Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 54.1. Professions and Occupations
Chapter 34.1. Physical Therapy
10/25/2021

Chapter 34.1. Physical Therapy.

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 54.1-3473. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Board" means the Board of Physical Therapy.

"Physical therapist" means any person licensed by the Board to engage in the practice of physical therapy.

"Physical therapist assistant" means any person licensed by the Board to assist a physical therapist in the practice of physical therapy.

"Practice of physical therapy" means that branch of the healing arts that is concerned with, upon medical referral and direction, the evaluation, testing, treatment, reeducation and rehabilitation by physical, mechanical or electronic measures and procedures of individuals who, because of trauma, disease or birth defect, present physical and emotional disorders. The practice of physical therapy also includes the administration, interpretation, documentation, and evaluation of tests and measurements of bodily functions and structures within the scope of practice of the physical therapist. However, the practice of physical therapy does not include the medical diagnosis of disease or injury, the use of Roentgen rays and radium for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes or the use of electricity for shock therapy and surgical purposes including cauterization.

2000, c. 688; 2001, c. 858.

§ 54.1-3474. Unlawful to practice without license; continuing competency requirements.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to practice physical therapy or as a physical therapist assistant in the Commonwealth without a valid unrevoked license issued by the Board.

B. The Board shall promulgate regulations establishing requirements to ensure continuing competency of physical therapists and physical therapist assistants, which may include continuing education, testing, or such other requirements as the Board may determine to be necessary.

C. In promulgating continuing competency requirements, the Board shall consider (i) the need to promote ethical practice, (ii) an appropriate standard of care, (iii) patient safety, (iv) application of new medical technology, (v) appropriate communication with patients, and (vi) knowledge of the changing health care system.

D. The Board may approve persons who provide or accredit programs to ensure continuing competency.

2000, c. 688; 2001, c. 858.

§ 54.1-3475. Board of Physical Therapy; appointment; qualifications; officers; nominations.

A. The Board of Physical Therapy shall regulate the practice of physical therapy and carry out the provisions of this chapter regarding the qualifications, examination, licensure and regulation of physical therapists and physical therapist assistants and shall have the general powers and duties of a health regulatory board pursuant to § 54.1-2400.

B. The Board shall be appointed by the Governor and shall be composed of seven members, five of whom shall be physical therapists who have been in active practice for at least seven years prior to appointment with at least three of such years in Virginia; one shall be a licensed physical therapist assistant; and one shall be a citizen member. Members shall be appointed for terms of four years and shall serve until their successors are appointed. The initial appointments shall provide for staggered terms with two members being appointed for a one-year term, two members being appointed for a two-year term, two members being appointed for a three-year term, and one member being appointed for a four-year term. Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No person shall be eligible to serve on the Board for more than two successive full terms.

C. The Board shall annually elect a president and a vice-president.

D. Nominations for the professional members of the Board may be chosen by the Governor from a list of at least three names for each vacancy submitted by the Virginia Physical Therapy Association, Inc. The Governor may notify the Association of any professional vacancy other than by expiration of a term and nominations may be submitted by the Association. The Governor shall not be bound to make any appointments from among such nominees.

2000, c. 688.

§ 54.1-3476. Exemptions.

This chapter shall not apply to the performance of the duties of any commissioned or contract physical therapist or physical therapist assistant while practicing in the United States Armed Services, United States Public Health Service or United States Department of Veterans Affairs as based on requirements under federal regulations for state licensure of health care providers, or to a physical therapist or a physical therapist assistant licensed or certified and in good standing with the applicable regulatory agency in the state, District of Columbia, or Canada where the practitioner resides when the practitioner is in Virginia temporarily to practice for no longer than sixty days (i) in a summer camp or in conjunction with patients who are participating in recreational activities, (ii) in continuing education programs, or (iii) by rendering at any site any health care services within the limits of his license or certificate, voluntarily and without compensation, to any patient of any clinic which is organized in whole or in part for the delivery of health care services without charge as provided in § 54.1-106.

2000, c. 688.

§ 54.1-3477. Requirements for licensure as a physical therapist.

An applicant for licensure as a physical therapist shall submit evidence, verified by affidavit and satisfactory to the Board, that the applicant:

1. Is eighteen years of age or more;

2. Is a graduate of a school of physical therapy approved by the American Physical Therapy Association or is a graduate of a school outside of the United States or Canada which is acceptable to the Board; and

3. Has satisfactorily passed an examination approved by the Board.

2000, c. 688.

§ 54.1-3478. Requirements for licensure as a physical therapist assistant.

An applicant for licensure as a physical therapist assistant shall submit evidence, verified by affidavit and satisfactory to the Board, that the applicant:

1. Is 18 years of age or more;

2. Is a graduate of a two-year educational program for physical therapist assistants at an institution of higher education that is acceptable to the Board; and

3. Has satisfactorily passed an examination approved by the Board.

2000, c. 688.

§ 54.1-3479. Licensure by examination or endorsement; traineeships.

A. The Board shall provide for the examinations to be taken by applicants for licensure as physical therapists and physical therapist assistants. The Board shall, on the basis of such examinations, issue or deny licenses to applicants to practice physical therapy or perform the duties of a physical therapist assistant. Any applicant who feels aggrieved at the result of his examination may appeal to the Board.

B. The Board, in its discretion, may issue licenses to applicants upon endorsement by boards of other appropriate authorities of other states or territories or the District of Columbia with which reciprocal relations have not been established if the credentials of such applicants are satisfactory and the examinations and passing grades required by such other boards are determined to be equivalent to those required by the Virginia Board.

