Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 8.1A. Uniform Commercial Code -- General Provisions

Part 3. Territorial Applicability and General Rules.

§ 8.1A-301. Territorial applicability; parties' power to choose applicable law.

(a) This section applies to a transaction to the extent that it is governed by another title of the Uniform Commercial Code.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this section, when a transaction bears a reasonable relation to this state and also to another state or nation the parties may agree that the law either of this state or such other state or nation shall govern their rights and duties.

(c) In the absence of an agreement effective under subsection (b), the rights and obligations of the parties are determined by the law that would be selected by application of this State's conflict of laws principles.

(d) To the extent that the Uniform Commercial Code governs a transaction, if one of the following provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code specifies the applicable law, that provision governs and a contrary agreement is effective only to the extent permitted by the law so specified:

(1) Rights of creditors against sold goods. § 8.2-402;

(2) Applicability of the title on leases. §§ 8.2A-105 and 8.2A-106;

(3) Applicability of the title on bank deposits and collections. § 8.4-102;

(4) Applicability of the title on funds transfers. § 8.4A-507;

(5) Letters of credit. § 8.5A-116;

(6) Applicability of the title on investment securities. § 8.8A-110;

(7) Law governing perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of security interests and agricultural liens. §§ 8.9A-301 through 8.9A-307.

1964, c. 219, § 8.1-105; 1973, c. 509; 1990, c. 9; 1991, c. 536; 1996, c. 216; 1997, cc. 121, 343; 2000, c. 1007; 2003, c. 353; 2011, c. 369.

§ 8.1A-302. Variation by agreement.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) or elsewhere in the Uniform Commercial Code, the effect of provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code may be varied by agreement.

(b) The obligations of good faith, diligence, reasonableness, and care prescribed by the Uniform Commercial Code may not be disclaimed by agreement. The parties, by agreement, may determine the standards by which the performance of those obligations is to be measured if those standards are not manifestly unreasonable. Whenever the Uniform Commercial Code requires an action to be taken within a reasonable time, a time that is not manifestly unreasonable may be fixed by agreement.

(c) The presence in certain provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code of the phrase "unless otherwise agreed," or words of similar import, does not imply that the effect of other provisions may not be varied by agreement under this section.

1964, c. 219, §§ 8.1-102, 8.1-204; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-303. Course of performance, course of dealing, and usage of trade.

(a) A "course of performance" is a sequence of conduct between the parties to a particular transaction that exists if:

(1) the agreement of the parties with respect to the transaction involves repeated occasions for performance by a party; and

(2) the other party, with knowledge of the nature of the performance and opportunity for objection to it, accepts the performance or acquiesces in it without objection.

(b) A "course of dealing" is a sequence of conduct concerning previous transactions between the parties to a particular transaction that is fairly to be regarded as establishing a common basis of understanding for interpreting their expressions and other conduct.

(c) A "usage of trade" is any practice or method of dealing having such regularity of observance in a place, vocation, or trade as to justify an expectation that it will be observed with respect to the transaction in question. The existence and scope of such a usage must be proved as facts. If it is established that such a usage is embodied in a trade code or similar record, the interpretation of the record is a question of law.

(d) A course of performance or course of dealing between the parties or usage of trade in the vocation or trade in which they are engaged or of which they are or should be aware is relevant in ascertaining the meaning of the parties' agreement, may give particular meaning to specific terms of the agreement, and may supplement or qualify the terms of the agreement. A usage of trade applicable in the place in which part of the performance under the agreement is to occur may be so utilized as to that part of the performance.

(e) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (f), the express terms of an agreement and any applicable course of performance, course of dealing, or usage of trade must be construed whenever reasonable as consistent with each other. If such a construction is unreasonable:

(1) express terms prevail over course of performance, course of dealing, and usage of trade;

(2) course of performance prevails over course of dealing and usage of trade; and

(3) course of dealing prevails over usage of trade.

(f) Subject to § 8.2-209, a course of performance is relevant to show a waiver or modification of any term inconsistent with the course of performance.

(g) Evidence of a relevant usage of trade offered by one party is not admissible unless that party has given the other party notice that the court finds sufficient to prevent unfair surprise to the other party.

1964, c. 219, §§ 8.1-205, 8.2-208; 1991, c. 536, § 8.2A-207; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-304. Obligation of good faith.

Every contract or duty within the Uniform Commercial Code imposes an obligation of good faith in its performance and enforcement.

1964, c. 219, § 8.1-203; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-305. Remedies to be liberally administered.

(a) The remedies provided by the Uniform Commercial Code shall be liberally administered to the end that the aggrieved party may be put in as good a position as if the other party had fully performed but neither consequential or special damages nor penal damages may be had except as specifically provided in the Uniform Commercial Code or by other rule of law.

(b) Any right or obligation declared by the Uniform Commercial Code is enforceable by action unless the provision declaring it specifies a different and limited effect.

1964, c. 219, § 8.1-106; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-306. Waiver or renunciation of claim or right after breach.

A claim or right arising out of an alleged breach may be discharged in whole or in part without consideration by agreement of the aggrieved party in an authenticated record.

Code 1950, §§ 6-472, 6-473, 6-475; 1964, c. 219, § 8.1-107; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-307. Prima facie evidence by third-party documents.

A document in due form purporting to be a bill of lading, policy or certificate of insurance, official weigher's or inspector's certificate, consular invoice, or any other document authorized or required by the contract to be issued by a third party is prima facie evidence of its own authenticity and genuineness and of the facts stated in the document by the third party.

1964, c. 219, § 8.1-202; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-308. Performance or acceptance under reservation of rights.

(a) A party that with explicit reservation of rights performs or promises performance or assents to performance in a manner demanded or offered by the other party does not thereby prejudice the rights reserved. Such words as "without prejudice," "under protest," or the like are sufficient.

(b) Subsection (a) does not apply to an accord and satisfaction.

1964, c. 219, § 8.1-207; 1992, c. 693; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-309. Option to accelerate at will.

A term providing that one party or that party's successor in interest may accelerate payment or performance or require collateral or additional collateral "at will" or when the party "deems itself insecure," or words of similar import, means that the party has power to do so only if that party in good faith believes that the prospect of payment or performance is impaired. The burden of establishing lack of good faith is on the party against which the power has been exercised.

1964, c. 219, § 8.1-208; 1974, c. 572; 2003, c. 353.

§ 8.1A-310. Subordinated obligations.

An obligation may be issued as subordinated to performance of another obligation of the person obligated, or a creditor may subordinate its right to performance of an obligation by agreement with either the person obligated or another creditor of the person obligated. Subordination does not create a security interest as against either the common debtor or a subordinated creditor.

2003, c. 353.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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