Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 13. Housing
Agency 10. Virginia Housing Development Authority
Chapter 180. Rules and Regulations for Allocation of Low-Income Housing Tax Credits
1/27/2020

13VAC10-180-60. Review and Selection of Applications; Reservation of Credits.

The executive director may divide the amount of credits into separate pools and each separate pool may be further divided into separate tiers. The division of such pools and tiers may be based upon one or more of the following factors: geographical areas of the state; types or characteristics of housing, construction, financing, owners, occupants, or source of credits; or any other factors deemed appropriate by him to best meet the housing needs of the Commonwealth.

An amount, as determined by the executive director, not less than 10% of the Commonwealth's annual state housing credit ceiling for credits, shall be available for reservation and allocation to buildings or developments with respect to which the following requirements are met:

1. A "qualified nonprofit organization" (as described in § 42(h)(5)(C) of the IRC) that is authorized to do business in Virginia and is determined by the executive director, on the basis of such relevant factors as he shall consider appropriate, to be substantially based or active in the community of the development and is to materially participate (regular, continuous and substantial involvement as determined by the executive director) in the development and operation of the development throughout the "compliance period" (as defined in § 42(i)(1) of the IRC); and

2. (i) The "qualified nonprofit organization" described in the preceding subdivision 1 is to own (directly or through a partnership), prior to the reservation of credits to the buildings or development, all of the general partnership interests of the ownership entity thereof; (ii) the executive director of the authority shall have determined that such qualified nonprofit organization is not affiliated with or controlled by a for-profit organization; (iii) the executive director of the authority shall have determined that the qualified nonprofit organization was not formed by one or more individuals or for-profit entities for the principal purpose of being included in any nonprofit pools (as defined below) established by the executive director, and (iv) the executive director of the authority shall have determined that no staff member, officer or member of the board of directors of such qualified nonprofit organization will materially participate, directly or indirectly, in the proposed development as a for-profit entity.

In making the determinations required by the preceding subdivision 1 and clauses (ii), (iii) and (iv) of this subdivision 2, the executive director may apply such factors as he deems relevant, including the past experience and anticipated future activities of the qualified nonprofit organization, the sources and manner of funding of the qualified nonprofit organization, the date of formation and expected life of the qualified nonprofit organization, the number of paid staff members and volunteers of the qualified nonprofit organization, the nature and extent of the qualified nonprofit organization's proposed involvement in the construction or rehabilitation and the operation of the proposed development, the relationship of the staff, directors or other principals involved in the formation or operation of the qualified nonprofit organization with any persons or entities to be involved in the proposed development on a for-profit basis, and the proposed involvement in the construction or rehabilitation and operation of the proposed development by any persons or entities involved in the proposed development on a for-profit basis. The executive director may include in the application of the foregoing factors any other nonprofit organizations that, in his determination, are related (by shared directors, staff or otherwise) to the qualified nonprofit organization for which such determination is to be made.

For purposes of the foregoing requirements, a qualified nonprofit organization shall be treated as satisfying such requirements if any qualified corporation (as defined in § 42(h)(5)(D)(ii) of the IRC) in which such organization (by itself or in combination with one or more qualified nonprofit organizations) holds 100% of the stock satisfies such requirements.