C. The Board, in its discretion, may provide for the limited practice of physical therapy by a graduate physical therapist or physical therapist assistant enrolled in a traineeship program as defined by the Board under the direct supervision of a licensed physical therapist.

D. In granting licenses to out-of-state applicants, the Board may require physical therapists or physical therapist assistants to meet the professional activity requirements or serve traineeships according to regulations promulgated by the Board.

2000, c. 688.

§ 54.1-3480. Refusal, revocation or suspension.

A. As used in this section, "license" shall include any license or compact privilege, as defined in § 54.1-3486, issued by the Board.

B. The Board may refuse to admit a candidate to any examination, may refuse to issue a license to any applicant, and may suspend for a stated period of time or indefinitely or revoke any license or censure or reprimand any person or place him on probation for such time as it may designate for any of the following causes:

1. False statements or representations or fraud or deceit in obtaining admission to the practice, or fraud or deceit in the practice of physical therapy;

2. Substance abuse rendering him unfit for the performance of his professional obligations and duties;

3. Unprofessional conduct as defined in this chapter;

4. Intentional or negligent conduct that causes or is likely to cause injury to a patient or patients;

5. Mental or physical incapacity or incompetence to practice his profession with safety to his patients and the public;

6. Restriction of a license to practice physical therapy in another state, the District of Columbia, a United States possession or territory, or a foreign jurisdiction;

7. Conviction in any state, territory or country of any felony or of any crime involving moral turpitude;

8. Adjudged legally incompetent or incapacitated in any state if such adjudication is in effect and the person has not been declared restored to competence or capacity; or

9. Conviction of an offense in another state, territory or foreign jurisdiction, which if committed in Virginia would be a felony. Such conviction shall be treated as a felony conviction under this section regardless of its designation in the other state, territory or foreign jurisdiction.

C. The Board shall refuse to admit a candidate to any examination and shall refuse to issue a license to any applicant if the candidate or applicant has had his certificate or license to practice physical therapy revoked or suspended, and has not had his certificate or license to so practice reinstated, in another state, the District of Columbia, a United States possession or territory, or a foreign jurisdiction.

2000, c. 688; 2001, c. 858; 2003, cc. 753, 762; 2004, c. 64; 2020, c. 885.

§ 54.1-3480.1. Continuing education.

As a prerequisite to renewal of a license or reinstatement of a license, each physical therapist shall be required to take biennial courses relating to physical therapy as approved by the Board. The Board shall prescribe criteria for approval of courses of study and credit hour requirements. The Board may approve alternative courses upon timely application of any licensee. Fulfillment of education requirements shall be certified to the Board upon a form provided by the Board and shall be submitted by each licensed physical therapist at the time he applies to the Board for the renewal or reinstatement of his license. The Board may waive individual requirements in cases of certified illness or undue hardship.

2001, c. 315.

§ 54.1-3481. Unlawful designation as physical therapist or physical therapist assistant; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person who is not licensed under this chapter, or whose license has been suspended or revoked or who licensure has lapsed and has not been renewed, to use in conjunction with his name the letters or words "R.P.T.," "Registered Physical Therapist," "L.P.T.," "Licensed Physical Therapist," "P.T.," "Physical Therapist," "Physio-therapist," "P.T.T.," "Physical Therapy Technician," "P.T.A.," "Physical Therapist Assistant," "Licensed Physical Therapist Assistant," or to otherwise by letters, words, representations or insignias assert or imply that he is a licensed physical therapist. The title to designate a licensed physical therapist shall be "P.T." The title to designate a physical therapist assistant shall show such fact plainly on its face.

B. No person shall advertise services using the words "physical therapy" or "physiotherapy" unless those services are provided by a physical therapist or physical therapist assistant licensed pursuant to this chapter.

C. A complaint or report of a possible violation of this section by any person who is licensed, certified, registered, or permitted, or who holds a multistate licensure privilege issued by any of the health regulatory boards within the Department of Health Professions shall be referred to the applicable board within the Department for disciplinary action.

D. Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict or limit the legally authorized scope of practice of any profession licensed, certified, registered, permitted, or recognized under a multistate licensure privilege issued by any of the health regulatory boards within the Department of Health Professions prior to January 1, 2010.

2000, c. 688; 2010, cc. 70, 368.

§ 54.1-3482. Practice of physical therapy; certain experience and referrals required; physical therapist assistants.

A. It shall be unlawful for a person to engage in the practice of physical therapy except as a licensed physical therapist, upon the referral and direction of a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician, except as provided in this section.

B. A physical therapist who has completed a doctor of physical therapy program approved by the Commission on Accreditation of Physical Therapy Education or who has obtained a certificate of authorization pursuant to § 54.1-3482.1 may evaluate and treat a patient for no more than 60 consecutive days after an initial evaluation without a referral under the following conditions: (i) the patient is not receiving care from any licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician for the symptoms giving rise to the presentation at the time of the presentation to the physical therapist for physical therapy services or (ii) the patient is receiving care from a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician at the time of his presentation to the physical therapist for the symptoms giving rise to the presentation for physical therapy services and (a) the patient identifies a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician from whom he is currently receiving care; (b) the patient gives written consent for the physical therapist to release all personal health information and treatment records to the identified practitioner; and (c) the physical therapist notifies the practitioner identified by the patient no later than 14 days after treatment commences and provides the practitioner with a copy of the initial evaluation along with a copy of the patient history obtained by the physical therapist. Treatment for more than 60 consecutive days after evaluation of such patient shall only be upon the referral and direction of a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician. A physical therapist may contact the practitioner identified by the patient at the end of the 60-day period to determine if the practitioner will authorize additional physical therapy services until such time as the patient can be seen by the practitioner. After discharging a patient, a physical therapist shall not perform an initial evaluation of a patient under this subsection without a referral if the physical therapist has performed an initial evaluation of the patient under this subsection for the same condition within the immediately preceding 60 days.

