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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
5/27/2024

12VAC5-590-373. Organic chemicals monitoring.

A. The owner of a community waterworks or a NTNC shall conduct monitoring to determine compliance with PMCLs listed in Table 340.2 in accordance with this section. Where two or more sources are combined before distribution, the owner shall sample at the entry point for the combined sources during periods of normal operation conditions.

1. The owner of a waterworks that uses groundwater shall collect a minimum of one sample at each entry point.

2. The owner of a waterworks that uses surface water, in whole or in part, shall collect a minimum of one sample at each entry point.

B. During the initial compliance period and each subsequent compliance period, the owner shall monitor during four consecutive calendar quarters for each contaminant listed in Table 340.2. A minimum of one sample at each entry point shall be collected during each calendar quarter.

C. Reduced monitoring.

1. Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs).

a. The requirement for four quarterly samples during initial monitoring as specified in subsection B of this section may not be reduced.

b. The department may decrease the requirement for quarterly monitoring during subsequent compliance periods provided it has been determined that the analytical results are reliably and consistently below the PMCL. In no case shall the department make this determination unless:

(1) The owner collects a minimum of two quarterly samples at each groundwater source entry point; or

(2) The owner collects a minimum of four quarterly samples at each surface water source entry point, in whole or in part.

c. If the department determines that the waterworks is reliably and consistently below the PMCL, then the department may allow the owner to monitor annually. The owner who monitors annually shall monitor during the quarter that previously yielded the highest analytical result.

d. For a groundwater system only. After a minimum of three years of annual sampling, the department may allow the owner with no previous detection of any VOCs listed in Table 340.2 to collect one sample during each compliance period.

e. The owner of a groundwater system that has three consecutive annual samples with no detection of a contaminant may apply to the department for a waiver, in accordance with 12VAC5-590-373 F.

2. Synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs).

a. The owner of a waterworks serving more than 3,300 persons that does not detect any SOCs listed in Table 340.2 in the initial compliance period may reduce the sampling frequency to a minimum of two quarterly samples in one year during each repeat compliance period.

b. The owner of a waterworks serving fewer than or equal to 3,300 persons that does not detect any SOCs listed in Table 340.2 in the initial compliance period may reduce the sampling frequency to a minimum of one sample during each repeat compliance period.

c. The department may reduce the quarterly monitoring required by subdivision B or D of this section provided the department has determined that the analytical results are reliably and consistently below the PMCL. In no case shall the department make this latter determination unless:

(1) The owner collects a minimum of two quarterly samples at each groundwater source entry point.

(2) The owner collects a minimum of four quarterly samples at each surface water source entry point, in whole or in part.

d. If the department determines that the analytical results are reliably and consistently below the PMCL, the department may allow the owner to monitor annually. The owner of a waterworks that monitors annually shall monitor during the quarter that previously yielded the highest analytical result.

e. The owner of a waterworks that has three consecutive annual samples with no detection of a contaminant may apply to the department for a waiver for SOC monitoring by submitting a waiver application as specified in subdivisions F 1 b and F 2 b of this section. The waiver remains in effect for one compliance period (i.e., three years).

D. Increased monitoring.

1. If the owner of a waterworks that is on reduced monitoring detects a contaminant listed in Table 340.2 (see 12VAC5-590-383 A regarding confirmation samples), then the owner shall monitor quarterly at each sampling point where the contaminant was detected unless:

a. That contaminant was previously detected and the department determined it was reliably and consistently below the PMCL according to subdivisions C 1 b and C 2 c of this section;

b. The historical sampling data do not indicate a meaningful increase in the contaminant concentration; and

c. The contaminant concentration does not exceed the PMCL.

2. The owner of a waterworks that exceeds the PMCLs listed in Table 340.2 for VOCs or SOCs, as determined by 12VAC5-590-383, shall monitor quarterly.

a. If, after a minimum of four consecutive quarterly samples that show the waterworks is in compliance as specified in 12VAC5-590-383; and

b. The department determines that the analytical results are reliably and consistently below the PMCL; then

c. The owner may monitor at the frequency and time specified in subdivisions C 1 c and C 2 d of this section.

