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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 30. Department of Medical Assistance Services
Chapter 70. Methods and Standards for Establishing Payment Rates; In-Patient Hospital Care
9/24/2022

12VAC30-70-50. Hospital reimbursement system.

The reimbursement system for hospitals includes the following components:

A. Hospitals were grouped by classes according to number of beds and urban versus rural. (Three groupings for rural - 0 to 100 beds, 101 to 170 beds, and over 170 beds; four groupings for urban - 0 to 100, 101 to 400, 401 to 600, and over 600 beds.) Groupings are similar to those used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in determining routine cost limitations.

B. Prospective reimbursement ceilings on allowable operating costs were established as of July 1, 1982, for each grouping. Hospitals with a fiscal year end after June 30, 1982, were subject to the new reimbursement ceilings.

1. The calculation of the initial group ceilings as of July 1, 1982, was based on available, allowable cost data for hospitals in calendar year 1981. Individual hospital operating costs were advanced by a reimbursement escalator from the hospital's year end to July 1, 1982. After this advancement, the operating costs were standardized using SMSA wage indices, and a median was determined for each group. These medians were readjusted by the wage index to set an actual cost ceiling for each SMSA. Therefore, each hospital grouping has a series of ceilings representing one of each SMSA area. The wage index is based on those used by HCFA in computing its Market Basket Index for routine cost limitations.

2. Effective July 1, 1986, and until June 30, 1988, providers subject to the prospective payment system of reimbursement had their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling computed using a new methodology. This method uses an allowance for inflation based on the percent of change in the quarterly average of the Medical Care Index of the Chase Econometrics - Standard Forecast determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began.

3. The prospective operating cost rate is based on the provider's allowable cost from the most recent filed cost report, plus the inflation percentage add-on.

4. The prospective operating cost ceiling is determined by using the base that was in effect for the provider's fiscal year that began between July 1, 1985, and June 1, 1986. The allowance for inflation percent of change for the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began is added to this base to determine the new operating cost ceiling. This new ceiling was effective for all providers on July 1, 1986. For subsequent cost reporting periods beginning on or after July 1, 1986, the last prospective operating rate ceiling determined under this new methodology will become the base for computing the next prospective year ceiling.

5. Effective on and after July 1, 1988, and until June 30, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the moving average of the Data Resources, Incorporated Health Care Cost HCFA-Type Hospital Market Basket determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1988, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.

6. Effective on or after July 1, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the Virginia moving average values as compiled and published by Global Insight (or its successor) determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1989, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.

7. Effective on and after July 1, 1992, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation, as described in this section, which became effective on July 1, 1989, shall be converted to an escalation factor by adding two percentage points, (200 basis points) to the then current allowance for inflation. The escalation factor shall be applied in accordance with the inpatient hospital reimbursement methodology in effect on June 30, 1992. On July 1, 1992, the conversion to the new escalation factor shall be accomplished by a transition methodology which, for non-June 30 year end hospitals, applies the escalation factor to escalate their payment rates for the months between July 1, 1992, and their next fiscal year ending on or before May 31, 1993.

Effective July 1, 2009, the escalation factor shall be equal to the allowance for inflation.

Effective July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2012, the escalation factor shall be zero. In addition, ceilings shall remain at the same level as the ceilings for long stay hospitals with fiscal year's end of June 30, 2010.

Effective July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013, the escalation factor for inpatient hospitals, including long stay hospitals, shall be 2.6%.

Effective July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2016, the escalation factor for inpatient hospitals, including long stay hospitals, shall be 0.0%.

8. The new method will still require comparison of the prospective operating cost rate to the prospective operating ceiling. The provider is allowed the lower of the two amounts subject to the lower of cost or charges principles.

C. Subsequent to June 30, 1992, the group ceilings shall not be recalculated on allowable costs, but shall be updated by the escalator factor.

D. Prospective rates for each hospital shall be based upon the hospital's allowable costs plus the escalator factor, or the appropriate ceilings, or charges; whichever is lower. Except to eliminate costs that are found to be unallowable, no retrospective adjustment shall be made to prospective rates.

Capital and education costs approved pursuant to PRM-15 (§ 400), shall be considered as pass throughs and not part of the calculation. Capital cost is reimbursed the percentage of allowable cost specified in 12VAC30-70-271.

E. An incentive plan should be established whereby a hospital will be paid on a sliding scale, percentage for percentage, up to 10.5% of the difference between allowable operating costs and the appropriate per diem group ceiling when the operating costs are below the ceilings. The incentive should be calculated based on the annual cost report. Effective for dates of service July 1, 2010, through September 30, 2010, the incentive plan shall be eliminated.