The applications shall include such representations and warranties and such information as the executive director may require in order to determine that the foregoing requirements have been satisfied. In no event shall more than 90% of the Commonwealth's annual state housing credit ceiling for credits be available for developments other than those satisfying the preceding requirements. The executive director may establish such pools (nonprofit pools) of credits as he may deem appropriate to satisfy the foregoing requirement. If any such nonprofit pools are so established, the executive director may rank the applications therein and reserve credits to such applications before ranking applications and reserving credits in other pools, and any such applications in such nonprofit pools not receiving any reservations of credits or receiving such reservations in amounts less than the full amount permissible hereunder (because there are not enough credits then available in such nonprofit pools to make such reservations) shall be assigned to such other pool as shall be appropriate hereunder; provided, however, that if credits are later made available (pursuant to the IRC or as a result of either a termination or reduction of a reservation of credits made from any nonprofit pools or a rescission in whole or in part of an allocation of credits made from such nonprofit pools or otherwise) for reservation and allocation by the authority during the same calendar year as that in which applications in the nonprofit pools have been so assigned to other pools as described above, the executive director may, in such situations, designate all or any portion of such additional credits for the nonprofit pools (or for any other pools as he shall determine) and may, if additional credits have been so designated for the nonprofit pools, reassign such applications to such nonprofit pools, rank the applications therein and reserve credits to such applications in accordance with the IRC and this chapter. In the event that during any round (as authorized hereinbelow) of application review and ranking the amount of credits reserved within such nonprofit pools is less than the total amount of credits made available therein, the executive director may either (i) leave such unreserved credits in such nonprofit pools for reservation and allocation in any subsequent round or (ii) redistribute, to the extent permissible under the IRC, such unreserved credits to such other pools as the executive director shall designate reservations therefore in the full amount permissible hereunder (which applications shall hereinafter be referred to as "excess qualified applications") or (iii) carry over such unreserved credits to the next succeeding calendar year for the inclusion in the state housing credit ceiling (as defined in § 42(h)(3)(C) of the IRC) for such year. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, no reservation of credits shall be made from any nonprofit pools to any application with respect to which the qualified nonprofit organization has not yet been legally formed in accordance with the requirements of the IRC. In addition, no application for credits from any nonprofit pools or any combination of pools may receive a reservation or allocation of annual credits in an amount greater than $950,000 unless credits remain available in such nonprofit pools after all eligible applications for credits from such nonprofit pools receive a reservation of credits.

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, applicants relying on the experience of a local housing authority for developer experience points described hereinbelow or using Hope VI funds from HUD in connection with the proposed development shall not be eligible to receive a reservation of credits from any nonprofit pools.

The authority shall review each application, and, based on the application and other information available to the authority, shall assign points to each application as follows:

1. Readiness. Written evidence satisfactory to the authority of unconditional approval by local authorities of the plan of development or site plan for the proposed development or that such approval is not required. (40 points; applicants receiving points under this subdivision 1 are not eligible for points under subdivision 5 a below)

2. Housing needs characteristics.

a. Submission of the form prescribed by the authority with any required attachments, providing such information necessary for the authority to send a letter addressed to the current chief executive officer (or the equivalent) of the locality in which the proposed development is located, soliciting input on the proposed development from the locality within the deadlines established by the executive director. (minus 50 points for failure to make timely submission)

b. A letter in response to its notification to the chief executive officer of the locality in which the proposed development is to be located opposing the allocation of credits to the applicant for the development. In any such letter, the chief executive officer must certify that the proposed development is not consistent with current zoning or other applicable land use regulations. Any such letter must also be accompanied by a legal opinion of the locality's attorney opining that the locality's opposition to the proposed development does not have a discriminatory intent or a discriminatory effect (as defined in 24 CFR 100.500(a)) that is not supported by a legally sufficient justification (as defined in 24 CFR 100.500(b)) in violation of the Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, as amended) and the HUD implementing regulations. (minus 25 points)

c. Any proposed development that is to be located in a revitalization area meeting the requirements of § 36-55.30:2 A of the Code of Virginia or within an opportunity zone designated by the Commonwealth pursuant to the Federal Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, as follows: (i) in a qualified census tract or federal targeted area, both as defined in the IRC, deemed under § 36-55.30:2 of the Code of Virginia to be designated as a revitalization area without adoption of a resolution (10 points); (ii) in any redevelopment area, conservation area, or rehabilitation area created or designated by the city or county pursuant to Chapter 1 (§ 36-1 et seq.) of Title 36 of the Code of Virginia and deemed under § 36-55.30:2 to be designated as a revitalization area without adoption of a further resolution (10 points); (iii) in a revitalization area designated by resolution adopted pursuant to the terms of § 36-55.30:2 (15 points); (iv) in a local housing rehabilitation zone created by an ordinance passed by the city, county, or town and deemed to meet the requirements of § 36-55.30:2 pursuant to § 36-55.64 G of the Code of Virginia (15 points); and (v) in an opportunity zone and having a binding commitment of funding acceptable to the executive director pursuant to requirements as set forth on the application form, instructions, or other communication available to the public. (15 points). If the development is located in more than one such area, only the highest applicable points will be awarded, that is, points in this subdivision c are not cumulative.