E. Other monitoring requirements.

1. Vinyl chloride.

a. The owner of a groundwater system that has detected one or more of the following two-carbon organic compounds: trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, or 1,1-dichloroethylene, shall monitor quarterly for vinyl chloride. A vinyl chloride sample shall be collected at each sampling point at which one or more of the two-carbon organic compounds were detected. If the results of the first analysis do not detect vinyl chloride, then the department may reduce the quarterly monitoring frequency of vinyl chloride monitoring to one sample during each compliance period.

b. The owner of a waterworks that uses surface water in whole or in part is required to monitor for vinyl chloride as specified by the department.

2. If monitoring detects one or more of certain related contaminants (heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), then subsequent monitoring shall analyze for all related contaminants.

3. For entry points sampled and analyzed for contaminants listed in Table 340.2, the following detection limits apply:

a. A VOC is detected at a level equal to or greater than 0.0005 mg/L; and

b. A SOC is detected at a level equal to or greater than defined by EPA under 40 CFR 141.24(h)(18) or by the department.

F. Monitoring waivers.

1. Groundwater source entry points.

a. The owner of a waterworks that does not detect a VOC contaminant listed in Table 340.2 may apply to the department for a waiver from the subsequent compliance period requirements of subsection B and subdivision C 1 c of this section after completing the initial monitoring. A waiver shall be effective for no more two compliance periods (i.e., six years).

b. The owner of a waterworks may apply to the department for a SOC monitoring waiver from the requirements of subsection B and subdivision C 2 of this section. The owner must reapply for a waiver for each subsequent compliance period (i.e., three years).

2. Surface water source entry points, in whole or in part.

a. No VOC monitoring waivers shall be issued.

b. The owner of a waterworks that does not detect a SOC contaminant listed in Table 340.2 may apply to the department for a SOC monitoring waiver from the requirements of subsection B and subdivision C 2 of this section. The owner must reapply for a waiver for each subsequent compliance period (i.e., three years).

3. Monitoring waiver applications. The owner shall submit a monitoring waiver application for evaluation on a form approved by the department. The department may grant a waiver after an evaluation of the use, transport, storage, or disposal of any organic contaminant within the watershed or zone of influence of the source.

a. If an evaluation by the department reveals no previous use of the contaminants within the watershed or zone of influence, then a waiver may be granted.

b. If an evaluation by the department reveals either previous use of the contaminants or that use is unknown, then the following factors shall be used to determine whether a waiver is granted:

(1) Previous analytical results.

(2) The proximity of the source water to land use activities that are potential point or nonpoint sources of organic contamination and to potential conduits to groundwater. Point sources include spills and leaks of chemicals at or near a waterworks or at manufacturing, distribution, or storage facilities or from hazardous or municipal waste landfills and other waste handling or treatment facilities. Nonpoint sources for SOCs include the use of pesticides to control insects and weed pests on agricultural areas, forest lands, home and gardens, and other land application uses.

(3) The environmental persistence and transport of the contaminants listed in Table 340.2.

(4) The implementation of a watershed protection program for surface water systems and wellhead protection measures for groundwater systems by the owner.

(5) For groundwater well sources: well construction, well depth, soil type, geological conditions, and well structure integrity.

(6) Special factors, as follows:

(a) For VOCs, the number of persons served by the waterworks and the proximity of a smaller waterworks to a larger waterworks.

(b) For SOCs, elevated nitrate levels at the waterworks' source water.

(c) For SOCs, use of PCBs in equipment used in the production, storage, or distribution of water (i.e., PCBs used in pumps, transformers, and other equipment).

c. An entry point at which treatment has been installed to remove VOCs or SOCs is not eligible for a monitoring waiver for the VOCs or SOCs for which treatment has been installed.

d. All waterworks are granted a waiver from monitoring dioxin, endothall, and glyphosate unless the department determines that there is a source of these contaminants that poses a threat to the source water.

4. Condition for waivers.

a. Groundwater source entry points.

(1) As a condition of the VOC waiver, the owner shall collect one sample at each entry point during the time the waiver is effective (i.e., one sample during two compliance periods or six years) and update the waterworks vulnerability assessment. Based on this data, the department may reconfirm that the source is nonvulnerable. If the department does not make this reconfirmation within three years of the initial determination, then the waiver is invalidated and the owner is required to sample annually.

(2) There are no conditions to SOC waivers.

b. Surface water source entry points, in whole or in part. There are no conditions to VOC and SOC waivers for waterworks in regard to these entry points.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

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