Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 9.1. Commonwealth Public Safety
Chapter 1. Department of Criminal Justice Services
6/18/2021

Article 3. Criminal Justice Information System.

§ 9.1-126. Application and construction of article.

A. This article shall apply to original or copied criminal history record information, maintained by a criminal justice agency of (i) the Commonwealth or its political subdivisions and (ii) the United States or another state or its political subdivisions which exchange such information with an agency covered in clause (i), but only to the extent of that exchange.

B. The provisions of this article shall not apply to original or copied (i) records of entry, such as police blotters, maintained by a criminal justice agency on a chronological basis and permitted to be made public, if such records are not indexed or accessible by name, (ii) court records of public criminal proceedings, including opinions and published compilations thereof, (iii) records of traffic offenses disseminated to or maintained by the Department of Motor Vehicles for the purpose of regulating the issuance, suspension, revocation, or renewal of drivers' or other operators' licenses, (iv) statistical or analytical records or reports in which individuals are not identified and from which their identities cannot be ascertained, (v) announcements of executive clemency, pardons, or removals of political disabilities, (vi) posters, announcements, or lists for identifying or apprehending fugitives or wanted persons, (vii) criminal justice intelligence information, or (viii) criminal justice investigative information. Except as provided in §§ 15.2-1722, 16.1-299, and 19.2-390, nothing contained in this article shall be construed as requiring any criminal justice agency to collect, maintain, or update criminal history record information, as defined in § 9.1-101, when such information is already available and readily accessible from another criminal justice agency.

C. Nothing contained in this article shall be construed as prohibiting a criminal justice agency from disclosing to the public factual information concerning the status of an investigation, the apprehension, arrest, release, or prosecution of an individual, the adjudication of charges, or the correctional status of an individual, which is related to the offense for which the individual is currently within the criminal justice system.

1981, c. 632, § 9-184; 2001, c. 844; 2007, c. 389.

§ 9.1-127. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, cc. 821 and 854, cl. 2.

§ 9.1-128. Dissemination of criminal history record information; Board to adopt regulations and procedures.

A. Criminal history record information shall be disseminated, whether directly or through an intermediary, only in accordance with § 19.2-389.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations and procedures for the interstate dissemination of criminal history record information by which criminal justice agencies of the Commonwealth shall ensure that the limitations on dissemination of criminal history record information set forth in § 19.2-389 are accepted by recipients and will remain operative in the event of further dissemination.

C. The Board shall adopt regulations and procedures for the validation of an interstate recipient's right to obtain criminal history record information from criminal justice agencies of the Commonwealth.

1981, c. 632, §§ 9-187, 9-188; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-129. Participation of state and local agencies in interstate system; access to system limited.

A. The Board shall regulate participation of state and local agencies in any interstate system for the exchange of criminal history record information and shall be responsible for ensuring the consistency of such participation with the terms and purposes of this article. The Board shall have no authority to compel any agency to participate in any such interstate system.

B. Direct access to any such system shall be limited to the criminal justice agencies expressly designated for that purpose by the Board.

1981, c. 632, § 9-189; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-130. Procedures to be adopted by agencies maintaining criminal justice information systems.

Each criminal justice agency maintaining and operating a criminal justice information system shall adopt procedures reasonably designed to ensure:

1. The physical security of the system and the prevention of unauthorized disclosure of the information in the system;

2. The timeliness and accuracy of information in the system;

3. That all criminal justice agencies to which criminal offender record information is disseminated or from which it is collected are currently and accurately informed of any correction, deletion, or revision of such information;

4. Prompt purging or sealing of criminal offender record information when required by state or federal statute, regulation, or court order;

5. Use or dissemination of criminal offender record information by criminal justice agency personnel only after it has been determined to be the most accurate and complete information available to the criminal justice agency.

1981, c. 632, § 9-191; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-131. Annual audits.

The Board shall ensure that annual audits are conducted of a representative sample of state and local criminal justice agencies to ensure compliance with this article and Board regulations. The Board shall adopt such regulations as may be necessary for the conduct of audits, the retention of records to facilitate such audits, the determination of necessary corrective actions, and the reporting of corrective actions taken.

1981, c. 632, § 9-186; 1984, cc. 30, 734; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-132. Individual's right of access to and review and correction of information.