F. Disproportionate share hospitals (DSH) defined.

Prior to July 1, 2014, the following criteria shall be met before a hospital is determined to be eligible for a disproportionate share pay. Effective July 1, 2014, the payment methodology for DSH is defined in 12VAC30-70-301.

1. Criteria.

a. A Medicaid inpatient utilization rate in excess of 10.5% for hospitals receiving Medicaid payments in the Commonwealth, or a low-income patient utilization rate exceeding 25% (as defined in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and as amended by the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988); and

b. At least two obstetricians with staff privileges at the hospital who have agreed to provide obstetric services to individuals entitled to such services under a State Medicaid plan. In the case of a hospital located in a rural area (that is, an area outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Executive Office of Management and Budget), the term "obstetrician" includes any physician with staff privileges at the hospital to perform nonemergency obstetric procedures.

c. Subdivision 1 b of this subsection does not apply to a hospital:

(1) At which the inpatients are predominantly individuals under 18 years of age; or

(2) Which does not offer nonemergency obstetric services as of December 21, 1987.

2. Payment adjustment.

a. Hospitals which have a disproportionately higher level of Medicaid patients shall be allowed a disproportionate share payment adjustment based on the type of hospital and on the individual hospital's Medicaid utilization. There shall be two types of hospitals: (i) Type One, consisting of state-owned teaching hospitals, and (ii) Type Two, consisting of all other hospitals. The Medicaid utilization shall be determined by dividing the number of utilization Medicaid inpatient days by the total number of inpatient days. Each hospital with a Medicaid utilization of over 10.5% shall receive a disproportionate share payment adjustment.

b. For Type One hospitals, the disproportionate share payment adjustment shall be equal to the product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid utilization in excess of 10.5% times 11, times (ii) the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling. For Type Two hospitals, the disproportionate share payment adjustment shall be equal to the product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid utilization in excess of 10.5% times (ii) the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling.

c. No payments made under subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection shall exceed any applicable limitations upon such payments established by federal law or regulations.

G. Outlier adjustments.

1. DMAS shall pay to all enrolled hospitals an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally high costs for individuals under one year of age.

2. DMAS shall pay to disproportionate share hospitals (as defined in subsection F of this section) an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally high costs for individuals under six years of age.

3. The outlier adjustment calculation.

a. Each eligible hospital which desires to be considered for the adjustment shall submit a log which contains the information necessary to compute the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection. This log shall contain all Medicaid claims for such individuals, including, but not limited to: (i) the patient's name and Medicaid identification number; (ii) dates of service; (iii) the remittance date paid; (iv) the number of covered days; and (v) total charges for the length of stay. Each hospital shall then calculate the per diem operating cost (which excludes capital and education) of treating such patients by multiplying the charge for each patient by the Medicaid operating cost-to-charge ratio determined from its annual cost report.

b. Each eligible hospital shall calculate the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection.

c. Each eligible hospital shall calculate its threshold for payment of the adjustment, at a level equal to two and one-half standard deviations above the mean or means calculated in subdivision 3 a (ii) of this subsection.

d. DMAS shall pay as an outlier adjustment to each eligible hospital all per diem operating costs which exceed the applicable threshold or thresholds for that hospital.

4. Pursuant to 12VAC30-50-100, there is no limit on length of time for medically necessary stays for individuals under six years of age. This section provides that consistent with 42 CFR 441.57, payment of medical assistance services shall be made on behalf of individuals under 21 years of age, who are Medicaid eligible, for medically necessary stays in acute care facilities in excess of 21 days per admission when such services are rendered for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment of health conditions identified through a physical examination. Medical documentation justifying admission and the continued length of stay must be attached to or written on the invoice for review by medical staff to determine medical necessity. Medically unjustified days in such admissions will be denied.

Statutory Authority

§ 32.1-325 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 1396 et seq.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR460-02-4.1910, §V, eff. July 1, 1994; amended, Virginia Register Volume 13, Issue 1, eff. November 1, 1996; Volume 26, Issue 12, eff. March 17, 2010; Volume 26, Issue 19, eff. July 1, 2010; Volume 27, Issue 15, eff. April 27, 2011; Volume 27, Issue 19, eff. July 1, 2011; Volume 29, Issue 23, eff. August 14, 2013; Volume 33, Issue 19, eff. June 29, 2017.

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