Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
8/18/2022

12VAC5-590-546. Regulated contaminants for the consumer confidence reports and public notification.

A. Public notices and CCRs shall contain the appropriate mandatory language and information listed, as required by 12VAC5-590-540 and 12VAC5-590-545.

B. Information on regulated contaminants is presented in Table 546.1.

TABLE 546.1
Content Requirements of Consumer Confidence Reports and Public Notices

CONTAMINANT (UNITS)

TRADITIONAL PMCL IN mg/l

TO CONVERT FOR CCR, MULTIPLY BY

PMCL IN CCR UNITS

MCLG

MAJOR SOURCES IN DRINKING WATER

HEALTH EFFECTS LANGUAGE

Microbiological Contaminants

(1) Total Coliform Bacteria

TT

n/a

Naturally present in the environment

Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the environment and are used as an indicator that other, potentially-harmful, waterborne pathogens may be present or that a potential pathway exists through which contamination may enter the waterworks.

(2) E. coli

PMCL: In compliance unless (i) the waterworks has an E. coli-positive repeat sample following a total coliform-positive routine sample; (ii) the waterworks has a total coliform-positive repeat sample following an E. coli-positive routine sample; (iii) the waterworks owner fails to collect all required repeat samples following an E. coli positive routine sample; or (iv) the waterworks owner fails to test for E. coli when any repeat sample tests positive for total coliform.

0

Human and animal fecal waste

E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Human pathogens in these wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a greater health risk for infants, young children, the elderly, and people with severely-compromised immune systems.

(3) E. coli

TT

n/a

Human and animal fecal waste

E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Human pathogens in these wastes can cause short-term health effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a greater health risk for infants, young children, the elderly, and people with severely compromised immune system.

(4) Source water fecal indicator (E. coli)

TT

TT

0 for E. coli

Fecal indicators are microbes whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short term health effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, some of the elderly, and people with severely compromised immune system.

(5) Groundwater rule TT violations other than source water fecal indicator E. coli abovea

TT

TT

Inadequately treated or inadequately protected water may contain disease-causing organisms. These organisms can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, cramps, and associated headaches.

(6)Turbidity

TT

TT

n/a

Soil runoff

Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.

(7) Giardia lamblia, viruses, Hetrotropic plate count, Legionella, Cryptosporidiuma

TTc

n/a

0

n/a

Inadequately treated water may contain disease-causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.

Radioactive Contaminants

(8) Beta/photon emitters (mrem/yr)

4 mrem/yr

4

0

Decay of natural and man-made deposits

Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(9) Alpha emitters (pCi/L)

15 pCi/L

15

0

Erosion of natural deposits

Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(10) Combined radium (pCi/L)

5 pCi/L

5

0

Erosion of natural deposits

Some people who drink water containing radium-226 or radium-228 in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(11) Uranium (ppb)

30 μg/L

30

0

Erosion of natural deposits

Some people who drink water containing uranium in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer and kidney toxicity.

Inorganic Contaminants

(12) Antimony (ppb)

0.006

1000

6

6

Discharge from petroleum refineries; fire retardants; ceramics; electronics; solder

Some people who drink water containing antimony well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience increases in blood cholesterol and decreases in blood sugar.

(13) Arsenic (ppb)

0.010

1000

10.

0

Erosion of natural deposits; Runoff from orchards; Runoff from glass and electronics production wastes

Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(14) Asbestos (MFL)

7 MFL

7

7

Decay of asbestos cement water mains; Erosion of natural deposits

Some people who drink water containing asbestos in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps.

(15) Barium (ppm)

2

2

2

Discharge of drilling wastes; Discharge from metal refineries; Erosion of natural deposits

Some people who drink water containing barium in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.

(16) Beryllium (ppb)

0.004

1000

4

4

Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories; Discharge from electrical, aerospace, and defense industries

Some people who drink water containing beryllium well in excess of the PMCL over many years could develop intestinal lesions.

(17) Cadmium (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

5

Corrosion of galvanized pipes; Erosion of natural deposits; Discharge from metal refineries; Runoff from waste batteries and paints

Some people who drink water containing cadmium in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience kidney damage.

(18) Chromium (ppb)

0.1

1000

100

100

Discharge from steel and pulp mills; Erosion of natural deposits

Some people who drink water containing chromium well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience allergic dermatitis.

(19) Copper (ppm)

AL=1.3

AL=1.3

1.3

Corrosion of household plumbing systems; Erosion of natural deposits

Copper is an essential nutrient, but some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the AL over a relatively short amount of time could experience gastrointestinal distress. Some people who drink water containing copper in excess of the action level over many years could suffer liver or kidney damage. People with Wilson's Disease should consult their personal doctor.

