preneed funeral contracts.

E. This section shall not be construed to apply to the authority of any administrator, executor, trustee, or other person having a fiduciary relationship with the decedent.

Code 1950, §§ 54-260.50, 54-260.59; 1956, c. 220; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.74; 1979, c. 720; 1981, c. 258; 1986, c. 91; 1988, c. 765; 1989, c. 684; 1993, c. 965; 2005, c. 905; 2010, c. 383; 2014, cc. 228, 583.

§ 54.1-2807.01. When next of kin disagree.

A. In the absence of a designation under § 54.1-2825, when there is a disagreement among a decedent's next of kin concerning the arrangements for his funeral or the disposition of his remains, any of the next of kin may petition the circuit court where the decedent resided at the time of his death to determine which of the next of kin shall have the authority to make arrangements for the decedent's funeral or the disposition of his remains. The court may require notice to and the convening of such of the next of kin as it deems proper.

B. In determining the matter before it, the court shall consider the expressed wishes, if any, of the decedent, the legal and factual relationship between or among the disputing next of kin and between each of the disputing next of kin and the decedent, and any other factor the court considers relevant to determine who should be authorized to make the arrangements for the decedent's funeral or the disposition of his remains.

2010, c. 383.

§ 54.1-2807.02. Absence of next of kin.

In the absence of a next of kin, a person designated to make arrangements for the decedent's burial or the disposition of his remains pursuant to § 54.1-2825, an agent named in an advance directive pursuant to § 54.1-2984, or any guardian appointed pursuant to Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) of Title 64.2 who may exercise the powers conferred in the order of appointment or by § 64.2-2019, or upon the failure or refusal of such next of kin, designated person, agent, or guardian to accept responsibility for the disposition of the decedent, then any other person 18 years of age or older who is able to provide positive identification of the deceased and is willing to pay for the costs associated with the disposition of the decedent's remains shall be authorized to make arrangements for such disposition of the decedent's remains. If a funeral service establishment or funeral service licensee makes arrangements with a person other than a next of kin, designated person, agent, or guardian in accordance with this section, then the funeral service licensee or funeral service establishment shall be immune from civil liability unless such act, decision, or omission resulted from bad faith or malicious intent.

2014, c. 355.

§ 54.1-2807.1. Confidentiality of information on infectious diseases.

All information received by any person practicing funeral services or his agent regarding the fact that any dead body which they have received harbors an infectious disease shall be confidential, and disclosure of such information shall be grounds for disciplinary action against the funeral service licensee pursuant to § 54.1-2806.

Notification that a dead body harbors an infectious disease will not constitute grounds for any funeral director's refusal to accept the body.

1988, c. 836, § 54-260.74:2.

§ 54.1-2808. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 867.

§ 54.1-2808.1. Disposition of cremains.

Except as otherwise provided in § 54.1-2808.2, a funeral director may dispose of the cremains of an individual by interment, entombment, inurnment, or by scattering of the cremains, if after 120 days from the date of cremation, the contracting agent has not claimed the cremains or instructed the funeral director as to final disposition. The funeral director shall keep a permanent record of all cremains which identifies the method and site of final disposition. The costs and all reasonable expenses incurred in disposing of the cremains shall be borne by the contracting agent. Upon the disposition of the cremains, the funeral director shall not be liable for the cremains or for the method of final disposition. Except as otherwise provided in § 54.1-2808.2, any funeral director in possession of unclaimed cremains prior to July 1, 1993, may dispose of such cremains in accordance with the provisions of this section. However, no funeral director shall, without written permission of the contracting agent, dispose of cremains in a manner or a location in which the cremains of the deceased are commingled, except in the scattering of cremains at sea, by air, or in an area used exclusively for such purpose, or place, temporarily, the cremains of persons in the same container or urn.

For the purposes of this section and § 54.1-2808.2, "contracting agent" means any person, organization, association, institution, or group of persons who contracts with a funeral director or funeral establishment for funeral services.

1993, c. 531; 2012, cc. 24, 120; 2015, c. 138.

§ 54.1-2808.2. Identification of unclaimed cremains of veterans and eligible dependents.

A. For the purposes of this section:

"Eligible dependent" means a veteran's spouse, a veteran's unmarried child younger than 21 years of age, or veteran's unmarried adult child who before the age of 21 became permanently incapable of self-support because of physical or mental disability.

"Veterans service organization" means an association or other entity organized for the benefit of veterans that has been recognized by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs or chartered by Congress and any employee or representative of such association or entity.

