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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
12/1/2022

12VAC5-590-372. Inorganic chemicals monitoring.

A. The owner of a community waterworks or a NTNC shall conduct monitoring to determine compliance with the PMCLs and SMCLs listed in Table 340.1 in accordance with this section. The owner of a TNC shall conduct monitoring to determine compliance with the nitrate, nitrite, and nitrate-nitrite PMCLs listed in Table 340.1 in accordance with this section.

B. If a waterworks draws water from more than one source and the sources are combined before distribution, then the owner shall sample at an entry point to the distribution system during periods of normal operating conditions (i.e., when water is representative of all sources being used).

C. When the results of sampling for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cyanide (as free cyanide), chromium, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, or thallium exceed the applicable PMCL, the owner shall collect a confirmation sample, at the same sampling site, within two weeks of notification of the analytical results of the first sample.

D. Monitoring frequency.

1. Asbestos. The department has granted a statewide waiver for asbestos. If the statewide waiver is removed or if site-specific waterworks conditions warrant monitoring for asbestos, then monitoring to determine compliance with the PMCL for asbestos specified in Table 340.1 shall be conducted as follows:

a. The owner of a community waterworks or a NTNC shall monitor for asbestos during the first three-year compliance period of each nine-year compliance cycle.

b. If the statewide waiver is removed, and the owner believes the waterworks is not vulnerable to asbestos contamination from either its source water or due to corrosion of its asbestos-cement pipe, then the owner may apply to the department for a monitoring waiver for asbestos. If the department grants the monitoring waiver, then the owner is not required to monitor.

c. The department may grant a waiver based on a consideration of the following factors:

(1) Potential asbestos contamination of the source water; and

(2) The use of asbestos-cement pipe for finished water distribution and the corrosive nature of the water.

d. A waiver remains in effect until the completion of the compliance period (i.e., three years).

e. The owner of a waterworks vulnerable to asbestos contamination due solely to corrosion of its asbestos-cement pipe shall collect one sample at a tap served by the asbestos-cement pipe and under conditions where asbestos contamination is most likely to occur.

f. The owner of a waterworks vulnerable to asbestos contamination due to its source water shall monitor at the entry points.

g. The owner of a waterworks vulnerable to asbestos contamination due both to its source water and corrosion of its asbestos-cement pipe shall collect one sample at a tap served by the asbestos-cement pipe and under conditions where asbestos contamination is most likely to occur.

h. The owner of a waterworks that exceeds the PMCL as determined in 12VAC5-590-382 A shall monitor quarterly beginning in the next quarter after the exceedance occurred.

i. The department may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement to the frequency specified in subdivision D 1 a of this section provided the department has determined that the waterworks is reliably and consistently below the PMCL. In no case shall the department make this determination unless the owner of a groundwater system collects a minimum of two quarterly samples or the owner of a waterworks that uses a surface water source, in whole or in part, collects a minimum of four quarterly samples.

2. Antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cyanide (as free cyanide), fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, and thallium. Monitoring to determine compliance with the PMCL for these contaminants specified in Table 340.1 shall be conducted as follows:

a. The owner shall collect one sample at each groundwater source entry point during each compliance period.

b. The owner shall collect one sample annually at each surface water source entry point, in whole or in part.

c. The owner may apply to the department for a waiver from the monitoring frequencies specified in subdivisions D 2 a and D 2 b of this section.

(1) A condition of the waiver shall require that the owner collect a minimum of one sample while the waiver is effective. The waiver remains in effect for one compliance cycle (i.e., nine years).

(2) The department may grant a waiver provided the owner has monitored surface water source entry points, in whole or in part, annually for at least three years and has conducted a minimum of three rounds of monitoring at groundwater source entry points. At least one sample shall have been collected since January 1, 1990. The owner shall demonstrate that all previous analytical results were less than the PMCL. A waterworks that uses a new groundwater or surface water source is not eligible for a waiver until three rounds of monitoring from the new source have been completed.

(3) In determining the appropriate reduced monitoring frequency, the department shall consider:

(a) The reported concentrations from all previous monitoring;

(b) The degree of variation in reported concentrations; and

(c) Other factors that may affect contaminant concentrations such as changes in groundwater pumping rates, changes in the waterworks configuration, changes in the waterworks operating procedures, or changes in stream flows or characteristics.