d. Commitment by the applicant for any development without section 8 project-based assistance to give leasing preference to individuals and families (i) on public housing waiting lists maintained by the local housing authority operating in the locality in which the proposed development is to be located and notification of the availability of such units to the local housing authority by the applicant or (ii) on section 8 (as defined in 13VAC10-180-90) waiting lists maintained by the local or nearest section 8 administrator for the locality in which the proposed development is to be located and notification of the availability of such units to the local section 8 administrator by the applicant. (5 points)

e. Any (i) funding source, as evidenced by a binding commitment or letter of intent, that is used to reduce the credit request; (ii) commitment to donate land or buildings or tap fee waivers from the local government; or (iii) commitment to donate land (including a below market-rate land lease) from an entity that is not a principal in the applicant (the donor being the grantee of a right of first refusal or purchase option with no ownership interest in the applicant shall not make the donor a principal in the applicant). Loans must be below market-rate (the one-year London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) rate at the time of commitment) or cash-flow only to be eligible for points. Financing from the authority and market rate permanent financing sources are not eligible. (The amount of such funding, dollar value of local support, or value of donated land (including a below market rate land lease) will be determined by the executive director and divided by the total development cost. The applicant receives two points for each percentage point up to a maximum of 40 points.) The authority will confirm receipt of such subsidized funding prior to the issuance of IRS Form 8609.

f. Any development subject to (i) HUD's Section 8 or Section 236 program or (ii) Rural Development's 515 program, at the time of application. (20 points, unless the applicant is or has any common interests with the current owner, directly or indirectly, the application will only qualify for these points if the applicant waives all rights to developer's fee on acquisition and any other fees associated with the acquisition of the development unless permitted by the executive director for good cause.)

g. Any development receiving a real estate tax abatement on the increase in the value of the development. (5 points)

h. Any development receiving new project-based subsidy from HUD or Rural Development for the greater of five units or 10% of the units of the proposed development. (10 points)

i. Any proposed elderly or family development located in a census tract that has less than a 3.0% poverty rate based upon Census Bureau data (30 points); less than a 10% poverty rate based upon Census Bureau data (25 points); or less than a 12% poverty rate based upon Census Bureau data. (20 points)

j. Any proposed development listed in the top 25 developments identified by Rural Development as high priority for rehabilitation at the time the application is submitted to the authority. (15 points)

k. Any proposed new construction development (including adaptive reuse and rehabilitation that creates additional rental space) located in a pool identified by the authority as a pool with little or no increase in rent-burdened population. (Up to minus 20 points, depending upon the portion of the development that is additional rental space, in all pools except the at-large pool, 0 points in the at-large pool; the executive director may make exceptions in the following circumstances:

(1) Specialized types of housing designed to meet special needs that cannot readily be addressed utilizing existing residential structures;

(2) Housing designed to serve as a replacement for housing being demolished through redevelopment; or

(3) Housing that is an integral part of a neighborhood revitalization project sponsored by a local housing authority.)

l. Any proposed new construction development (including adaptive reuse and rehabilitation that creates additional rental space) that is located in a pool identified by the authority as a pool with an increasing rent-burdened population. (Up to 20 points, depending upon the portion of the development that is additional rental space, in all pools except the at-large pool, 0 points in the at-large pool.)