(20) Cyanide (ppb)

0.2

1000

200

200

Discharge from steel or metal factories; Discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories

Some people who drink water containing cyanide well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience nerve damage or problems with their thyroid.

(21) Fluoride (ppm)

4

4

4

Erosion of natural deposits; Water additive that promotes strong teeth; Discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories

Some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of the PMCL over many years could get bone disease, including pain and tenderness of the bones. Fluoride in drinking water at half the PMCL or more may cause mottling of children's teeth, usually in children less than nine years old. Mottling, also known as dental fluorosis, may include brown staining or pitting of the teeth, and occurs only in developing teeth before they erupt from the gums.

(22) Lead (ppb)

AL=0.015

1000

AL=15

0

Corrosion of household plumbing systems; Erosion of natural deposits

Infants and children who drink water containing lead in excess of the AL could experience delays in their physical or mental development. Children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities. Adults who drink this water over many years could develop kidney problems or high blood pressure.

(23) Mercury [inorganic] (ppb)

0.002

1000

2

2

Erosion of natural deposits; Discharge from refineries and factories; Runoff from landfills; Runoff from cropland

Some people who drink water containing inorganic mercury well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience kidney damage.

(24) Nitrate (ppm)

10

10

10

Runoff from fertilizer use; Leaching from septic tanks, sewage; Erosion of natural deposits

Infants younger than the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the PMCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.

(25) Nitrite (ppm)

1

1

1

Runoff from fertilizer use; Leaching from septic tanks, sewage; Erosion of natural deposits

Infants younger than the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in excess of the PMCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.

(26) Total Nitrate and Nitrite

10

n/a

10

n/a

Infants younger than the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate and nitrite in excess of the PMCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.

(27) Selenium (ppb)

0.05

1000

50

50

Discharge from petroleum and metal refineries; Erosion of natural deposits; Discharge from mines

Selenium is an essential nutrient. However, some people who drink water containing selenium in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience hair or fingernail losses, numbness in fingers or toes, or problems with their circulation.

(28) Thallium (ppb)

0.002

1000

2

0.5

Leaching from ore-processing sites; Discharge from electronics, glass, and drug factories

Some people who drink water containing thallium in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience hair loss, changes in their blood, or problems with their kidneys, intestines, or liver.

Synthetic Organic Chemicals including Pesticides and Herbicides

(29) 2,4-D (ppb)

0.07

1000

70

70

Runoff from herbicides used on row crops

Some people who drink water containing the weed killer 2,4-D well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys, liver, or adrenal glands.

(30) 2,4,5-TP [Silvex] (ppb)

0.05

1000

50

50

Residue of banned herbicide

Some people who drink water containing silvex in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience liver problems.

(31) Acrylamide

TT

TT

0

Added to water during sewage or wastewater treatment

Some people who drink water containing high levels of acrylamide over a long period of time could have problems with their nervous system or blood and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(32) Alachlor (ppb)

0.002

1000

2

0

Runoff from herbicide used on row crops

Some people who drink water containing alachlor in excess of the PMCL over many years could have problems with their eyes, liver, kidneys, or spleen, or experience anemia and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(33) Atrazine (ppb)

0.003

1000

3

3

Runoff from herbicide used on row crops

Some people who drink water containing atrazine well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their cardiovascular system or reproductive difficulties.

(34) Benzo(a)pyrene [PAH]

0.0002

1,000,000

200

0

Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines

Some people who drink water containing benzo(a)pyrene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(35) Carbofuran (ppb)

0.04

1000

40

40

Leaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa

Some people who drink water containing carbofuran in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their blood, or nervous or reproductive systems.

(36) Chlordane (ppb)

0.002

1000

2

0

Residue of banned termiticide

Some people who drink water containing chlordane in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or nervous system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(37) Dalapon (ppb)

0.2

1000

200

200

Runoff from herbicide used on rights of way

Some people who drink water containing dalapon well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience minor kidney changes.

(38) Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (ppb)

0.4

1000

400

400

Discharge from chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing di(2-ethyhexyl)adipate well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience toxic effects, such as weight loss, liver enlargement or possible reproductive difficulties.

(39) Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (ppb)

0.006

1000

6

0

Discharge from rubber and chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in excess of the PMCL over many years may have problems with their liver, or experience reproductive difficulties, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(40) Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) (ppt)

0.0002

1,000,000

200

0

Runoff or leaching from soil fumigant used on soybeans, cotton, pineapples, and orchards

Some people who drink water containing DBCP well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience reproductive problems and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(41) Dinoseb (ppb)

0.007

1000

7

7

Runoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables

Some people who drink water containing dinoseb well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.