B. If the contracting agent has not claimed the cremains or instructed the funeral director as to final disposition within 90 days from the date of cremation, the funeral director shall provide names and any other identifying information of the unclaimed cremains to the Department of Veterans Services or a veterans service organization in order for the Department or organization to determine if the unclaimed cremains are those of a veteran or eligible dependent. The names and any personal identifying information submitted by a funeral director to the Department of Veterans Services or veterans service organization in compliance with this section shall be exempt from disclosure under the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

C. The Department of Veterans Services or veterans service organization shall notify the funeral director within 45 days of receipt of the information required by subsection B if the cremains are those of a veteran or eligible dependent and, if so, whether such veteran or eligible dependent is eligible for burial in a veterans cemetery in order to permit the transfer of the unclaimed cremains to a veterans cemetery. If the cremains are those of an eligible veteran or eligible dependent, a funeral director may transfer the cremains to the Department of Veterans Services or a veterans service organization for the purpose of disposition of such cremains.

D. No disposal of the unclaimed cremains of an eligible veteran or eligible dependent shall be made until the funeral director has notified the Department of Veterans Services or a veterans service organization and has received a determination as to whether the cremains are those of an eligible veteran or eligible dependent. Absent bad faith or malicious intent, no funeral director who transfers the cremains of a veteran or eligible dependent to the Department of Veterans Services or a veterans service organization for purposes of disposition or a veterans service organization that receives cremains for the purposes of disposition as provided in this section shall be liable for civil negligence.

2012, cc. 24, 120; 2015, c. 138.

§ 54.1-2808.3. Acceptance of third-party-provided caskets.

A. When arrangements for funeral services have been made with a licensed funeral service establishment, funeral service licensees shall accept caskets provided by third parties in accordance with 16 C.F.R. Part 453, Funeral Industry Practices, Federal Trade Commission.

B. No funeral service establishment or funeral service licensee shall be required to store a casket provided by a third party when preneed arrangements for funeral services have been made.

C. Any person selling or providing preneed caskets shall be subject to the same preneed requirements as set forth in 16 C.F.R. Part 453, Funeral Industry Practices, Federal Trade Commission, and § 54.1-2820.

2018, c. 378; 2019, cc. 93, 603; 2020, c. 97.

§ 54.1-2809. Penalties.

Any person, partnership, corporation, association, or its agents or employees who violate any of the provisions of this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 54-260.61; 1956, c. 220; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.75; 1988, c. 765.

Article 2. Licensure of Funeral Establishments.

§ 54.1-2810. Licensure of funeral establishments.

No person shall conduct, maintain, manage or operate a funeral establishment unless a license for each such establishment has been issued by the Board. No license to operate a funeral establishment shall be issued by the Board unless each such funeral establishment has in charge, full time, a person licensed for the practice of funeral service or a licensed funeral director. Applications for funeral establishment licenses shall be made on forms furnished by the Board and filed by the owner or the registered agent of the corporation with the Board.

Each funeral establishment license shall expire annually at a time prescribed by Board regulation. A license may be renewed within 30 days of its expiration. Upon expiration of the license, the Board shall notify each licensee of the provisions of this section. Renewal of a license after the expiration of the 30-day period shall be in the discretion of the Board.

Violations of any provisions of this chapter or any Board regulations by any person, or an officer, agent or employee with the knowledge or consent of any person operating a funeral establishment shall be considered sufficient cause for suspension or revocation of the funeral establishment license.

An operator of a funeral establishment shall not allow any person licensed for the practice of funeral service to operate out of his funeral establishment unless the licensee is the operator or an employee of the operator of a licensed funeral establishment.

If the manager of the funeral service establishment is unable, for any reason, to exercise adequate supervision, direction, management, and control of the funeral establishment, the owner shall designate any funeral service licensee to serve as a temporary manager and notify the Board in writing within 14 days. If such inability of the manager exceeds 90 days or is expected to exceed 90 days, a new manager shall be designated and registered with the Board. At the conclusion of the 90-day period for designation of a new manager, a funeral service establishment which has failed to designate a new manager shall not operate as a funeral service establishment.

When licensing funeral establishments, the Board may grant a hardship waiver from the requirement for a full-time manager licensed for the practice of funeral service or licensed as a funeral director, allowing the operation of two funeral establishments having in charge one full-time person licensed for the practice of funeral service or one licensed funeral director who divides his time between the two funeral establishments. Prior to granting a hardship waiver, the Board shall find that (i) the two establishments have been in operation for at least three years; (ii) the combined average number of funeral calls at the two establishments, as submitted in monthly reports to the Division of Vital Records and Health Statistics of the Virginia Department of Health, over the previous three years is no more than 135 per year; and (iii) the distance between the two establishments is 50 miles or less.

Prior to granting a renewal of a license granted under a hardship waiver, the Board shall determine whether the requirements for license renewal under such waiver continue to exist.

