Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 62.1. Waters of the State, Ports and Harbors
Chapter 3.1. State Water Control Law
12/1/2020

Article 3. Regulation of Industrial Establishments.

§ 62.1-44.16. Industrial wastes.

A. Any owner who erects, constructs, opens, reopens, expands, or employs new processes in or operates any establishment from which there is a potential or actual discharge of industrial wastes or other wastes to state waters shall first provide facilities approved by the Board for the treatment or control of such industrial wastes or other wastes.

Application for such discharge shall be made to the Board and shall be accompanied by pertinent plans, specifications, maps, and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the Board.

1. Public notice of every such application shall be given by notice published once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city where the certificate is applied for or by such other means as the Board may prescribe. However, to the extent authorized by federal law and if the permit applicant so chooses, an abbreviated public notice shall be published in such newspaper listing the name of the permitted facility, the type of discharge, and a link to the Department's website with such public notice.

2. The Board shall review the application and the information that accompanies it as soon as practicable and making a ruling within a period of four months from the date the application is filed with the Board approving or disapproving the application and stating the grounds for conditional approval or disapproval. If the application is approved, the Board shall grant a certificate for the discharge of the industrial wastes or other wastes into state waters or for the other alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of state waters, as the case may be. If the application is disapproved, the Board shall notify the owner as to what measures, if any, the owner may take to secure approval.

B. Any owner operating under a valid certificate issued by the Board who fails to meet water quality standards established by the Board solely as a result of a change in water quality standards or in the law shall provide the necessary facilities approved by the Board within a reasonable time to meet such new requirements; provided, however, that such facilities shall be reasonable and practicable of attainment giving consideration to the public interest and the equities of the case. The Board may amend such certificate, or revoke it and issue a new one to reflect such facilities after proper hearing, with at least thirty days' notice to the owner of the time, place, and purpose thereof. If such revocation or amendment of a certificate is mutually agreeable to the Board and the owner involved, the hearing and notice may be dispensed with.

C. The Board shall revoke the certificate in case of a failure to comply with all such requirements and may issue a special order under subdivisions (8a), (8b), and (8c) of § 62.1-44.15 (8).

D. Any locality may adopt an ordinance that provides for the testing and monitoring of the land application of solid or semisolid industrial wastes within its political boundaries to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

E. The Board shall adopt regulations requiring the payment of a fee for the land application of solid or semisolid industrial wastes, pursuant to permits issued under this section, in localities that have adopted ordinances in accordance with subsection D. The person land applying industrial wastes shall (i) provide advance notice of the estimated fee to the generator of the industrial wastes unless notification is waived, (ii) collect the fee from the generator, and (iii) remit the fee to the Department of Environmental Quality as provided by regulation. The fee shall be imposed on each dry ton of solid or semisolid industrial wastes that is land applied in a locality in accordance with the regulations adopted by the Board. The regulations shall include requirements and procedures for:

1. Collection of fees by the Department of Environmental Quality;

2. The deposit of collected fees into the Sludge Management Fund established by subsection G of § 62.1-44.19:3; and

3. Disbursement of proceeds from the Sludge Management Fund by the Department of Environmental Quality pursuant to subsection G of § 62.1-44.19:3.

F. The Department, in consultation with the Department of Health, the Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, shall establish and implement a program to train persons employed by those local governments that have adopted ordinances, pursuant to this section, to test and monitor the land application of industrial wastes. The program shall include, at a minimum, instruction in (i) the provisions of the Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation; (ii) land application methods and equipment, including methods and processes for preparation and stabilization of industrial wastes that are land applied; (iii) sampling and chain of custody control; (iv) preparation and implementation of nutrient management plans for land application sites; (v) complaint response and preparation of complaint and inspection reports; (vi) enforcement authority and procedures; (vii) interaction and communication with the public; and (viii) preparation of applications for reimbursement of local monitoring costs disbursed pursuant to subsection G of § 62.1-44.19:3. To the extent feasible, the program shall emphasize in-field instruction and practical training. Persons employed by local governments shall successfully complete such training before the local government may request reimbursement from the Board for testing and monitoring of land application of solid or semisolid industrial wastes performed by the person. The completion of training shall not be a prerequisite to the exercise of authority granted to local governments by any applicable provision of law.