3. Development characteristics.

a. Evidence satisfactory to the authority documenting the quality of the proposed development's amenities as determined by the following:

(1) The following points are available for any application:

(a) If a community room with a minimum of 749 square feet is provided. (5 points) Community rooms receiving points under this subdivision 3 a (1) (a) may not be used for commercial purposes. Provided that the cost of the community room is not included in eligible basis, the owner may conduct, or contract with a nonprofit provider to conduct, programs or classes for tenants and members of the community in the community room, so long as (i) tenants compose at least one-third of participants, with first preference given to tenants above the one-third minimum; (ii) no program or class may be offered more than five days per week; (iii) no individual program or class may last more than eight hours per day, and all programs and class sessions may not last more than 10 hours per day in the aggregate; (iv) cost of attendance of the program or class must be below market rate with no profit from the operation of the class or program being generated for the owner (owner may also collect an amount for reimbursement of supplies and clean-up costs); (v) the community room must be available for use by tenants when programs and classes are not offered, subject to reasonable "quiet hours" established by owner; and (vi) any owner offering programs or classes must provide an annual certification to the authority that it is in compliance with such requirements, with failure to comply with these requirements resulting in a 10-point penalty for three years from the date of such noncompliance for principals in the owner.

(b) If the exterior walls are constructed using brick or other similar low-maintenance material approved by the authority (as indicated on the application form, instructions, or other communication available to the public) covering 25% or greater, up to and including 85%, of the exterior walls of the development. For purposes of making such coverage calculation, the triangular gable end area, doors, windows, knee walls, columns, retaining walls, and any features that are not a part of the façade are excluded from the denominator. Community buildings are included in the foregoing coverage calculations. (Zero points if coverage is less than 25%; 10 points if coverage is at least 25%, and an additional 15 points is available on a sliding scale if coverage is greater than 25% up to and including 85% coverage. No additional points if coverage is greater than 85%.)

(c) If the water expense is submetered (the tenant will pay monthly or bimonthly bill). (5 points)

(d) If points are not awarded pursuant to subdivision 3 f of this section for optional certification, if each bathroom contains only WaterSense labeled toilets, faucets and showerheads. (3 points)

(e) If each unit is provided with the necessary infrastructure for high-speed Internet or broadband service. (1 point)

If free Wi-Fi access is provided in the community room and such access is restricted to resident only usage. (4 points) If each unit is provided with free individual high-speed Internet access. (6 points, 8 points if such access is Wi-Fi)

(f) If each full bathroom's bath fans are wired to the primary bathroom light with a delayed timer, or continuous exhaust by ERV/DOAS. (3 points) If each full bathroom's bath fans are equipped with a humidistat. (3 points)

(g) If all cooking surfaces are equipped with fire prevention features that meet the authority's requirements as indicated on the application form, instructions, or other communication available to the public. (4 points)

If all cooking surfaces are equipped with fire suppression features that meet the authority's requirements (as indicated on the application form, instructions, or other communication available to the public). (2 points)

(h) For rehabilitations, equipping all units with dedicated space, drain, and electrical hook-ups for permanently installed dehumidification systems (2 points). For rehabilitations and new construction, providing permanently installed dehumidification systems in each unit. (5 points)

(i) If each interior door is solid core. (3 points)

(j) If each unit has at least one USB charging port in the kitchen, living room, and all bedrooms. (1 point)

(k) If each kitchen has LED lighting in all fixtures that meets the authority's minimum design and construction standards (2 points)

(l) If each unit has a shelf or ledge outside the primary entry door in interior hallway. (2 points)

(m) For new construction only, if each unit has a balcony or patio with a minimum depth of five feet clear from face of building and a size of at least 30 square feet. (4 points)

(2) The following points are available to applications electing to serve elderly tenants:

(a) If all cooking ranges have front controls. (1 point)

(b) If all bathrooms have an independent or supplemental heat source. (1 point)

(c) If all entrance doors to each unit have two eye viewers, one at 42 inches and the other at standard height. (1 point)