C. A physical therapist who has not completed a doctor of physical therapy program approved by the Commission on Accreditation of Physical Therapy Education or who has not obtained a certificate of authorization pursuant to § 54.1-3482.1 may conduct a one-time evaluation that does not include treatment of a patient without the referral and direction of a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician; if appropriate, the physical therapist shall immediately refer such patient to the appropriate practitioner.

D. Invasive procedures within the scope of practice of physical therapy shall at all times be performed only under the referral and direction of a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician.

E. It shall be unlawful for any licensed physical therapist to fail to immediately refer any patient to a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, or a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957 when such patient's medical condition is determined, at the time of evaluation or treatment, to be beyond the physical therapist's scope of practice. Upon determining that the patient's medical condition is beyond the scope of practice of a physical therapist, a physical therapist shall immediately refer such patient to an appropriate practitioner.

F. Any person licensed as a physical therapist assistant shall perform his duties only under the direction and control of a licensed physical therapist.

G. However, a licensed physical therapist may provide, without referral or supervision, physical therapy services to (i) a student athlete participating in a school-sponsored athletic activity while such student is at such activity in a public, private, or religious elementary, middle or high school, or public or private institution of higher education when such services are rendered by a licensed physical therapist who is certified as an athletic trainer by the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification or as a sports certified specialist by the American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties; (ii) employees solely for the purpose of evaluation and consultation related to workplace ergonomics; (iii) special education students who, by virtue of their individualized education plans (IEPs), need physical therapy services to fulfill the provisions of their IEPs; (iv) the public for the purpose of wellness, fitness, and health screenings; (v) the public for the purpose of health promotion and education; and (vi) the public for the purpose of prevention of impairments, functional limitations, and disabilities.

2000, c. 688; 2001, c. 858; 2002, cc. 434, 471; 2003, c. 496; 2005, c. 928; 2007, cc. 9, 18; 2015, cc. 724, 746; 2018, c. 776; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 481.

§ 54.1-3482.1. Certain certification required.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations establishing criteria for certification of physical therapists to provide certain physical therapy services pursuant to subsection B of § 54.1-3482 without referral from a licensed doctor of medicine, osteopathy, chiropractic, podiatry, or dental surgery, a licensed nurse practitioner practicing in accordance with the provisions of § 54.1-2957, or a licensed physician assistant acting under the supervision of a licensed physician. The regulations shall include but not be limited to provisions for (i) the promotion of patient safety; (ii) an application process for a one-time certification to perform such procedures; and (iii) minimum education, training, and experience requirements for certification to perform such procedures.

B. The minimum education, training, and experience requirements for certification shall include evidence that the applicant has successfully completed (i) a transitional program in physical therapy as recognized by the Board or (ii) at least three years of active practice with evidence of continuing education relating to carrying out direct access duties under § 54.1-3482.

2007, cc. 9, 18; 2015, cc. 724, 746; 2018, c. 776.

§ 54.1-3483. Unprofessional conduct.

Any physical therapist or physical therapist assistant licensed by the Board or practicing pursuant to a compact privilege, as defined in § 54.1-3486, approved by the Board shall be considered guilty of unprofessional conduct if he:

1. Engages in the practice of physical therapy under a false or assumed name or impersonates another practitioner of a like, similar or different name;

2. Knowingly and willfully commits any act which is a felony under the laws of this Commonwealth or the United States, or any act which is a misdemeanor under such laws and involves moral turpitude;

3. Aids or abets, has professional contact with, or lends his name to any person known to him to be practicing physical therapy illegally;

4. Conducts his practice in such a manner as to be a danger to the health and welfare of his patients or to the public;

5. Is unable to practice with reasonable skill or safety because of illness or substance abuse;

6. Publishes in any manner an advertisement that violates Board regulations governing advertising;

7. Performs any act likely to deceive, defraud or harm the public;

8. Violates any provision of statute or regulation, state or federal, relating to controlled substances;

9. Violates or cooperates with others in violating any of the provisions of this chapter or regulations of the Board; or

10. Engages in sexual contact with a patient concurrent with and by virtue of the practitioner/patient relationship or otherwise engages at any time during the course of the practitioner/patient relationship in conduct of a sexual nature that a reasonable patient would consider lewd and offensive.

2000, c. 688; 2001, c. 858; 2020, c. 885.

§ 54.1-3484. Criminal history background checks.

The Board shall require each applicant for licensure as a physical therapist or physical therapist assistant to submit fingerprints and provide personal descriptive information to be forwarded along with his fingerprints through the Central Criminal Records Exchange to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the purpose of obtaining criminal history record information regarding the applicant. The cost of fingerprinting and the criminal history record search shall be paid by the applicant.

The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall forward the results of the state and federal criminal history record search to the Board, which shall be a governmental entity. If an applicant is denied licensure because of information appearing on his criminal history record and the applicant disputes the information upon which the denial was based, the Central Criminal Records Exchange shall, upon written request, furnish to the applicant the procedures for obtaining a copy of the criminal history record from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Criminal Records Exchange. The information shall not be disseminated except as provided in this section.