Code 1950, §§ 54-260.39, 54-260.40; 1956, c. 220; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.73; 1974, 164; 1978, c. 849; 1988, c. 765; 1996, c. 757; 2000, c. 773; 2013, c. 108; 2019, c. 66.

§ 54.1-2811. Facility requirements.

A funeral service establishment shall contain a preparation room equipped with a tile, cement or other waterproof floor, proper drainage and ventilation, the necessary instruments and supplies for the preparation and embalming of dead human bodies for burial, transportation or other disposition, and separate restroom facilities.

A funeral service establishment having more than one location at which it performs funeral services shall not be required to maintain more than one preparation room.

The Board may adopt regulations and classifications to prescribe proper drainage and ventilation and necessary instruments and supplies in preparation rooms and separate restroom facilities.

Code 1950, §§ 54-260.39, 54-260.40; 1956, c. 220; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.73; 1974, 164; 1978, c. 849; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-2811.1. Handling and storage of human remains.

A. Upon taking custody of a dead human body, a funeral service establishment shall maintain such body in a manner that provides complete coverage of the body and that is resistant to leakage or spillage, except during embalming or preparation of an unembalmed body for final disposition; restoration and dressing of a body in preparation for final disposition; and viewing during any visitation and funeral service.

B. If a dead human body is to be stored for more than 48 hours prior to disposition, a funeral services establishment having custody of such body shall ensure that the dead human body is maintained in refrigeration at no more than approximately 40 degrees Fahrenheit or embalmed. A dead human body shall be maintained in refrigeration and shall not be embalmed in the absence of express permission by a next of kin of the deceased or a court order.

C. If a dead human body is to be stored for more than 10 days prior to disposition at a location other than a funeral service establishment, the funeral service establishment shall disclose to the contract buyer the location where the body is to be stored and the method of storage.

D. Funeral services establishments, crematories, or transportation services shall not transport animal remains together with dead human bodies. Further, animal remains shall not be refrigerated in a unit where dead human bodies are being stored.

2010, c. 823.

§ 54.1-2812. Itemized statement and general price list of funeral expenses to be furnished.

Every person licensed pursuant to the provisions of this chapter shall furnish a written general price list and a written itemized statement of charges in connection with the care and disposition of the body of a deceased person.

Individuals inquiring in person about funeral arrangements or the prices of funeral goods shall be given the general price list. Upon beginning discussion of funeral arrangements or the selection of any funeral goods or services, the general price list must be offered by the funeral licensee.

The itemized statement shall include, but not be limited to, the following charges: casket, other funeral merchandise, vault or other burial receptacle, facilities used, transportation costs, embalming, preparation of the body, other professional services used and disclosure statements required by the Federal Trade Commission, which shall be set forth in a clear and conspicuous manner.

Further, there shall be included a statement of all anticipated cash advances and expenditures requested by the person contracting for the funeral arrangements and such other items as required by regulation of the Board of Funeral Directors and Embalmers. The statement shall be furnished to the person contracting for funeral arrangements at the time such arrangements are made if the person is present and, if not present, no later than the time of the final disposition of the body.

The general price list and itemized statement of funeral expenses shall comply with forms prescribed by regulation of the Board. All regulations promulgated herewith shall promote the purposes of this section.

1979, c. 8, § 54-260.71:1; 1986, c. 42; 1988, c. 765.

Article 3. Licensure of the Practice of Funeral Service, Funeral Directors and Embalmers.

§ 54.1-2813. License for the practice of funeral service.

To be licensed for the practice of funeral service, a person shall (i) be at least 18 years of age; (ii) hold a high school diploma or its equivalent; (iii) have completed a funeral service internship prescribed by the Board in regulation; (iv) have graduated from a school of mortuary science or funeral service approved by the Board; and (v) have passed the examination for licensure.

The Board, in its discretion, may license an individual convicted of a felony if he has successfully fulfilled all conditions of sentencing, been pardoned, or has had his civil rights restored.

The Board, in its discretion, may refuse to license an individual who has a criminal or disciplinary proceeding pending against him in any jurisdiction in the United States.

Code 1950, § 54-260.70; Code 1950, §§ 54-260.22 through 54-260.30, 54-260.32; 1956, c. 220; 1966, c. 284, § 54-260.70; 1972, c. 797; 1973, c. 296; 1974, c. 686; 1978, c. 849; 1986, c. 43; 1988, c. 765; 1990, c. 363; 2005, c. 477; 2006, c. 56.

§ 54.1-2814. Examination.