(3) If the structure is historic, by virtue of being listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places, or due to its location in a registered historic district and certified by the Secretary of the Interior as being of historical significance to the district, and the rehabilitation will be completed in such a manner as to be eligible for historic rehabilitation tax credits. (5 points)

b. Any development in which (i) the greater of five units or 10% of the units will be assisted by HUD project-based vouchers (as evidenced by the submission of a letter satisfactory to the authority from an authorized public housing authority (PHA) that the development meets all prerequisites for such assistance) or other form of documented and binding federal or state project-based rent subsidies in order to ensure occupancy by extremely low-income persons; and (ii) the greater of five units or 10% of the units will conform to HUD regulations interpreting the accessibility requirements of § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and be actively marketed to persons with disabilities as defined in the Fair Housing Act in accordance with a plan submitted as part of the application for credits (all common space must also conform to HUD regulations interpreting the accessibility requirements of § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and all the units described in clause (ii) above must include roll-in showers and roll-under sinks and front control ranges, unless agreed to by the authority prior to the applicant's submission of its application). (60 points)

c. Any development in which the greater of five units or 10% of the units (i) have rents within HUD's Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) payment standard, (ii) conform to HUD regulations interpreting the accessibility requirements of § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and (iii) are actively marketed to persons with disabilities as defined in the Fair Housing Act in accordance with a plan submitted as part of the application for credits (all common space must also conform to HUD regulations interpreting the accessibility requirements of § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act). (30 points)

d. Any development in which 5.0% of the units (i) conform to HUD regulations interpreting the accessibility requirements of § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and (ii) are actively marketed to persons with disabilities as defined in the Fair Housing Act in accordance with a plan submitted as part of the application for credits. (15 points)

e. Any development located within one-half mile of an existing commuter rail, light rail or subway station or one-quarter mile of one or more existing public bus stops. (10 points, unless the development is located within the geographical area established by the executive director for a pool of credits for Northern Virginia or Tidewater Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), in which case, the development will receive 20 points if the development is ranked against other developments in such Northern Virginia or Tidewater MSA pool, 10 points if the development is ranked against other developments in any other pool of credits established by the executive director)

f. Each development must meet the following baseline energy performance standard applicable to the development's construction category. For new construction, the development must meet all requirements for EPA Energy Star certification. For rehabilitation, the proposed renovation of the development must result in at least a 30% post-rehabilitation decrease on the Home Energy Rating System Index (HERS Index) or score an 80 or lower on the HERS Index. For adaptive reuse, the proposed development must score a 95 or lower on the HERS Index. For mixed construction types, the applicable standard will apply to the development's various construction categories. The development's score on the HERS Index must be verified by a third-party, independent, nonaffiliated, certified Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) home energy rater.

Any development for which the applicant agrees to obtain (i) EarthCraft Gold or higher certification; (ii) U.S. Green Building Council LEED green-building certification; (iii) National Green Building Standard Certification of Silver or higher; or (iv) meet Enterprise Green Communities Criteria prior to the issuance of an IRS Form 8609 with the proposed development's architect certifying in the application that the development's design will meet the criteria for such certification, provided that the proposed development's RESNET rater is registered with a provider on the authority's approved RESNET provider list. (10 points, points in this paragraph are not cumulative)

Additionally, points on future applications will be awarded to an applicant having a principal that is also a principal in a tax credit development in the Commonwealth meeting (i) the Zero Energy Ready Home Requirements as promulgated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and as evidenced by a DOE certificate; or (ii) the Passive House Institute's Passive House standards as evidenced by a certificate from an accredited Passive House certifier. (10 points, points in this paragraph are cumulative)

The executive director may, if needed, designate a proposed development as requiring an increase in credit in order to be financially feasible and such development shall be treated as if in a difficult development area as provided in the IRC for any applicant receiving an additional 10 points under this subdivision, provided however, any resulting increase in such development's eligible basis shall be limited to 10% of the development's eligible basis. Provided, however, the authority may remove such increase in the development's eligible basis if the authority determines that the development is financially feasible without such increase in basis.