The Department may:

1. Charge attendees a reasonable fee to recover the actual costs of preparing course materials and providing facilities and instructors for the program. The fee shall be reimbursable from the Fund established pursuant to subsection G of § 62.1-44.19:3; and

2. Request and accept the assistance and participation of other state agencies and institutions in preparing and presenting the course of training established by this subsection.

1970, c. 638; 2015, cc. 104, 677; 2018, c. 552.

§ 62.1-44.16:1. Local enforcement of industrial waste permits.

A. Any locality that has adopted an ordinance for the testing and monitoring of the land application of industrial wastes pursuant to § 62.1-44.16 shall have the authority to order the abatement of any violation of § 62.1-44.16 or of any violation of any permit or certificate issued under that section. Such abatement order shall identify the activity constituting the violation, specify the provision of the Code of Virginia or permit condition violated by the activity, and order that the activity cease immediately.

B. In the event of any dispute concerning the existence of a violation, the activity alleged to be in violation shall be halted pending a determination by the Director, whose decision shall be final and binding unless reversed on judicial appeal pursuant to § 2.2-4026. Any person who fails or refuses to halt such activity may be compelled to do so by injunction issued by a court having competent jurisdiction. Upon determination by the Director that there has been a violation of § 62.1-44.16 or of any permit or certificate issued under that section and that such violation poses an imminent threat to public health, safety, or welfare, the Department shall commence appropriate action to abate the violation and immediately notify the chief administrative officer of any locality potentially affected by the violation. Neither the Board, the Commonwealth, nor any employee of the Commonwealth shall be liable for failing to provide the notification required by this section.

C. Local governments shall promptly notify the Department of all results from the testing and monitoring of the land application of industrial wastes performed by persons employed by local governments and any violation of § 62.1-44.16 or of any violation of any permit or certificate issued under that section, discovered by local governments.

2015, cc. 104, 677.

§ 62.1-44.17. Other wastes.

(1) Any owner who handles, stores, distributes or produces other wastes as defined in § 62.1-44.3, any owner who causes or permits same to be handled, stored, distributed or produced or any owner upon or in whose establishment other wastes are handled, stored, distributed or produced shall upon request of the Board install facilities approved by the Board or adopt such measures approved by the Board as are necessary to prevent the escape, flow or discharge into any state waters when the escape, flow or discharge of such other wastes into any state waters would cause pollution of such state waters.

(2) Any owner under this section requested by the Board to provide facilities or adopt such measures shall make application therefor to the Board. Such application shall be accompanied by a copy of pertinent plans, specifications, maps, and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the Board.

(3) The Board shall review the application and the information that accompanies it as soon as practicable and make a ruling within a period of four months from the date the application is filed with the Board approving or disapproving the application and stating the grounds for conditional approval or disapproval. If the application is approved, the Board shall grant a certificate for the handling, storing, distribution or production of such other wastes. If the application is disapproved, the Board shall notify the owner as to what measures the owner may take to secure approval.

Code 1950, § 62.1-30; 1968, c. 659; 1970, c. 638.

§ 62.1-44.17:1. Permits for confined animal feeding operations.

A. For the purposes of this chapter, "confined animal feeding operation" means a lot or facility, together with any associated treatment works, where both of the following conditions are met:

1. Animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period; and

2. Crops, vegetation, forage growth or post-harvest residues are not sustained over any portion of the operation of the lot or facility.

Two or more confined animal feeding operations under common ownership are considered to be a single confined animal feeding operation if they adjoin each other or if they use a common area or system for the disposal of liquid waste.

A1. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection B, the Board shall promulgate regulations requiring Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for confined animal feeding operations to the extent necessary to comply with § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. § 1342), as amended.