2019, c. 300.

Article 2. Physical Therapy Licensure Compact.

§ 54.1-3485. Form of compact; declaration of purpose.

A. The General Assembly hereby enacts, and the Commonwealth of Virginia hereby enters into, the Physical Therapy Licensure Compact with any and all jurisdictions legally joining therein according to its terms, in the form substantially as follows.

B. The purpose of this Compact is to facilitate interstate practice of physical therapy with the goal of improving public access to physical therapy services. The practice of physical therapy occurs in the state where the patient is located at the time of the patient encounter. The Compact preserves the regulatory authority of states to protect public health and safety through the current system of state licensure.

This Compact is designed to achieve the following objectives:

1. Increase public access to physical therapy services by providing for the mutual recognition of other member state licenses;

2. Enhance the states' ability to protect the public's health and safety;

3. Encourage the cooperation of member states in regulating multi-state physical therapy practice;

4. Support spouses of relocating military members;

5. Enhance the exchange of licensure, investigative, and disciplinary information between member states; and

6. Allow a remote state to hold a provider of services with a compact privilege in that state accountable to that state's practice standards.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3486. Definitions.

As used in this Compact, and except as otherwise provided, the following definitions shall apply:

"Active duty military" means full-time duty status in the active uniformed service of the United States, including members of the National Guard and Reserve on active duty orders pursuant to 10 U.S.C. §§ 1209 and 1211.

"Adverse action" means disciplinary action taken by a physical therapy licensing board based upon misconduct, unacceptable performance, or a combination of both.

"Alternative program" means a nondisciplinary monitoring or practice remediation process approved by a physical therapy licensing board. This includes, but is not limited to, substance abuse issues.

"Compact privilege" means the authorization granted by a remote state to allow a licensee from another member state to practice as a physical therapist or work as a physical therapist assistant in the remote state under its laws and rules. The practice of physical therapy occurs in the member state where the patient/client is located at the time of the patient/client encounter.

"Continuing competence" means a requirement, as a condition of license renewal, to provide evidence of participation in, and/or completion of, educational and professional activities relevant to practice or area of work.

"Data system" means a repository of information about licensees, including examination, licensure, investigative, compact privilege, and adverse action.

"Encumbered license" means a license that a physical therapy licensing board has limited in any way.

"Executive Board" means a group of directors elected or appointed to act on behalf of, and within the powers granted to them, by the Commission.

"Home state" means the member state that is the licensee's primary state of residence.

"Investigative information" means information, records, and documents received or generated by a physical therapy licensing board pursuant to an investigation.

"Jurisprudence requirement" means the assessment of an individual's knowledge of the laws and rules governing the practice of physical therapy in a state.

"Licensee" means an individual who currently holds an authorization from the state to practice as a physical therapist or to work as a physical therapist assistant.

"Member state" means a state that has enacted the Compact.

"Party state" means any member state in which a licensee holds a current license or compact privilege or is applying for a license or compact privilege.

"Physical therapist" means an individual who is licensed by a state to practice physical therapy.

"Physical therapist assistant" means an individual who is licensed or certified by a state and who assists the physical therapist in selected components of physical therapy.

"Physical therapy," "physical therapy practice," and "the practice of physical therapy" mean the care and services provided by or under the direction and supervision of a licensed physical therapist as defined by § 54.1-3473.

"Physical Therapy Compact Commission" or "Commission" means the national administrative body whose membership consists of all states that have enacted the Compact.

"Physical therapy licensing board" or "licensing board" means the agency of a state that is responsible for the licensing and regulation of physical therapists and physical therapist assistants.

"Remote state" means a member state other than the home state, where a licensee is exercising or seeking to exercise the compact privilege.

"Rule" means a regulation, principle, or directive promulgated by the Commission that has the force of law.

"State" means any state, commonwealth, district, or territory of the United States of America that regulates the practice of physical therapy.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3487. State participation in the Compact.

A. To participate in the Compact, a state must:

1. Participate fully in the Commission's data system, including using the Commission's unique identifier as defined in rules;

2. Have a mechanism in place for receiving and investigating complaints about licensees;

3. Notify the Commission, in compliance with the terms of the Compact and rules, of any adverse action or of the availability of investigative information regarding a licensee;

4. Fully implement a criminal background check requirement, within a time frame established by rule, by receiving the results of the Federal Bureau of Investigation record search on criminal background checks and use the results in making licensure decisions in accordance with subsection B of § 54.1-3488;

5. Comply with the rules of the Commission;

6. Utilize a recognized national examination as a requirement for licensure pursuant to the rules of the Commission; and

7. Have continuing competence requirements as a condition for license renewal.

B. Upon adoption of this statute, the member state shall have the authority to obtain biometric-based information from each physical therapy licensure applicant and shall submit this information to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for a criminal background check in accordance with 28 U.S.C. § 534 and 42 U.S.C. § 14616.

C. A member state shall grant the compact privilege to a licensee holding a valid unencumbered license in another member state in accordance with the terms of the Compact and rules.

D. Member states may charge a fee for granting a compact privilege.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3488. Compact privilege.