Each applicant for license for the practice of funeral service shall be examined in writing on:

1. Basic and health sciences including anatomy, chemistry, bacteriology, pathology, hygiene and public health;

2. Funeral service arts and sciences including embalming and restorative art;

3. Funeral service administration including accounting, funeral law, psychology, and funeral principles, directing and management.

The Board may recognize other examinations that it considers equivalent to its examination.

Code 1950, § 54-260.70; Code 1950, §§ 54-260.22 through 54-260.30, 54-260.32; 1956, c. 220; 1966, c. 284, § 54-260.70; 1972, c. 797; 1973, c. 296; 1974, c. 686; 1978, c. 849; 1986, c. 43; 1988, c. 765; 2000, c. 773.

§ 54.1-2814.1. Registration as a cremator.

A. No crematorium, cemeterian, memorial society, or other establishment, organization, or person shall cremate a dead human body without having registered with the Board as a cremator.

B. The Board shall prescribe the procedures for registration under this section. Such procedures shall include a requirement that any crematory registered with the Board that engages in the practice of funeral services operate in compliance with the provisions § 54.1-2810. However, nothing in this subsection shall require a crematory registered with the Board to obtain a license as a funeral service establishment as long as the crematory provides cremation services directly to or for a licensed funeral service establishment only and not to the general public.

C. The Board may suspend or revoke any crematory registration or deny any application for such registration, or refuse to issue or renew any such registration, if the Board finds that the applicant or registrant has violated any provision of this chapter, the Board's regulations, or if the Board finds the crematory has operated or is operating in a manner that endangers the health, safety or welfare of the public.

2000, c. 773; 2003, c. 505.

§ 54.1-2815. Application for license; how license signed; duration.

All applications for examination for a license for the practice of funeral service shall be upon forms furnished by the Board.

All licenses shall be issued or renewed for a period prescribed by the Board, not exceeding two years.

1978, c. 849, § 54-260.70:1; 1988, c. 765; 2015, c. 534.

§ 54.1-2816. License renewal; failure to return renewal form.

Prior to the expiration of a license, the Board shall provide to each person licensed to practice funeral service, embalming, or funeral directing a renewal notice to be submitted to the Board together with the prescribed fee. The Board shall provide renewal notices by mail or electronically to any licensee. The license of any person who does not submit the completed form prior to the date of expiration shall automatically expire. The Board shall immediately notify the person of the expiration and the reinstatement requirements. The Board shall reinstate an expired license upon receipt, within 30 days of the notice of expiration, of the completed form and the prescribed fee. Reinstatement after the 30-day period shall be at the discretion of the Board.

1978, c. 849, § 54-260.70:2; 1988, c. 765; 2005, c. 477; 2018, c. 101.

§ 54.1-2816.1. Continuing education requirements; promulgation of regulations.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations governing continuing education requirements for funeral services licensees, funeral directors, and embalmers licensed by the Board.

B. The Board shall approve criteria for continuing education courses, requiring no more than five hours per year, that are directly related to the respective license and scope of practice of funeral service licensees, funeral directors, and embalmers. Approved continuing education courses shall include one hour per year covering compliance with federal or state laws and regulations governing the profession or one hour per year covering preneed funeral arrangements, provided that at least one hour of continuing education in preneed is completed every three years. Course providers may be required to register continuing education courses with the Board pursuant to Board regulations. The Board shall not allow continuing education credit for courses where the principal purpose of the course is to promote, sell, or offer goods, products, or services to funeral homes.

C. All course providers shall furnish written certification to licensees of the Board attending and completing respective courses, indicating the satisfactory completion of an approved continuing education course. Each course provider shall retain records of all persons attending and those persons satisfactorily completing such continuing education courses for a period of two years following each course. Applicants for renewal or reinstatement of licenses issued pursuant to this article shall retain for a period of two years the written certification issued by any Board-approved provider of continuing education courses. The Board may require course providers or licensees to submit copies of such records or certification, as it deems necessary, to ensure compliance with continuing education requirements.

D. The Board shall have the authority to grant exemptions or waivers in cases of certified illness or undue hardship.

E. The Board may provide for an inactive status for those licensees who do not practice in Virginia. The Board may adopt regulations reducing or waiving continuing education requirements for any licensee granted such inactive status. However, no licensees granted inactive status may have their license changed to active status without first obtaining additional continuing education hours as may be determined by the Board. No person or registrant shall practice in Virginia as an embalmer, funeral director, or funeral service licensee unless he holds a current, active license.

2002, c. 270; 2008, c. 396; 2012, c. 497; 2022, c. 170.

§ 54.1-2817. Funeral service interns.