A. Any individual who believes that criminal history record information is being maintained about him by the Central Criminal Records Exchange (the "Exchange"), or by the arresting law-enforcement agency in the case of offenses not required to be reported to the Exchange, shall have the right to inspect a copy of his criminal history record information at the Exchange or the arresting law-enforcement agency, respectively, for the purpose of ascertaining the completeness and accuracy of the information. The individual's right to access and review shall not extend to any information or data other than that defined in § 9.1-101.

B. The Board shall adopt regulations with respect to an individual's right to access and review criminal history record information about himself reported to the Exchange or, if not reported to the Exchange, maintained by the arresting law-enforcement agency. The regulations shall provide for (i) public notice of the right of access; (ii) access to criminal history record information by an individual or an attorney-at-law acting for an individual; (iii) the submission of identification; (iv) the places and times for review; (v) review of Virginia records by individuals located in other states; (vi) assistance in understanding the record; (vii) obtaining a copy for purposes of initiating a challenge to the record; (viii) procedures for investigation of alleged incompleteness or inaccuracy; (ix) completion or correction of records if indicated; and (x) notification of the individuals and agencies to whom an inaccurate or incomplete record has been disseminated.

C. If an individual believes information maintained about him is inaccurate or incomplete, he may request the agency having custody or control of the records to purge, modify, or supplement them. Should the agency decline to so act, or should the individual believe the agency's decision to be otherwise unsatisfactory, the individual may make written request for review by the Board. The Board or its designee shall, in each case in which it finds prima facie basis for a complaint, conduct a hearing at which the individual may appear with counsel, present evidence, and examine and cross-examine witnesses. The Board shall issue written findings and conclusions. Should the record in question be found to be inaccurate or incomplete, the criminal justice agency maintaining the information shall purge, modify, or supplement it in accordance with the findings and conclusions of the Board. Notification of purging, modification, or supplementation of criminal history record information shall be promptly made by the criminal justice agency maintaining the previously inaccurate information to any individuals or agencies to which the information in question was communicated, as well as to the individual who is the subject of the records.

D. Criminal justice agencies shall maintain records of all agencies to whom criminal history record information has been disseminated, the date upon which the information was disseminated, and such other record matter for the number of years required by regulations of the Board.

E. Any individual or agency aggrieved by any order or decision of the Board may appeal the order or decision in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

1981, c. 632, § 9-192; 1986, c. 615; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-133. Certain information not subject to review or correction.

A. Background checks for security clearances and investigative information not connected with a criminal prosecution or litigation including investigations of rule infractions in correctional institutions shall not be subject to review or correction by data subjects.

B. Correctional information about an offender including counselor reports, diagnostic summaries and other sensitive information not explicitly classified as criminal history record information shall not be subject to review or correction by data subjects.

1981, c. 632, § 9-193; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-134. Sealing of criminal history record information.

The Board shall adopt procedures reasonably designed to (i) ensure prompt sealing or purging of criminal history record information when required by state or federal law, regulation or court order, and (ii) permit opening of sealed information under conditions authorized by law.

1981, c. 632, § 9-190; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-135. Civil remedies for violation of this chapter or Chapter 23 of Title 19.2.

A. Any person may institute a civil action in the circuit court of the jurisdiction in which the Board has its administrative headquarters, or in the jurisdiction in which any violation is alleged to have occurred:

1. For actual damages resulting from violation of this article or to restrain any such violation, or both.

2. To obtain appropriate equitable relief against any person who has engaged, is engaged, or is about to engage in any acts or practices in violation of Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, this chapter or rules or regulations of the Board.

B. This section shall not be construed as a waiver of the defense of sovereign immunity.

1981, c. 632, § 9-194; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-136. Criminal penalty for violation.

Any person who willfully and intentionally requests, obtains, or seeks to obtain criminal history record information under false pretenses, or who willfully and intentionally disseminates or seeks to disseminate criminal history record information to any agency or person in violation of this article or Chapter 23 (§ 19.2-387 et seq.) of Title 19.2, shall be guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

1981, c. 632, § 9-195; 2001, c. 844.

§ 9.1-137. Article to control over other laws; exceptions.

A. In the event any provisions of this article conflict with other provisions of law, the provision of this article shall control, except as provided in subsection B.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, this article shall not alter, amend, or supersede any provisions of the Code of Virginia relating to the collection, storage, dissemination, or use of juvenile records.

1981, c. 632, § 9-196; 2001, c. 844.