A. To exercise the compact privilege under the terms and provisions of the Compact, the licensee shall:

1. Hold a license in the home state;

2. Have no encumbrance on any state license;

3. Be eligible for a compact privilege in any member state in accordance with subsections D, G, and H;

4. Have not had any adverse action against any license or compact privilege within the previous two years;

5. Notify the Commission that the licensee is seeking the compact privilege within a remote state or remote states;

6. Pay any applicable fees, including any state fee, for the compact privilege;

7. Meet any jurisprudence requirements established by the remote state or states in which the licensee is seeking a compact privilege; and

8. Report to the Commission adverse action taken by any nonmember state within 30 days from the date the adverse action is taken.

B. The compact privilege is valid until the expiration date of the home license. The licensee must comply with the requirements of subsection A to maintain the compact privilege in the remote state.

C. A licensee providing physical therapy in a remote state under the compact privilege shall function within the laws and regulations of the remote state.

D. A licensee providing physical therapy in a remote state is subject to that state's regulatory authority. A remote state may, in accordance with due process and that state's laws, remove a licensee's compact privilege in the remote state for a specific period of time, impose fines, and/or take any other necessary actions to protect the health and safety of its citizens. The licensee is not eligible for a compact privilege in any state until the specific time for removal has passed and all fines are paid.

E. If a home state license is encumbered, the licensee shall lose the compact privilege in any remote state until the following occur:

1. The home state license is no longer encumbered; and

2. Two years have elapsed from the date of the adverse action.

F. Once an encumbered license in the home state is restored to good standing, the licensee must meet the requirements of subsection A to obtain a compact privilege in any remote state.

G. If a licensee's compact privilege in any remote state is removed, the individual shall lose the compact privilege in any remote state until the following occur:

1. The specific period of time for which the compact privilege was removed has ended;

2. All fines have been paid; and

3. Two years have elapsed from the date of the adverse action.

H. Once the requirements of subsection G have been met, the licensee must meet the requirements in subsection A to obtain a compact privilege in a remote state.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3489. Active duty military personnel or their spouses.

A licensee who is active duty military or is the spouse of an individual who is active duty military may designate one of the following as the home state:

1. Home of record;

2. Permanent Change of Station (PCS); or

3. State of current residence if it is different from the PCS state or home of record.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3490. Adverse actions.

A. A home state shall have exclusive power to impose adverse action against a license issued by the home state.

B. A home state may take adverse action based on the investigative information of a remote state, so long as the home state follows its own procedures for imposing adverse action.

C. Nothing in this Compact shall override a member state's decision that participation in an alternative program may be used in lieu of adverse action and that such participation shall remain non-public if required by the member state's laws. Member states must require licensees who enter any alternative programs in lieu of discipline to agree not to practice in any other member state during the term of the alternative program without prior authorization from such other member state.

D. Any member state may investigate actual or alleged violations of the statutes and rules authorizing the practice of physical therapy in any other member state in which a physical therapist or physical therapist assistant holds a license or compact privilege.

E. A remote state shall have the authority to:

1. Take adverse actions as set forth in subsection D of § 54.1-3488 against a licensee's compact privilege in the state;

2. Issue subpoenas for both hearings and investigations that require the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence. Subpoenas issued by a physical therapy licensing board in a party state for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and/or the production of evidence from another party state shall be enforced in the latter state by any court of competent jurisdiction, according to the practice and procedure of that court applicable to subpoenas issued in proceedings pending before it. The issuing authority shall pay any witness fees, travel expenses, mileage, and other fees required by the service statutes of the state where the witnesses and/or evidence are located; and

3. If otherwise permitted by state law, recover from the licensee the costs of investigations and disposition of cases resulting from any adverse action taken against that licensee.

F. Joint investigations.

1. In addition to the authority granted to a member state by its respective physical therapy practice act or other applicable state law, a member state may participate with other member states in joint investigations of licensees.

2. Member states shall share any investigative, litigation, or compliance materials in furtherance of any joint or individual investigation initiated under the Compact.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3491. Establishment of the Physical Therapy Compact Commission.

A. The Compact member states hereby create and establish a joint public agency known as the Physical Therapy Compact Commission.

1. The Commission is an instrumentality of the Compact states.

2. Venue is proper and judicial proceedings by or against the Commission shall be brought solely and exclusively in a court of competent jurisdiction where the principal office of the Commission is located. The Commission may waive venue and jurisdictional defenses to the extent that it adopts or consents to participate in alternative dispute resolution proceedings.

3. Nothing in this Compact shall be construed to be a waiver of sovereign immunity.

B. Membership, voting, and meetings.

1. Each member state shall have and be limited to one delegate selected by that member state's licensing board.

2. The delegate shall be a current member of the licensing board who is a physical therapist, a physical therapist assistant, a public member, or the board administrator.

3. Any delegate may be removed or suspended from office as provided by the law of the state from which the delegate is appointed.

4. The member state board shall fill any vacancy occurring in the Commission.

5. Each delegate shall be entitled to one vote with regard to the promulgation of rules and creation of bylaws and shall otherwise have an opportunity to participate in the business and affairs of the Commission.

6. A delegate shall vote in person or by such other means as provided in the bylaws. The bylaws may provide for delegates' participation in meetings by telephone or other means of communication.

7. The Commission shall meet at least once during each calendar year. Additional meetings shall be held as set forth in the bylaws.