A person desiring to become a funeral service intern shall apply on a form provided by the Board. The applicant shall attest that he holds a high school diploma or its equivalent. The Board, in its discretion, may approve an application to be a funeral service intern for an individual convicted of a felony, if he has successfully fulfilled all conditions of sentencing, been pardoned, or has had his civil rights restored. The Board shall not, however, approve an application to be a funeral service intern for any person convicted of embezzlement or of violating subsection B of § 18.2-126.

The Board, in its discretion, may refuse to approve an application to be a funeral service intern for an individual who has a criminal or disciplinary proceeding pending against him in any jurisdiction in the United States.

When the Board is satisfied as to the qualifications of an applicant, it shall issue a certificate of internship. When a funeral service intern wishes to receive in-service training from a person licensed for the practice of funeral service, a request shall be submitted to the Board. If such permission is granted and the funeral service intern later leaves the proctorship of the licensee whose service has been entered, the licensee shall give the funeral service intern an affidavit showing the length of time served with him. The affidavit shall be filed with the Board and made a matter of record in that office. Any funeral service intern seeking permission to continue in-service training shall submit a request to the Board.

A certificate of internship shall be renewable as prescribed by the Board. The Board shall mail or send electronically at such time as it may prescribe by regulation, to each registered funeral service intern at his last known address, a notice that the renewal fee is due and that, if not paid by the prescribed time, a penalty fee shall be due in addition to the renewal fee.

The registration of any funeral service intern who is in the active military service of the United States may, at the discretion of the Board, be held in abeyance for the duration of his service. The Board may also waive the renewal fees for such military personnel.

All registered funeral service interns shall report to the Board on a schedule prescribed by the Board upon forms provided by the Board, showing the work which has been completed during the preceding period of internship. The data contained in the report shall be certified as correct by the person licensed for the practice of funeral service under whom he has served during this period and by the person licensed for the practice of funeral service owning or managing the funeral service establishment.

Before such funeral service intern becomes eligible to be examined for the practice of funeral service, evidence shall be presented along with an affidavit from any licensee under whom the intern worked showing that the intern has assisted in embalming at least 25 bodies and that the intern has assisted in conducting at least 25 funerals. In all applications of funeral service interns for licenses for the practice of funeral service, the eligibility of the applicant shall be determined by the records filed with the Board. The successful completion by any person of the internship shall not entitle him to any privilege except to be examined for such license.

Credit shall not be allowed for any period of internship that has been completed more than three years prior to application for license or more than five years prior to examination for license. If all requirements for licensure are not completed within five years of initial application, the Board may deny an additional internship. A funeral service intern may continue to practice for up to 90 days from the completion of his internship or until he has taken and received the results of all examinations required by the Board. However, the Board may waive such limitation for any person in the armed service of the United States when application for the waiver is made in writing within six months of leaving service or if the Board determines that enforcement of the limitation will create an unreasonable hardship.

The Board shall have power to suspend or revoke a certificate of internship for violation of any provision of this chapter.

No more than two funeral service interns shall be concurrently registered under any one person licensed for the practice of funeral service, funeral directing or embalming. Each sponsor for a registered funeral service intern must be actively employed by or under contract with a funeral establishment.

Code 1950, §§ 54-260.34 through 54-260.38; 1956, c. 220; 1970, c. 513, § 54-260.72; 1972, c. 797; 1973, c. 296; 1974, c. 157; 1978, c. 849; 1981, c. 258; 1986, c. 43; 1988, c. 765; 2005, c. 477; 2006, c. 56; 2018, c. 101.

§ 54.1-2818. Registration and display of licenses.

A copy of all licenses shall be displayed in a conspicuous place in each establishment in which the licensee practices.

Code 1950, § 54-260.31; 1956, c. 220; 1972, c. 797, § 54-260.71; 1988, c. 765.

§ 54.1-2818.1. Prerequisites for cremation.

No dead human body shall be cremated without permission of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner as required by § 32.1-309.3 and visual identification of the deceased by the next-of-kin or his representative, who may be any person designated to make arrangements for the disposition of the decedent's remains pursuant to § 54.1-2825, an agent named in an advance directive pursuant to § 54.1-2984, or any guardian appointed pursuant to Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) of Title 64.2 who may exercise the powers conferred in the order of appointment or by § 64.2-2019, or, in cases in which the next of kin or his representative fails or refuses to provide visual identification of the deceased, by any other person 18 years of age or older who is able to provide positive identification of the deceased. If no such next of kin or his representative or other person 18 years of age or older is available or willing to make visual identification of the deceased, such identification shall be made by a member of the primary law-enforcement agency of the city or county in which the person or institution having initial custody of the body is located, pursuant to court order. When visual identification is not feasible, other positive identification of the deceased may be used as a prerequisite for cremation. Unless such act, decision, or omission resulted from bad faith or malicious intent, the funeral service establishment, funeral service licensee, crematory, cemetery, primary law-enforcement officer, sheriff, county, or city shall be immune from civil liability for any act, decision, or omission resulting from cremation. Nothing in this section shall prevent a law-enforcement agency other than the primary law-enforcement agency from performing the duties established by this section if so requested by the primary law-enforcement agency and agreed to by the other law-enforcement agency.