B. A confined animal feeding operation with 300 or more animal units utilizing a liquid manure collection and storage system, upon fulfillment of the requirements of this section, shall be permitted by a General Virginia Pollution Abatement permit (hereafter referred to as the "General Permit"), adopted by the Board. In adopting the General Permit the Board shall:

1. Authorize the General Permit to pertain to confined animal feeding operations having 300 or more animal units;

2. Establish procedures for submitting a registration statement meeting the requirements of subsection C. Submitting a registration statement shall be evidence of intention to be covered by the General Permit; and

3. Establish criteria for the design and operation of confined animal feeding operations only as described in subsection E.

C. For coverage under the General Permit, the owner of the confined animal feeding operation shall file a registration statement with the Department of Environmental Quality providing the name and address of the owner of the operation, the name and address of the operator of the operation (if different than the owner), the mailing address and location of the operation, and a list of the types, maximum number and average weight of the animals that will be maintained at the facility. The owner shall attach to the registration statement:

1. A copy of a letter of approval of the nutrient management plan for the operation from the Department of Conservation and Recreation;

2. A copy of the approved nutrient management plan;

3. A notification from the governing body of the locality where the operation is located that the operation is consistent with all ordinances adopted pursuant to Chapter 22 (§ 15.2-2200 et seq.) of Title 15.2;

4. A certification that the owner or operator meets all the requirements of the Board for the General Permit; and

5. A certification that the owner has given notice of the registration statement to all owners or residents of property that adjoins the property on which the proposed operation will be located. Such notice shall include (i) the types and maximum number of animals that will be maintained at the facility and (ii) the address and phone number of the appropriate Department of Environmental Quality regional office to which comments relevant to the permit may be submitted. Such certification of notice shall be waived whenever the registration is for the purpose of renewing coverage under a permit for which no expansion is proposed and the Department of Environmental Quality has not issued any special or consent order relating to violations under the existing permit.

D. Any person may submit written comments on the proposed operation to the Department within 30 days of the date of the filing of the registration statement. If, on the basis of such written comments or his review, the Director determines that the proposed operation will not be capable of complying with the provisions of this section, the Director shall require the owner to obtain an individual permit for the operation. Any such determination by the Director shall be made in writing and received by the owner not more than 45 days after the filing of the registration statement or, if in the Director's sole discretion additional time is necessary to evaluate comments received from the public, not more than 60 days after the filing of the registration statement.

E. The criteria for the design and operation of a confined animal feeding operation shall be as follows:

1. The operation shall have a liquid manure collection and storage facility designed and operated to: (i) prevent any discharge to state waters, except a discharge resulting from a storm event exceeding a 25-year, 24-hour storm and (ii) provide adequate waste storage capacity to accommodate periods when the ground is frozen or saturated, periods when land application of nutrients should not occur due to limited or nonexistent crop nutrient uptake, and periods when physical limitations prohibit the land application of waste;

2. The operation shall implement and maintain on site a nutrient management plan approved pursuant to subdivision 1 of subsection C. The nutrient management plan shall contain at a minimum the following information: (i) a site map indicating the location of the waste storage facilities and the fields where waste will be applied; (ii) site evaluation and assessment of soil types and potential productivities; (iii) nutrient management sampling including soil and waste monitoring; (iv) storage and land area requirements; (v) calculation of waste application rates; (vi) waste application schedules; and (vii) a plan for waste utilization in the event the operation is discontinued;

3. Adequate buffer zones, where waste shall not be applied, shall be maintained between areas where waste may be applied and (i) water supply wells or springs, (ii) surface water courses, (iii) rock outcroppings, (iv) sinkholes, and (v) occupied dwellings unless a waiver is signed by the occupants of the dwellings;

4. The operation shall be monitored as follows: (i) waste shall be monitored at least once per year; (ii) soil shall be monitored at least once every three years; (iii) ground water shall be monitored at new earthen waste storage facilities constructed to an elevation below the seasonal high water table or within one foot thereof; and (iv) all facilities previously covered by a Virginia Pollution Abatement permit that required ground water monitoring shall continue such monitoring. In such facilities constructed below the water table, the top surface of the waste must be maintained at a level of at least two feet above the water table. The Department of Environmental Quality and the Department of Conservation and Recreation may include in the permit or nutrient management plan more frequent or additional monitoring of waste, soils or groundwater as required to protect state waters. Records shall be maintained to demonstrate where and at what rate waste has been applied, that the application schedule has been followed, and what crops have been planted. Such records shall be available for inspection by the Department of Environmental Quality and shall be maintained for a period of five years after recorded application is made;