C. The Commission shall have the following powers and duties:

1. Establish the fiscal year of the Commission;

2. Establish bylaws;

3. Maintain its financial records in accordance with the bylaws;

4. Meet and take such actions as are consistent with the provisions of this Compact and the bylaws;

5. Promulgate uniform rules to facilitate and coordinate implementation and administration of this Compact. The rules shall have the force and effect of law and shall be binding in all member states;

6. Bring and prosecute legal proceedings or actions in the name of the Commission, provided that the standing of any state physical therapy licensing board to sue or be sued under applicable law shall not be affected;

7. Purchase and maintain insurance and bonds;

8. Borrow, accept, or contract for services of personnel, including, but not limited to, employees of a member state;

9. Hire employees, elect or appoint officers, fix compensation, define duties, and grant such individuals appropriate authority to carry out the purposes of the Compact and establish the Commission's personnel policies and programs relating to conflicts of interest, qualifications of personnel, and other related personnel matters;

10. Accept any and all appropriate donations and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials, and services and receive, utilize and dispose of the same, provided that at all times the Commission shall avoid any appearance of impropriety and/or conflict of interest;

11. Lease, purchase, accept appropriate gifts or donations of, or otherwise own, hold, improve, or use any property, real, personal or mixed, provided that at all times the Commission shall avoid any appearance of impropriety;

12. Sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, lease, exchange, abandon, or otherwise dispose of any property, real, personal, or mixed;

13. Establish a budget and make expenditures;

14. Borrow money;

15. Appoint committees, including standing committees composed of members, state regulators, state legislators or their representatives, and consumer representatives and such other interested persons as may be designated in this Compact and the bylaws;

16. Provide and receive information from, and cooperate with, law-enforcement agencies;

17. Establish and elect an Executive Board; and

18. Perform such other functions as may be necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of this Compact consistent with the state regulation of physical therapy licensure and practice.

D. The Executive Board.

The Executive Board shall have the power to act on behalf of the Commission according to the terms of this Compact.

1. The Executive Board shall be composed of nine members as follows:

a. Seven voting members who are elected by the Commission from the current membership of the Commission;

b. One ex officio, nonvoting member from the recognized national physical therapy professional association; and

c. One ex officio, nonvoting member from the recognized membership organization of the physical therapy licensing boards.

2. The ex officio members will be selected by their respective organizations.

3. The Commission may remove any member of the Executive Board as provided in bylaws.

4. The Executive Board shall meet at least annually.

5. The Executive Board shall have the following duties and responsibilities:

a. Recommend to the entire Commission changes to the rules or bylaws, changes to this Compact legislation, fees paid by Compact member states such as annual dues, and any Commission Compact fee charged to licensees for the compact privilege;

b. Ensure Compact administration services are appropriately provided, contractual or otherwise;

c. Prepare and recommend the budget;

d. Maintain financial records on behalf of the Commission;

e. Monitor Compact compliance of member states and provide compliance reports to the Commission;

f. Establish additional committees as necessary; and

g. Perform other duties as provided in rules or bylaws.

E. Meetings of the Commission.

1. All meetings shall be open to the public, and public notice of meetings shall be given in the same manner as required under the rulemaking provisions in § 54.1-3493.

2. The Commission or the Executive Board or other committees of the Commission may convene in a closed, nonpublic meeting if the Commission or Executive Board or other committees of the Commission must discuss:

a. Noncompliance of a member state with its obligations under the Compact;

b. The employment, compensation, discipline, or other matters, practices, or procedures related to specific employees or other matters related to the Commission's internal personnel practices and procedures;

c. Current, threatened, or reasonably anticipated litigation;

d. Negotiation of contracts for the purchase, lease, or sale of goods, services, or real estate;

e. Accusing any person of a crime or formally censuring any person;

f. Disclosure of trade secrets or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential;

g. Disclosure of information of a personal nature where disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy;

h. Disclosure of investigative records compiled for law-enforcement purposes;

i. Disclosure of information related to any investigative reports prepared by or on behalf of or for use of the Commission or other committee charged with responsibility of investigation or determination of compliance issues pursuant to the Compact; or

j. Matters specifically exempted from disclosure by federal or member state statute.

3. If a meeting or portion of a meeting is closed pursuant to this provision, the Commission's legal counsel or designee shall certify that the meeting may be closed and shall reference each relevant exempting provision.

4. The Commission shall keep minutes that fully and clearly describe all matters discussed in a meeting and shall provide a full and accurate summary of actions taken and the reasons therefor, including a description of the views expressed. All documents considered in connection with an action shall be identified in such minutes. All minutes and documents of a closed meeting shall remain under seal, subject to release by a majority vote of the Commission or order of a court of competent jurisdiction.

F. Financing of the Commission.

1. The Commission shall pay or provide for the payment of the reasonable expenses of its establishment, organization, and ongoing activities.

2. The Commission may accept any and all appropriate revenue sources, donations, and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials, and services.

3. The Commission may levy on and collect an annual assessment from each member state or impose fees on other parties to cover the cost of the operations and activities of the Commission and its staff, which must be in a total amount sufficient to cover its annual budget as approved each year for which revenue is not provided by other sources. The aggregate annual assessment amount shall be allocated based upon a formula to be determined by the Commission, which shall promulgate a rule binding upon all member states.

4. The Commission shall not incur obligations of any kind prior to securing the funds adequate to meet the same; nor shall the Commission pledge the credit of any of the member states, except by and with the authority of the member state.

5. The Commission shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. The receipts and disbursements of the Commission shall be subject to the audit and accounting procedures established under its bylaws. However, all receipts and disbursements of funds handled by the Commission shall be audited yearly by a certified or licensed public accountant, and the report of the audit shall be included in and become part of the annual report of the Commission.