1998, c. 867; 2010, c. 377; 2011, c. 88; 2014, cc. 228, 355, 583; 2015, c. 670.

§ 54.1-2818.2. Inapplicability to officers of state and local institutions.

Nothing in this article shall be applicable to any officer of any institution operated by the Commonwealth or by any county, city or town in the performance of his duties as such.

1998, c. 867.

§ 54.1-2818.3. Applications for registration required.

Any crematory shall apply for and receive a registration from the Board as a registered crematory. However, this section shall not supersede or restrict the provisions of § 54.1-2814.1.

1998, c. 867; 2003, c. 505.

§ 54.1-2818.4. Immunity from liability for services after organ and tissue donation.

Unless such act, decision, or omission resulted from bad faith or malicious intent, any funeral service establishment, funeral service licensee, crematory, or registered crematory that receives a body following donation of organs, tissues, or eyes shall be immune from civil liability for any failure to restore such decedent's form or features in a manner acceptable for viewing prior to the final disposition of the remains.

2009, c. 811.

§ 54.1-2818.5. Request for life insurance information; notification of beneficiaries.

A. In any case in which a funeral service provider licensed pursuant to this chapter believes that a decedent for whom funeral services are being provided is insured under an individual or group life insurance policy, the funeral service provider may request information regarding the deceased person's life insurance policy from the life insurer believed to have issued the policy. Such request for information shall include (i) a copy of the deceased person's death certificate filed in accordance with § 32.1-263; (ii) written authorization for the funeral service provider's submission of the request that is executed by a person designated to make arrangements for the decedent's burial or disposition of his remains pursuant to § 54.1-2825, an agent named in an advance directive pursuant to § 54.1-2984, a guardian appointed pursuant to Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) of Title 64.2 who may exercise the powers conferred in the order of appointment or by § 64.2-2019, or the next of kin as defined in § 54.1-2800; and (iii) if the deceased person was covered or is believed to have been covered under a group life insurance policy, the affiliation of the deceased person entitling the deceased to coverage under the group life insurance policy.

B. Upon receipt of the information requested pursuant to subsection A, if the beneficiary of record under the life insurance contract or group life insurance policy is not the estate of the deceased person, the requesting funeral service provider shall make all reasonable efforts to contact all the beneficiaries of record within four calendar days of receiving such information and provide to the beneficiaries all information provided to the funeral service provider by the life insurer. The funeral service provider shall, prior to providing any information to the beneficiaries in accordance with this subsection, inform the beneficiaries that the beneficiary of a life insurance policy has no legal duty or obligation to pay any amounts associated with the provision of funeral services or the debts or obligations of the deceased person.

2017, c. 482.

Article 4. Registration of Surface Transportation and Removal Services.

§ 54.1-2819. Registration of surface transportation and removal services; penalty.

Any person or private business, except a common carrier engaged in interstate commerce, the Commonwealth and its agencies, or an emergency medical services agency holding a permit issued by the Commissioner of Health pursuant to § 32.1-111.6, shall apply for and receive a registration as a transportation and removal service in order to be authorized to engage in the business of surface transportation or removal of dead human bodies in the Commonwealth.

Surface transportation and removal services shall not arrange or conduct funerals, provide for the care or preparation, including embalming, of dead human bodies, or sell or provide funeral-related goods and services without the issuance of a funeral service establishment license.

The Board shall promulgate regulations for such registration including proper procedures in the handling of all dead human bodies being transported, the application process for registration, and the establishment of registration fees. These regulations shall not require the use of a casket for transportation. No licensed funeral service establishment shall be required to receive such registration in addition to its funeral service establishment license. However, such establishment shall be subject to the regulations pertaining to transportation and removal services.

Every applicant for registration as a surface transportation and removal service shall include the name of a manager of record on any application for registration and shall notify the Board within 30 days of any change in the manager of record. Such notice shall include the name of the new manager of record of the surface transportation and removal service.

All registrations as a surface transportation and removal service shall be renewed annually and no person or private business shall engage in the business as a surface transportation and removal service without holding a valid registration.

Any surface transportation or removal service that is not registered or persons who knowingly engage in transportation or removal services without registration shall be subject to the disciplinary actions provided in this chapter.