g. If units are constructed to include the authority's universal design features, provided that the proposed development's architect is on the authority's list of universal design certified architects. (15 points, if all the units in an elderly development meet this requirement; 15 points multiplied by the percentage of units meeting this requirement for nonelderly developments)

h. Any development in which the applicant proposes to produce less than 100 low-income housing units. (20 points for producing 50 low-income housing units or less, minus 0.4 points for each additional low-income housing unit produced down to 0 points for any development that produces 100 or more low-income housing units.)

i. Any applicant for a development that, pursuant to a common plan of development, is part of a larger development located on the same or contiguous sites, financed in part by tax-exempt bonds. Combination developments seeking both 9.0% and 4.0% credits must clearly be presented as two separately financed deals including separate equity pricing that would support each respective deal in the event the other were no longer present. While deals are required to be on the same or a contiguous site they must be clearly identifiable as separate. The units financed by tax exempt bonds may not be interspersed throughout the development. Additionally, if co-located within the same building footprint, the property must identify separate entrances. All applicants seeking points in this category must arrange a meeting with authority staff at the authority's offices prior to the deadline for submission of the application in order to review both the 9.0% and the tax-exempt bond financed portion of the project. Any applicant failing to meet with authority staff in advance of applying will not be allowed to compete in the current competitive round as a combination development. (25 points for tax-exempt bond financing of at least 30% of aggregate units, 35 points for tax-exempt bond financing of at least 40% of aggregate units, and 45 points for tax-exempt bond financing of at least 50% of aggregate units; such points being noncumulative; such points will be awarded in both the application and any application submitted for credits associated with the tax-exempt bonds)

4. Tenant population characteristics. Commitment by the applicant to give a leasing preference to individuals and families with children in developments that will have no more than 20% of its units with one bedroom or less. (15 points; plus 0.75 points for each percent of the low-income units in the development with three or more bedrooms up to an additional 15 points for a total of no more than 30 points)

5. Sponsor characteristics.

a. Evidence that the controlling general partner or managing member of the controlling general partner or managing member for the proposed development have developed:

(1) As controlling general partner or managing member, (i) at least three tax credit developments that contain at least three times the number of housing units in the proposed development or (ii) at least six tax credit developments. (50 points);

(2) At least three deals as a principal and have at least $500,000 in liquid assets. "Liquid assets" means cash, cash equivalents, and investments held in the name of the entities or persons, including cash in bank accounts, money market funds, U.S. Treasury bills, and equities traded on the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ. Certain cash and investments will not be considered liquid assets, including: (i) stock held in the applicant's own company or any closely held entity, (ii) investments in retirement accounts, (iii) cash or investments pledged as collateral for any liability, and (iv) cash in property accounts, including reserves. The authority will assess the financial capacity of the applicant based on its financial statements. The authority will accept financial statements audited, reviewed, or compiled by an independent certified public accountant. Only a balance sheet dated on or after December 31 of the year prior to the application deadline is required. The authority will accept a compilation report with or without full note disclosures. Supplementary schedules for all significant assets and liabilities may be required. Financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (U.S. GAAP) are preferred. Statements prepared in the income tax basis or cash basis must disclose that basis in the report. The authority reserves the right to verify information in the financial statements. (50 points); or

(3) As controlling general partner or managing member, at least one tax credit development that contains at least the number of housing units in the proposed development. (10 points)

Applicants receiving points under subdivisions a (1) and a (2) of this subdivision 5 shall have the 50 points reduced if the controlling general partner or managing member of the controlling general partner or managing member in the applicant acted as a principal in a development receiving an allocation of credits from the authority where:

(a) Such principal met the requirements to be eligible for points under 5 (a) (1) or (2) and

(b) Such principal made more than two requests for final inspection (minus 5 points for two years).