5. New earthen waste storage facilities shall include a properly designed and installed liner. Such liner shall be either a synthetic liner of at least 20 mils thickness or a compacted soil liner of at least one foot thickness with a maximum permeability rating of 0.0014 inches per hour. A licensed professional engineer, an employee of the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the United States Department of Agriculture with appropriate engineering approval authority, or an employee of a soil and water conservation district with appropriate engineering approval authority shall certify that the siting, design and construction of the waste storage facility comply with the requirements of this section;

6. New waste storage facilities shall not be located on a 100-year flood plain;

7. All facilities must maintain one foot of freeboard at all times, up to and including a 25-year, 24-hour storm;

8. All equipment needed for the proper operation of the permitted facilities shall be maintained in good working order. Manufacturer's operating and maintenance manuals shall be retained for references to allow for timely maintenance and prompt repair of equipment when appropriate;

9. The owner or operator of the operation shall notify the Department of Environmental Quality at least 14 days prior to animals being placed in the confined facility; and

10. Each operator of a facility covered by the General Permit on July 1, 1999, shall, by January 1, 2000, complete the training program offered or approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation under subsection F. Each operator of a facility permitted after July 1, 1999, shall complete such training within one year after the registration statement required by subsection C has been submitted. Thereafter, all operators shall complete the training program at least once every three years.

F. The Department of Conservation and Recreation, in consultation with the Department of Environmental Quality and the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, shall develop or approve a training program for persons operating confined animal feeding operations covered by the General Permit. The program shall include training in the requirements of the General Permit; the use of best management practices; inspection and management of liquid manure collection, storage and application systems; water quality monitoring and spill prevention; and emergency procedures.

G. Operations having an individual Virginia Pollution Abatement permit or a No Discharge Certificate may submit a registration statement for operation under the General Permit pursuant to this section.

H. The Director of the Department of Environmental Quality may require the owner of a confined animal feeding operation to obtain an individual permit for an operation subject to this section upon determining that the operation is in violation of the provisions of this section or if coverage under an individual permit is required to comply with federal law. New or reissued individual permits shall contain criteria for the design and operation of confined animal feeding operations including, but not limited to, those described in subsection E.

I. No person shall operate a confined animal feeding operation with 300 or more animal units utilizing a liquid manure collection and storage system after July 1, 2000, without having submitted a registration statement as provided in subsection C or being covered by a Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit or an individual Virginia Pollution Abatement permit.

J. Any person violating this section shall be subject only to the provisions of §§ 62.1-44.23 and 62.1-44.32 (a), except that any civil penalty imposed shall not exceed $2,500 for any confined animal feeding operation covered by a Virginia Pollution Abatement permit.

1994, c. 698; 1998, cc. 805, 863; 2001, c. 109; 2003, c. 375; 2004, c. 455.

§ 62.1-44.17:1.1. Poultry waste management program.

A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Commercial poultry processor" means any animal food manufacturer, as defined in § 3.2-5400, that contracts with poultry growers for the raising of poultry.

"Confined poultry feeding operation" means any confined animal feeding operation with 200 or more animal units of poultry.

"Nutrient management plan" means a plan developed or approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation that requires proper storage, treatment and management of poultry waste, including dry litter, and limits accumulation of excess nutrients in soils and leaching or discharge of nutrients into state waters.

"Poultry grower" means any person who owns or operates a confined poultry feeding operation.