This section shall not be construed to prohibit private individuals from transporting or removing the remains of deceased family members and relatives either by preference or in observation of religious beliefs and customs.

1984, c. 761, § 54-260.74:1; 1986, c. 198; 1988, c. 765; 2006, c. 555; 2015, cc. 110, 534.

Article 5. Preneed Funeral Contracts.

§ 54.1-2820. Requirements of preneed funeral contracts.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person residing or doing business within this Commonwealth, to make, either directly or indirectly by any means, a preneed funeral contract unless the contract:

1. Is made on forms prescribed by the Board and is written in clear, understandable language and printed in easy-to-read type, size and style;

2. Identifies the seller, seller's license number and contract buyer and the person for whom the contract is purchased if other than the contract buyer;

3. Contains a complete description of the supplies or services purchased;

4. Clearly discloses whether the price of the supplies and services purchased is guaranteed;

5. States if funds are required to be trusted pursuant to § 54.1-2822, the amount to be trusted, the name of the trustee, the disposition of the interest, the fees, expenses and taxes which may be deducted from the interest and a statement of the buyer's responsibility for taxes owed on the interest;

6. Contains the name, address and telephone number of the Board and lists the Board as the regulatory agency which handles consumer complaints;

7. Provides that any person who makes payment under the contract may terminate the agreement at any time prior to the furnishing of the services or supplies contracted for except as provided pursuant to subsection B; if the purchaser terminates the contract within 30 days of execution, the purchaser shall be refunded all consideration paid or delivered, together with any interest or income accrued thereon; if the purchaser terminates the contract after 30 days, the purchaser shall be refunded any amounts required to be deposited under § 54.1-2822, together with any interest or income accrued thereon;

8. Provides that if the particular supplies and services specified in the contract are unavailable at the time of delivery, the seller shall be required to furnish supplies and services similar in style and at least equal in quality of material and workmanship and the representative of the deceased shall have the right to choose the supplies or services to be substituted;

9. Discloses any penalties or restrictions, including but not limited to geographic restrictions or the inability of the provider to perform, on the delivery of merchandise, services or prearrangement guarantee; and

10. Complies with all disclosure requirements imposed by the Board.

If the contract seller will not be furnishing the supplies and services to the purchaser, the contract seller must attach to the preneed funeral contract a copy of the seller's agreement with the provider.

B. Subject to the requirements of § 54.1-2822, a preneed funeral contract may provide for an irrevocable trust or an amount in an irrevocable trust that is specifically identified as available exclusively for funeral or burial expenses, where:

1. A person irrevocably contracts for funeral goods and services, such person funds the contract by prepaying for the goods and services, and the funeral provider residing or doing business within the Commonwealth subsequently places the funds in a trust; or

2. A person establishes an irrevocable trust naming the funeral provider as the beneficiary; however, such person shall have the right to change the beneficiary to another funeral provider pursuant to § 54.1-2822.

C. If a life insurance or annuity contract is used to fund the preneed funeral contract, the face amount of any life insurance policy issued to fund a preneed funeral contract shall not be decreased over the life of the life insurance policy except for life insurance policies that have lapsed due to nonpayment of premiums or have gone to a nonforfeiture option that lowers the face amount as allowed for in the provisions of the policy. The following must also be disclosed as prescribed by the Board:

1. The fact that a life insurance policy or annuity contract is involved or being used to fund the preneed contract;

2. The nature of the relationship among the soliciting agent, the provider of the supplies or services, the prearranger and the insurer;

3. The relationship of the life insurance policy or annuity contract to the funding of the preneed contract and the nature and existence of any guarantees relating to the preneed contract; and

4. The impact on the preneed contract of (i) any changes in the life insurance policy or annuity contract including but not limited to changes in the assignment, beneficiary designation or use of the proceeds, (ii) any penalties to be incurred by the policyholder as a result of failure to make premium payments, (iii) any penalties to be incurred or moneys to be received as a result of cancellation or surrender of the life insurance policy or annuity contract, and (iv) all relevant information concerning what occurs and whether any entitlements or obligations arise if there is a difference between the proceeds of the life insurance policy or annuity contract and the amount actually needed to fund the preneed contract.

D. When the consideration consists in whole or in part of any real estate, the contract shall be recorded as an attachment to the deed whereby such real estate is conveyed, and the deed shall be recorded in the clerk's office of the circuit court of the city or county in which the real estate being conveyed is located.

E. If any funeral supplies are sold and delivered prior to the death of the subject for whom they are provided, and the seller or any legal entity in which he or a member of his family has an interest thereafter stores these supplies, the risk of loss or damage shall be upon the seller during such period of storage.