(4) A decision by the department to grant a waiver shall be made in writing and shall set forth the basis for the determination. The request for a waiver may be initiated by the department or upon an application by the owner. The owner shall specify the basis for the request. The department shall evaluate and, where appropriate, revise the determination of the appropriate monitoring frequency when the owner submits new monitoring data or when other data relevant to the appropriate monitoring frequency become available.

(5) No arsenic waivers shall be granted by the department.

d. The owner of a waterworks that exceed the PMCLs as calculated in 12VAC5-590-382 shall monitor quarterly beginning in the next quarter after the exceedance occurred. The department may decrease the quarterly monitoring requirement to the frequencies specified in subdivision D 2 a, D 2 b, or D 2 c of this section provided a determination has been made that the analytical results are reliably and consistently below the PMCL. In no case may the department make this determination unless the owner collects a minimum of two quarterly samples from each groundwater source entry point and a minimum of four quarterly samples from each surface water source entry point, in whole or in part.

3. Nitrate and combined nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen. Monitoring to determine compliance with the PMCL for nitrate and combined nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen specified in Table 340.1 shall be conducted as follows:

a. The owner shall collect one sample annually at each groundwater source entry point.

b. The owner shall collect one sample quarterly at each surface water source entry point, in whole or in part.

c. For groundwater source entry points at community and NTNCs, the repeat monitoring frequency shall be quarterly for at least one year following any one sample in which the concentration is greater than 50% of the PMCL. After four consecutive quarters of monitoring, the department may allow the owner to reduce the sampling frequency to annually after determining the results are reliably and consistently less than the PMCL.

d. For surface water source entry points, in whole or in part, the department may allow the owner to reduce the sampling frequency to annually if all analytical results from four consecutive quarters are less than 50% of the PMCL. The waterworks shall return to quarterly monitoring if the concentration found in any one sample is greater than or equal to 50% of the PMCL.

e. After any round of quarterly sampling is completed as required by subdivisions D 3 c and D 3 d of this section, the owner who is monitoring annually shall collect subsequent samples during the quarter that previously resulted in the highest analytical result.

f. No monitoring waivers shall be issued for nitrate or combined nitrate-nitrite as nitrogen.

4. Nitrite. Monitoring to determine compliance with the PMCL for nitrite specified in Table 340.1 shall be conducted as follows:

a. The owner shall collect one sample at each entry point during the initial compliance period.

b. After the initial sample, the owner of a waterworks where an analytical result for nitrite is less than 50% of the PMCL shall monitor at the frequency specified by the department.

c. The repeat monitoring frequency for an owner shall be quarterly for at least one year following any one sample in which the concentration is greater than 50% of the PMCL. The department may allow an owner to reduce the sampling frequency to annually after determining the analysis results are reliably and consistently less than the PMCL.

d. The owner of a waterworks that is monitoring annually shall collect each subsequent sample during the quarter that previously resulted in the highest analytical result.

e. No monitoring waivers shall be issued for nitrite.

5. Aluminum, chloride, copper, corrosivity, fluoride, foaming agents (surfactants), iron, manganese, silver, sulfate, and zinc. Monitoring to determine compliance with the SMCL for these contaminants specified in Table 340.1 shall be conducted as follows:

a. The owner shall collect one sample at each groundwater source entry point during each compliance period.

b. The owner shall collect one sample annually at each surface water source entry point, in whole or in part.

6. Sodium. All community waterworks shall monitor for sodium as follows:

a. The number of samples to be collected shall be determined by the department based on the waterworks infrastructure and occurrence concentrations where applicable.

(1) The owner shall collect at least one sample annually at each surface water source entry point, in whole or in part.

(2) The owner shall collect one sample at each groundwater source entry point at least every three years.

(3) The department may require the owner to collect and analyze water samples for sodium more frequently where sodium content is variable.

b. Sodium shall be analyzed in accordance with methods and laboratory requirements identified in 12VAC5-590-440.

c. Sample results shall be submitted to the department in accordance with 12VAC5-590-530.

d. The department shall notify local and state health officials of the sodium levels.

e. The results of the special monitoring for sodium shall be included in the Consumer Confidence Report in accordance with 12VAC5-590-545 C 5 f.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

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