G. Qualified immunity, defense, and indemnification.

1. The members, officers, executive director, employees, and representatives of the Commission shall be immune from suit and liability, either personally or in their official capacity, for any claim for damage to or loss of property or personal injury or other civil liability caused by or arising out of any actual or alleged act, error, or omission that occurred or that the person against whom the claim is made had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, provided that nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to protect any such person from suit and/or liability for any damage, loss, injury, or liability caused by the intentional or willful or wanton misconduct of that person.

2. The Commission shall defend any member, officer, executive director, employee, or representative of the Commission in any civil action seeking to impose liability arising out of any actual or alleged act, error, or omission that occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities or that the person against whom the claim is made had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, provided that nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit that person from retaining his or her own counsel and provided further that the actual or alleged act, error, or omission did not result from that person's intentional or willful or wanton misconduct.

3. The Commission shall indemnify and hold harmless any member, officer, executive director, employee, or representative of the Commission for the amount of any settlement or judgment obtained against that person arising out of any actual or alleged act, error, or omission that occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities or that such person had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, provided that the actual or alleged act, error, or omission did not result from the intentional or willful or wanton misconduct of that person.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3492. Data system.

A. The Commission shall provide for the development, maintenance, and utilization of a coordinated database and reporting system containing licensure, adverse action, and investigative information on all licensed individuals in member states.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of state law to the contrary, a member state shall submit a uniform data set to the data system on all individuals to whom this Compact is applicable as required by the rules of the Commission, including:

1. Identifying information;

2. Licensure data;

3. Adverse actions against a license or compact privilege;

4. Nonconfidential information related to alternative program participation;

5. Any denial of application for licensure, and the reason or reasons for such denial; and

6. Other information that may facilitate the administration of this Compact, as determined by the rules of the Commission.

C. Investigative information pertaining to a licensee in any member state will only be available to other party states.

D. The Commission shall promptly notify all member states of any adverse action taken against a licensee or an individual applying for a license. Adverse action information pertaining to a licensee in any member state will be available to any other member state.

E. Member states contributing information to the data system may designate information that may not be shared with the public without the express permission of the contributing state.

F. Any information submitted to the data system that is subsequently required to be expunged by the laws of the member state contributing the information shall be removed from the data system.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3493. Rulemaking.

A. The Commission shall exercise its rulemaking powers pursuant to the criteria set forth in this section and the rules adopted thereunder. Rules and amendments shall become binding as of the date specified in each rule or amendment.

B. If a majority of the legislatures of the member states rejects a rule, by enactment of a statute or resolution in the same manner used to adopt the Compact within four years of the date of adoption of the rule, then such rule shall have no further force and effect in any member state.

C. Rules or amendments to the rules shall be adopted at a regular or special meeting of the Commission.

D. Prior to promulgation and adoption of a final rule or rules by the Commission, and at least 30 days in advance of the meeting at which the rule will be considered and voted upon, the Commission shall file a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking:

1. On the website of the Commission or other publicly accessible platform; and

2. On the website of each member state physical therapy licensing board or other publicly accessible platform or the publication in which each state would otherwise publish proposed rules.

E. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking shall include:

1. The proposed time, date, and location of the meeting in which the rule will be considered and voted upon;

2. The text of the proposed rule or amendment and the reason for the proposed rule;

3. A request for comments on the proposed rule from any interested person; and

4. The manner in which interested persons may submit notice to the Commission of their intention to attend the public hearing and any written comments.

F. Prior to adoption of a proposed rule, the Commission shall allow persons to submit written data, facts, opinions, and arguments, which shall be made available to the public.

G. The Commission shall grant an opportunity for a public hearing before it adopts a rule or amendment if a hearing is requested by:

1. At least 25 persons;

2. A state or federal governmental subdivision or agency; or

3. An association having at least 25 members.

H. If a hearing is held on the proposed rule or amendment, the Commission shall publish the place, time, and date of the scheduled public hearing. If the hearing is held via electronic means, the Commission shall publish the mechanism for access to the electronic hearing.

1. All persons wishing to be heard at the hearing shall notify the executive director of the Commission or other designated member in writing of their desire to appear and testify at the hearing not less than five business days before the scheduled date of the hearing.

2. Hearings shall be conducted in a manner providing each person who wishes to comment a fair and reasonable opportunity to comment orally or in writing.

3. All hearings shall be recorded. A copy of the recording shall be made available on request.

4. Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring a separate hearing on each rule. Rules may be grouped for the convenience of the Commission at hearings required by this section.

I. Following the scheduled hearing date, or by the close of business on the scheduled hearing date if the hearing was not held, the Commission shall consider all written and oral comments received.

J. If no written notice of intent to attend the public hearing by interested parties is received, the Commission may proceed with promulgation of the proposed rule without a public hearing.

K. The Commission shall, by majority vote of all members, take final action on the proposed rule and shall determine the effective date of the rule, if any, based on the rulemaking record and the full text of the rule.

L. Upon determination that an emergency exists, the Commission may consider and adopt an emergency rule without prior notice, opportunity for comment, or hearing, provided that the usual rulemaking procedures provided in the Compact and in this section shall be retroactively applied to the rule as soon as reasonably possible, in no event later than 90 days after the effective date of the rule. For the purposes of this provision, an emergency rule is one that must be adopted immediately in order to:

1. Meet an imminent threat to public health, safety, or welfare;

2. Prevent a loss of Commission or member state funds;

3. Meet a deadline for the promulgation of an administrative rule that is established by federal law or rule; or

4. Protect public health and safety.

M. The Commission or an authorized committee of the Commission may direct revisions to a previously adopted rule or amendment for purposes of correcting typographical errors, errors in format, errors in consistency, or grammatical errors. Public notice of any revisions shall be posted on the website of the Commission. The revision shall be subject to challenge by any person for a period of 30 days after posting. The revision may be challenged only on grounds that the revision results in a material change to a rule. A challenge shall be made in writing and delivered to the chair of the Commission prior to the end of the notice period. If no challenge is made, the revision will take effect without further action. If the revision is challenged, the revision may not take effect without the approval of the Commission.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3494. Oversight, dispute resolution, and enforcement.