1989, c. 684; 1991, c. 721; 1992, c. 635; 1998, c. 738; 1999, c. 819; 2003, cc. 663, 673; 2007, c. 621; 2022, cc. 18, 641.

§ 54.1-2821. Exemptions.

This article shall not apply to the preneed sale of cemetery services or supplies regulated under Chapter 23.1 (§ 54.1-2310 et seq.) of this title.

1989, c. 684.

§ 54.1-2822. Deposit of money received pursuant to preneed funeral contract.

A. Within 30 days following the receipt of any money paid pursuant to any preneed funeral contract or interest or income accrued thereon, unless such amounts are paid to fund either an annuity or an insurance policy which will be used to purchase the funeral supplies or services contracted for, the person receiving such amounts shall deposit all consideration paid pursuant to the terms of a preneed funeral contract in which the price of the supplies and services is not guaranteed, or ninety percent of all consideration paid pursuant to the terms of a preneed funeral contract in which the price of the supplies and services is guaranteed, in a special account in a bank or savings institution doing business in this Commonwealth.

B. The funds shall be deposited in separate, identifiable trust accounts setting forth the names of the depositor, the trustee for the person who is the subject of the contract, the name of the person who will render the funeral services and the name of the person who is the subject of the contract. The purchaser shall have the right to change the beneficiary and trustee of the trust at any time prior to the furnishing of the services or supplies contracted for under the preneed funeral contract. Trust account records shall be subject to examination by the Board.

C. No funeral director, embalmer, funeral service licensee, owner of a funeral establishment, or any person employed by or having an interest in a funeral establishment shall serve as trustee of a trust account for which any such person, or any funeral establishment owned by or employing such person or in which such person has an interest, has been named the beneficiary or designated the provider of services, unless two or more such persons are named and serve as trustees and are required to act jointly in such fiduciary capacity. Subject to the terms of this subsection, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the trustee for any such trust account may be an incorporated association that is authorized to sell burial association group life insurance certificates in the Commonwealth, as described in the definition of limited burial insurance authority in § 38.2-1800, whose principal purpose is to assist its members in (i) financial planning for their funerals and burials and (ii) obtaining insurance for the payment, in whole or in part, for funeral, burial, and related expenses.

1989, c. 684; 1992, c. 337; 2007, c. 621.

§ 54.1-2822.1. Funeral establishments to maintain preneed records.

Every person selling preneed funeral contracts within this Commonwealth shall keep and maintain such records of preneed transactions, including copies of preneed contracts, as may be prescribed by the Board. All such records shall be maintained on the premises of the funeral establishment providing the preneed services and supplies, except that preneed records of funeral establishments under common ownership, control, or management may be maintained at a single location within this Commonwealth.

1995, c. 26.

§ 54.1-2823. Exemption from levy, garnishment and distress.

Any money, personal property or real property paid, delivered or conveyed subject to § 54.1-2822 shall be exempt from levy, garnishment or distress.

1989, c. 684.

§ 54.1-2824. Declaration of trust in consideration other than money.

Within thirty days following the receipt of any personal property other than money delivered pursuant to any preneed funeral contract, the person receiving it, if title thereto is transferred, or the person making such delivery, if title thereto is not transferred, shall execute in writing a declaration of trust setting forth all the terms, conditions and considerations upon which the personal property is delivered, which shall be acknowledged in the same manner as the contract and recorded in the clerk's office of the circuit court of the city or county in which the person delivering the personal property resides; provided, that if such terms, conditions and considerations are contained in the preneed funeral contract, the contract shall be recorded.

1989, c. 684.

§ 54.1-2825. Person to make arrangements for funeral and disposition of remains.

A. Any person may designate in a signed and notarized writing, which has been accepted in writing by the person so designated, an individual who shall make arrangements and be otherwise responsible for his funeral and the disposition of his remains, including cremation, interment, entombment, or memorialization, or some combination thereof, upon his death. Such designee shall have priority over all persons otherwise entitled to make such arrangements, provided that a copy of the signed and notarized writing is provided to the funeral service establishment and to the cemetery, if any, no later than 48 hours after the funeral service establishment has received the remains. Nothing in this section shall preclude any next of kin from paying any costs associated with any funeral or disposition of any remains, provided that such payment is made with the concurrence of any person designated to make arrangements.

B. In cases in which a person has designated in a U.S. Department of Defense Record of Emergency Data (DD Form 93) or any successor form an individual to make arrangements for his funeral and disposition of his remains, and such person dies while serving in any branch of the United States Armed Forces as defined in 10 U.S.C. § 1481, such designee shall be responsible for making such arrangements.

1989, c. 684; 1998, c. 718; 2010, cc. 324, 380.