B. The Board shall develop a regulatory program governing the storage, treatment and management of poultry waste, including dry litter, that:

1. Requires the development and implementation of nutrient management plans for any person owning or operating a confined poultry feeding operation;

2. Provides for waste tracking and accounting; and

3. Ensures proper storage of waste consistent with the terms and provisions of a nutrient management plan.

C. The program shall include, at a minimum:

1. Provisions for permitting confined poultry feeding operations under a general permit; however, the Board may require an individual permit upon determining that an operation is in violation of the program developed under this section;

2. Provisions requiring that:

a. Nitrogen application rates contained in nutrient management plans developed pursuant to this section shall not exceed crop nutrient needs as determined by the Department of Conservation and Recreation. The application of poultry waste shall be managed to minimize runoff, leaching, and volatilization losses, and reduce adverse water quality impacts from nitrogen;

b. For all nutrient management plans developed pursuant to this section after October 1, 2001, phosphorous application rates shall not exceed the greater of crop nutrient needs or crop nutrient removal, as determined by the Department of Conservation and Recreation. The application of poultry waste shall be managed to minimize runoff and leaching and reduce adverse water quality impacts from phosphorus;

c. By December 31, 2005, the Department of Conservation and Recreation, in consultation with the Department of Environmental Quality, shall (i) complete an examination of current developments in scientific research and technology that shall include a review of land application of poultry waste, soil nutrient retention capacity, and water quality degradation and (ii) adopt and implement regulatory or other changes, if any, to its nutrient management plan program that it concludes are appropriate as a result of this examination; and

d. Notwithstanding subdivision 2 b, upon the effective date of the Department of Conservation and Recreation's revised regulatory criteria and standards governing phosphorous application rates adopted pursuant to subdivision 2 c, or on October 31, 2005, whichever is later, phosphorous application rates for all nutrient management plans developed pursuant to this section shall conform solely to such regulatory criteria and standards adopted by the Department of Conservation and Recreation to protect water quality or to reduce soil concentrations of phosphorus or phosphorous loadings. The application of poultry waste shall be managed to minimize runoff and leaching and reduce adverse water quality impacts from phosphorus.

D. The program shall reflect Board consideration of existing state-approved nutrient management plans and existing general permit programs for other confined animal feeding operations, and may include such other provisions as the Board determines appropriate for the protection of state waters.

E. After October 1, 2001, all persons owning or operating a confined poultry feeding operation shall operate in compliance with the provisions of this section and any regulations promulgated thereunder.

F. Any person violating this section shall be subject only to the provisions of §§ 62.1-44.23 and 62.1-44.32 (a), except that any civil penalty shall not exceed $2,500 for any confined animal feeding operation covered by a Virginia Pollution Abatement permit.

G. On or before January 1, 2000, or prior to commencing operations, each commercial poultry processor operating in the Commonwealth shall file with the Board a plan under which the processor, either directly or under contract with a third party, shall:

1. Provide technical assistance to the poultry growers with whom it contracts on the proper management and storage of poultry waste in accordance with best management practices;

2. Provide education programs on poultry waste nutrient management for the poultry growers with whom it contracts as well as for poultry litter brokers and persons utilizing poultry waste;

3. Provide a toll-free hotline and advertising program to assist poultry growers with excess amounts of poultry waste to make available such waste to persons in other areas who can use such waste as a fertilizer consistent with the provisions of subdivision C 2 or for other alternative purposes;

4. Participate in the development of a poultry waste transportation and alternative use equal matching grant program between the Commonwealth and commercial poultry processors to (i) facilitate the transportation of excess poultry waste in the possession of poultry growers with whom it contracts to persons in other areas who can use such waste as a fertilizer consistent with the provisions of subdivision C 2 or for other alternative purposes and (ii) encourage alternative uses to land application of poultry waste;

5. Conduct research on the reduction of phosphorus in poultry waste, innovative best management practices for poultry waste, water quality issues concerning poultry waste, or alternative uses of poultry waste; and

6. Conduct research on and consider implementation of nutrient reduction strategies in the formulation of feed. Such nutrient reduction strategies may include the addition of phytase or other feed additives or modifications to reduce nutrients in poultry waste.

H. Any amendments to the plan required by subsection G shall be filed with the Board before they are implemented. After January 1, 2000, each commercial poultry processor shall implement its plan and any amendments thereto. Each commercial poultry processor shall report annually to the Board on the activities it has undertaken pursuant to its plan and any amendments thereto. Failure to comply with the provisions of this section or to implement and follow a filed plan or any amendments thereto shall constitute a violation of this section.

1999, c. 1; 2004, c. 455; 2005, c. 78.