(42) Diquat (ppb)

0.02

1000

20

20

Runoff from herbicide use

Some people who drink water containing diquat in excess of the PMCL over many years could get cataracts.

(43) Dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] (ppq)

0.00000003

1,000,000,000

30

0

Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion; Discharge from chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing dioxin in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(44) Endothall (ppb)

0.1

1000

100

100

Runoff from herbicide use

Some people who drink water containing endothall in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their stomach or intestines.

(45) Endrin (ppb)

0.002

1000

2

2

Runoff of banned insecticide

Some people who drink water containing endrin in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience liver problems.

(46) Epichlorohydrin

TT

TT

0

Discharge from industrial chemical factories; An impurity of some water treatment chemicals

Some people who drink water containing high levels of epichlorohydrin over a long period of time could experience stomach problems and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(47) Ethylene dibromide (ppt)

0.00005

1,000,000

50

0

Discharge from petroleum refineries

Some people who drink water containing ethylene dibromide in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, stomach, reproductive system, or kidneys, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(48) Glyphosate (ppb)

0.7

1000

700

700

Runoff from herbicide use

Some people who drink water containing glyphosate in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or reproductive difficulties.

(49) Heptachlor (ppt)

0.0004

1,000,000

400

0

Residue of banned pesticide

Some people who drink water containing heptachlor in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience liver damage and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(50) Heptachlor epoxide (ppt)

0.0002

1,000,000

200

0

Breakdown of heptachlor

Some people who drink water containing heptachlor epoxide in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience liver damage and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(51) Hexachlorobenzene (ppb)

0.001

1000

1

0

Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing hexachlorobenzene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys or adverse reproductive effects and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(52) Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (ppb)

0.05

1000

50

50

Discharge from chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing hexachlorocyclopentadiene well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their stomach or kidneys.

(53) Lindane (ppt)

0.0002

1,000,000

200

200

Runoff or leaching from insecticide used on cattle, lumber, gardens

Some people who drink water containing lindane in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or liver.

(54) Methoxychlor (ppb)

0.04

1000

40

40

Runoff or leaching from insecticide used on fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock

Some people who drink water containing methoxychlor in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.

(55) Oxamyl [Vydate] (ppb)

0.2

1000

200

200

Runoff or leaching from insecticide used on apples, potatoes, and tomatoes

Some people who drink water containing oxamyl in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience slight nervous system effects.

(56) PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] (ppt)

0.0005

1,000,000

500

0

Runoff from landfills; Discharge of waste chemicals

Some people who drink water containing PCBs in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience changes in their skin, problems with their thymus gland, immune deficiencies, or reproductive or nervous system difficulties and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(57) Pentachlorophenol (ppb)

0.001

1000

1

0

Discharge from wood preserving factories

Some people who drink water containing pentachlorophenol in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(58) Picloram (ppb)

0.5

1000

500

500

Herbicide runoff

Some people who drink water containing picloram in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.

(59) Simazine (ppb)

0.004

1000

4

4

Herbicide runoff

Some people who drink water containing simazine in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their blood.

(60) Toxaphene (ppb)

0.003

1000

3

0

Runoff or leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle

Some people who drink water containing toxaphene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their thyroid, kidneys, or liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

Volatile Organic Chemicals

(61) Benzene (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

0

Discharge from factories; Leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills

Some people who drink water containing benzene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience anemia or a decrease in blood platelets and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(62) Carbon tetrachloride (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

0

Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities

Some people who drink water containing carbon tetrachloride in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(63) Chlorobenzene (ppb)

0.1

1000

100

100

Discharge from chemical and agricultural chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing chlorobenzene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.

(64) o-Dichlorobenzene (ppb)

0.6

1000

600

600

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing o-dichlorobenzene well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or spleen or changes in their blood.

(65) p-Dichlorobenzene (ppb)

0.075

1000

75

75

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing p-dichlorobenzene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience anemia, damage to their liver, kidneys, or circulatory systems.

(66) 1,2-Dichloroethane (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

0

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloroethane in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(67) 1,1-Dichloroethylene (ppb)

0.007

1000

7

7

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing 1,1-dichloroethylene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.

(68) cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene (ppb)

0.07

1000

70

70

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing cis-1,2-dichloroethylene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.

(69) trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (ppb)

0.1

1000

100

100

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing trans-1,2-dichloroethylene well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.

(70) Dichloromethane (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

0

Discharge from pharmaceutical and chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing dichloromethane in excess of the PMCL over many years could have liver problems and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(71) 1,2-Dichloropropane (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

0

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloropropane in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(72) Ethylbenzene (ppb)

0.7

1000

700

700

Discharge from petroleum refineries

Some people who drink water containing ethylbenzene well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.

