Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Chapter 3. Actions

Article 4. Defamation.

§ 8.01-45. Action for insulting words.

All words shall be actionable which from their usual construction and common acceptance are construed as insults and tend to violence and breach of the peace.

Code 1950, § 8-630; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-46. Justification and mitigation of damages.

In any action for defamation, the defendant may justify by alleging and proving that the words spoken or written were true, and, after notice in writing of his intention to do so, given to the plaintiff at the time of, or for, pleading to such action, may give in evidence, in mitigation of damages, that he made or offered an apology to the plaintiff for such defamation before the commencement of the action, or as soon afterwards as he had an opportunity of doing so in case the action shall have been commenced before there was an opportunity of making or offering such apology.

Code 1950, § 8-631; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-46.1. Disclosure of employment-related information; presumptions; causes of action; definitions.

A. Any employer who, upon request by a person's prospective or current employer, furnishes information about that person's professional conduct, reasons for separation or job performance, including, but not limited to, information contained in any written performance evaluations, shall be immune from civil liability for furnishing such information, provided that the employer is not acting in bad faith. An employer shall be presumed to be acting in good faith. The presumption of good faith shall be rebutted if it is shown by clear and convincing evidence that the employer disclosed such information with knowledge that it was false, or with reckless disregard for whether it is false or not, or with the intent to deliberately mislead.

B. In a civil action brought against an employer for disclosing the information described in subsection A, if the trier of fact determines the employer acted in bad faith, punitive damages may be awarded, as provided by § 8.01-38.1.

C. As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

"Employee" means any person, paid or unpaid, in the service of an employer.

"Employer" means any person, firm or corporation, including the Commonwealth of Virginia and its political subdivisions, and their agents, who has one or more employees or individuals performing services under any contract of hire or service, express or implied, oral or written.

"Information" includes, but is not limited to, facts, data and opinions.

"Job performance" includes, but is not limited to, ability, attendance, awards, demotions, duties, effort, evaluations, knowledge, skills, promotions, productivity and disciplinary actions.

"Professional conduct" includes, but is not limited to, the ethical standards which govern the employee's profession, or lawful conduct which is expected of the employee by the employer.

"Prospective employer" means any employer who is considering a person for employment.

2000, c. 1005.

§ 8.01-46.2. Civil action for dissemination of intimate images to another; penalty.

A. As used in this section:

"Electronic communication device" means the same as that term is defined in § 18.2-190.1.

"Intimate image" means a photograph, film, video, recording, digital picture, or other visual reproduction of a person 18 years of age or older who is in a state of undress so as to expose the human male or female genitals.

B. Any person 18 years of age or older who knowingly transmits an intimate image by computer or other electronic means to the computer or electronic communication device of another person 18 years of age or older when such other person has not consented to the use of his computer or electronic communication device for the receipt of such material or has expressly forbidden the receipt of such material shall be considered a trespass and shall be liable to the recipient of the intimate image for actual damages or $500, whichever is greater, in addition to reasonable attorney fees and costs. The court may also enjoin and restrain the defendant from committing such further acts.

The remedies provided by this section are cumulative and shall not be construed as restricting a remedy that is available under any other law.

C. The provisions of this section shall not apply to (i) any Internet service provider, mobile data provider, or operator of an online or mobile application, to the extent that such entity is transmitting, routing, or providing connections for electronic communications initiated by or at the direction of another; (ii) any service that transmits an intimate image, including an on-demand, subscription, or advertising-supported service; (iii) a health care provider as defined in § 8.01-581.1 that transmits an intimate image for a legitimate medical purpose; or (iv) any transmission of commercial electronic mail as defined in § 18.2-152.2.

D. Venue for an action under this section may lie in the jurisdiction where the intimate image is transmitted from or where the intimate image is received or possessed by the plaintiff.

2022, c. 523.

§ 8.01-47. Immunity of persons investigating or reporting certain incidents at schools.

In addition to any other immunity he may have, any person who, in good faith with reasonable cause and without malice, acts to report, investigate, or cause any investigation to be made into the activities of any student or students or any other person or persons as they relate to conduct involving bomb threats, firebombs, explosive materials, or other similar devices as described in subdivisions A 6 and 7 of § 22.1-279.3:1, alcohol or drug use or abuse in or related to the school or institution or in connection with any school or institution activity, or information that an individual poses any credible danger of serious bodily injury or death to one or more students, school personnel, or others on school property shall be immune from all civil liability that might otherwise be incurred or imposed as the result of the making of such a report, investigation, or disclosure.

Code 1950, § 8-631.1; 1972, c. 762; 1977, c. 617; 1982, c. 259; 1988, c. 159; 1995, c. 759; 2000, c. 79; 2001, cc. 688, 820; 2003, c. 954; 2013, c. 665; 2022, cc. 793, 794.

§ 8.01-48. Mitigation in actions against newspapers, etc.

In any civil action against the publisher, owner, editor, reporter or employee of any newspaper, magazine or periodical under § 8.01-45, or for libel or defamation, because of any article, statement or other matter contained in any such newspaper, magazine or periodical, the defendant, whether punitive damages be sought or not, may introduce in evidence in mitigation of general and punitive damages, or either, but not of actual pecuniary damages, all the circumstances of the publication, including the source of the information, its character as affording reasonable ground of reliance, any prior publication elsewhere of similar purport, the lack of negligence or malice on the part of the defendant, the good faith of the defendant in such publication, or that apology or retraction, if any, was made with reasonable promptness and fairness; provided that the defendant may introduce in evidence only such circumstances and to the extent set forth in his or its grounds of defense.

Code 1950, § 8-632; 1954, c. 333; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-49. Defamatory statements in radio and television broadcasts.

The owner, licensee or operator of a radio and television broadcasting station or network of stations, and the agents or employees of any such owner, licensee or operator, shall not be liable for any damages for any defamatory statement published or uttered in or as a part of any such broadcast, by one other than such owner, licensee or operator, or agent or employee thereof, unless it shall be alleged and proved by the complaining party, that such owner, licensee, operator, such agent or employee, failed to exercise due care to prevent the publication or utterance of such statement in such broadcast; provided, however, that in no event shall any owner, licensee or operator, or the agents or employees of any such owner, licensee or operator of such a station or network of stations be held liable for damages for any defamatory statement broadcast over the facilities of such station or network by or on behalf of any candidate for public office.

Code 1950, § 8-632.1; 1977, c. 617.

§ 8.01-49.1. Liability for defamatory material on the Internet.

A. No provider or user of an interactive computer service on the Internet shall be treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided to it by another information content provider. No provider or user of an interactive computer service shall be liable for (i) any action voluntarily taken by it in good faith to restrict access to, or availability of, material that the provider or user considers to be obscene, lewd, lascivious, excessively violent, harassing, or intended to incite hatred on the basis of race, religious conviction, gender, disability, gender identity, sexual orientation, color, or national origin, whether or not such material is constitutionally protected, or (ii) any action taken to enable, or make available to information content providers or others, the technical means to restrict access to information provided by another information content provider.

B. As used in this section:

"Disability" means a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of a person's major life activities.

"Information content provider" means any person or entity that is responsible, in whole or in part, for the creation or development of information provided through the Internet or any other interactive computer service.

"Interactive computer service" means any information service, system, or access software provider that provides or enables computer access by multiple users to a computer server, including specifically a service or system that provides access to the Internet and such systems operated or services offered by libraries or educational institutions.

"Internet" means the international computer network of interoperable packet-switched data networks.

2000, c. 930; 2020, cc. 746, 1171.