A. Oversight.

1. The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government in each member state shall enforce this Compact and take all actions necessary and appropriate to effectuate the Compact's purposes and intent. The provisions of this Compact and the rules promulgated hereunder shall have standing as statutory law.

2. All courts shall take judicial notice of the Compact and the rules in any judicial or administrative proceeding in a member state pertaining to the subject matter of this Compact which may affect the powers, responsibilities, or actions of the Commission.

3. The Commission shall be entitled to receive service of process in any such proceeding and shall have standing to intervene in such a proceeding for all purposes. Failure to provide service of process to the Commission shall render a judgment or order void as to the Commission, this Compact, or promulgated rules.

B. Default, technical assistance, and termination.

1. If the Commission determines that a member state has defaulted in the performance of its obligations or responsibilities under this Compact or the promulgated rules, the Commission shall:

a. Provide written notice to the defaulting state and other member states of the nature of the default, the proposed means of curing the default, and/or any other action to be taken by the Commission; and

b. Provide remedial training and specific technical assistance regarding the default.

2. If a state in default fails to cure the default, the defaulting state may be terminated from the Compact upon an affirmative vote of a majority of the member states, and all rights, privileges, and benefits conferred by this Compact may be terminated on the effective date of termination. A cure of the default does not relieve the offending state of obligations or liabilities incurred during the period of default.

3. Termination of membership in the Compact shall be imposed only after all other means of securing compliance have been exhausted. Notice of intent to suspend or terminate shall be given by the Commission to the governor, the majority and minority leaders of the defaulting state's legislature, and each of the member states.

4. A state that has been terminated is responsible for all assessments, obligations, and liabilities incurred through the effective date of termination, including obligations that extend beyond the effective date of termination.

5. The Commission shall not bear any costs related to a state that is found to be in default or that has been terminated from the Compact, unless agreed upon in writing between the Commission and the defaulting state.

6. The defaulting state may appeal the action of the Commission by petitioning the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or the federal district where the Commission has its principal offices. The prevailing member shall be awarded all costs of such litigation, including reasonable attorney fees.

C. Dispute resolution.

1. Upon request by a member state, the Commission shall attempt to resolve disputes related to the Compact that arise among member states and between member and nonmember states.

2. The Commission shall promulgate a rule providing for both mediation and binding dispute resolution for disputes as appropriate.

D. Enforcement.

1. The Commission, in the reasonable exercise of its discretion, shall enforce the provisions and rules of this Compact.

2. By majority vote, the Commission may initiate legal action in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or the federal district where the Commission has its principal offices against a member state in default to enforce compliance with the provisions of the Compact and its promulgated rules and bylaws. The relief sought may include both injunctive relief and damages. In the event judicial enforcement is necessary, the prevailing member shall be awarded all costs of such litigation, including reasonable attorney fees.

3. The remedies herein shall not be the exclusive remedies of the Commission. The Commission may pursue any other remedies available under federal or state law.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3495. Date of implementation of the Interstate Commission for Physical Therapy Practice and associated rules, withdrawal, and amendment.

A. The Compact shall come into effect on the date on which the Compact statute is enacted into law in the tenth member state. The provisions, which become effective at that time, shall be limited to the powers granted to the Commission relating to assembly and the promulgation of rules. Thereafter, the Commission shall meet and exercise rulemaking powers necessary to the implementation and administration of the Compact.

B. Any state that joins the Compact subsequent to the Commission's initial adoption of the rules shall be subject to the rules as they exist on the date on which the Compact becomes law in that state. Any rule that has been previously adopted by the Commission shall have the full force and effect of law on the day the Compact becomes law in that state.

C. Any member state may withdraw from this Compact by enacting a statute repealing the same.

1. A member state's withdrawal shall not take effect until six months after enactment of the repealing statute.

2. Withdrawal shall not affect the continuing requirement of the withdrawing state's physical therapy licensing board to comply with the investigative and adverse action reporting requirements of this act prior to the effective date of withdrawal.

D. Nothing contained in this Compact shall be construed to invalidate or prevent any physical therapy licensure agreement or other cooperative arrangement between a member state and a nonmember state that does not conflict with the provisions of this Compact.

E. This Compact may be amended by the member states. No amendment to this Compact shall become effective and binding upon any member state until it is enacted into the laws of all member states.

2019, c. 300.

§ 54.1-3496. Construction and severability.

This Compact shall be liberally construed so as to effectuate the purposes thereof. The provisions of this Compact shall be severable, and if any phrase, clause, sentence, or provision of this Compact is declared to be contrary to the constitution of any party state or the Constitution of the United States, or the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person, or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this Compact and the applicability thereof to any government, agency, person, or circumstance shall not be affected thereby. If this Compact shall be held contrary to the constitution of any party state, the Compact shall remain in full force and effect as to the remaining party states and in full force and effect as to the party state affected as to all severable matters.

2019, c. 300.