(73) Styrene (ppb)

0.1

1000

100

100

Discharge from rubber and plastic factories; Leaching from landfills

Some people who drink water containing styrene well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or circulatory system.

(74) Tetrachloroethylene (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

0

Discharge from factories and dry cleaners

Some people who drink water containing tetrachloroethylene in excess of the PMCL over many years could have problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(75) 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene (ppb)

0.07

1000

70

70

Discharge from textile-finishing factories

Some people who drink water containing 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene well in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience changes in their adrenal glands.

(76) 1,1,1,-Trichloroethane (ppb)

0.2

1000

200

200

Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories

Some people who drink water containing 1,1,1-trichloroethane in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, nervous system, or circulatory system.

(77) 1,1,2-Trichloroethane (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

3

Discharge from industrial chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing 1,1,2-trichloroethane well in excess of the PMCL over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or immune systems.

(78) Trichloroethylene (ppb)

0.005

1000

5

0

Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories

Some people who drink water containing trichloroethylene in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(79) Toluene (ppm)

1

1

1

Discharge from petroleum factories

Some people who drink water containing toluene well in excess of the PMCL over many years could have problems with their nervous system, kidneys, or liver.

(80) Vinyl Chloride (ppb)

0.002

1000

2

0

Leaching from PVC piping; Discharge from plastic factories

Some people who drink water containing vinyl chloride in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(81) Xylenes (ppm)

10

10

10

Discharge from petroleum factories; Discharge from chemical factories

Some people who drink water containing xylenes in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience damage to their nervous system.

Disinfection Byproducts, Precursors, and Residuals

(82) TTHM [total trihalomethanes] (ppb)

0.080

1000

80

n/a

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes (THMs) in excess of the PMCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or central nervous systems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(83) Haloacetic acids (HAA) (ppb)

0.060

1000

60

n/a

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(84) Bromate (ppb)

0.010

1000

10

0

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the PMCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

(85) Chloramines (ppm)

MRDL=4.0

MRDL=4.0

MRDLG=4

Water additive used to control microbes

Some people who use water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could experience stomach discomfort or anemia.

(86) Chlorine (ppm)

MRDL=4.0

MRDL=4.0

MRDLG=4

Water additive used to control microbes

Some people who use water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience stomach discomfort.

(87) Chlorine dioxide (ppb)b

MRDL=0.8

1000

MRDL=800

MRDLG=800

Water additive used to control microbes

Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of the MRDL. Some people may experience anemia.

(88) Chlorine dioxide, where any two consecutive daily samples collected at the entrance to the distribution system are above the MRDL.a

MRDL=0.8

MRDLG=0.8

The chlorine dioxide violations reported today are the result of exceedances at the treatment facility only, not within the distribution system that delivers water to consumers. Continued compliance with chlorine dioxide levels within the distribution system minimizes the potential risk of these violations to consumers.

(89) Chlorine dioxide, where one or more distribution system samples are above the MRDL.a

MRDL=0.8

MRDLG=0.8

The chlorine dioxide violations reported today include exceedances of EPA standard within the distribution system that delivers water to consumers. Violations of the chlorine dioxide standard within the distribution system may harm human health based on short-term exposures. Certain groups, including fetuses, infants, and young children, may be especially susceptible to nervous system effects from excessive chlorine dioxide exposure.

(90) Chlorite (ppm)

1.0

1.0

0.8

Byproduct of drinking water disinfection

Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the PMCL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of the PMCL. Some people may experience anemia.

(91) Total organic carbon (ppm)

TT

TT

n/a

Naturally present in the environment

Total organic carbon (TOC) has no health effects. However, total organic carbon provides a medium for the formation of disinfection byproducts. These byproducts include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Drinking water containing these byproducts in excess of the PMCL may lead to adverse health effects, liver or kidney problems or nervous systems effects and may lead to an increased risk of getting cancer.

aThis information is for public notification purposes only.

bThis information is for the CCR purposes only.

cViolations of the treatment technique requirements for filtration and disinfection that involve turbidity exceedances may use the health effects language for turbidity instead.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-70 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

Website addresses provided in the Virginia Administrative Code to documents incorporated by reference are for the reader's convenience only, may not necessarily be active or current, and should not be relied upon. To ensure the information incorporated by reference is accurate, the reader is encouraged to use the source document described in the regulation.

As a service to the public, the Virginia Administrative Code is provided online by the Virginia General Assembly. We are unable to answer legal questions or respond to requests for legal advice, including application of law to specific fact. To understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.