Applicants receiving points under subdivisions a (1) and a (2) of this subdivision 5 are not eligible for points under subdivision 1 above.

b. Any applicant that includes a principal that was a principal in a development at the time the authority inspected such development and discovered a life-threatening hazard under HUD's Uniform Physical Condition Standards and such hazard was not corrected in the timeframe established by the authority. (minus 50 points for a period of three years after the violation has been corrected)

c. Any applicant that includes a principal that was a principal in a development that either (i) at the time the authority reported such development to the IRS for noncompliance had not corrected such noncompliance by the time a Form 8823 was filed by the authority or (ii) remained out-of-compliance with the terms of its extended use commitment after notice and expiration of any cure period set by the authority. (minus 15 points for a period of three calendar years after the year the authority filed Form 8823 or expiration of such cure period, unless the executive director determines that such principal's attempts to correct such noncompliance was prohibited by a court, local government or governmental agency, in which case, no negative points will be assessed to the applicant, or 0 points, if the appropriate individuals connected to the principal attend compliance training as recommended by the authority)

d. Any applicant that includes a principal that is or was a principal in a development that (i) did not build a development as represented in the application for credit (minus two times the number of points assigned to the items not built or minus 20 points for failing to provide a minimum building requirement, for a period of three years after the last Form 8609 is issued for the development, in addition to any other penalties the authority may seek under its agreements with the applicant), or (ii) has a reservation of credits terminated by the authority. (minus 10 points a period of three years after the credits are returned to the authority)

e. Any applicant that includes a management company in its application that is rated unsatisfactory by the executive director or if the ownership of any applicant includes a principal that is or was a principal in a development that hired a management company to manage a tax credit development after such management company received a rating of unsatisfactory from the executive director during the compliance period and extended use period of such development. (minus 25 points)

f. Any applicant that includes a principal that was a principal in a development for which the actual cost of construction (as certified in the Independent Auditor's Report with attached Certification of Sources and Uses that is submitted in connection with the Owner's Application for IRS Form 8609) exceeded the applicable cost limit by 5.0% or more (minus 50 points for a period of three calendar years after December 31 of the year the cost certification is complete; provided, however, if the Board of Commissioners determines that such overage was outside of the applicant's control based upon documented extenuating circumstances, no negative points will be assessed.)

6. Efficient use of resources.

a. The percentage by which the total of the amount of credits per low-income housing unit (the "per unit credit amount") of the proposed development is less than the standard per unit credit amounts established by the executive director for a given unit type, based upon the number of such unit types in the proposed development. (200 points multiplied by the percentage by which the total amount of the per unit credit amount of the proposed development is less than the applicable standard per unit credit amount established by the executive director, negative points will be assessed using the percentage by which the total amount of the per unit credit amount of the proposed development exceeds the applicable standard per unit credit amount established by the executive director.)

b. The percentage by which the cost per low-income housing unit (per unit), adjusted by the authority for location, of the proposed development is less than the standard per unit cost amounts established by the executive director for a given unit type, based upon the number of such unit types in the proposed development. (100 points multiplied by the percentage by which the total amount of the per unit cost of the proposed development is less than the applicable standard per unit cost amount established by the executive director; negative points will be assessed using the percentage by which the total amount of the per unit cost amount of the proposed development exceeds the applicable standard per unit cost amount established by the executive director.)

The executive director may use a standard per square foot credit amount and a standard per square foot cost amount in establishing the per unit credit amount and the per unit cost amount in subdivision 6 above. For the purpose of calculating the points to be assigned pursuant to such subdivision 6 above, all credit amounts shall include any credits previously allocated to the development.

7. Bonus points.

a. Commitment by the applicant to impose income limits on the low-income housing units throughout the extended use period (as defined in the IRC) below those required by the IRC in order for the development to be a qualified low-income development. Applicants receiving points under this subdivision 7 a may not receive points under subdivision 7 b below. (Up to 50 points, the product of (i) 100 multiplied by (ii) the percentage of housing units in the proposed development both rent restricted to and occupied by households at or below 50% of the area median gross income; plus one point for each percentage point of such housing units in the proposed development that are further restricted to rents at or below 30% of 40% of the area median gross income up to an additional 10 points.) If the applicant commits to providing housing units in the proposed development both rent-restricted to and occupied by households at or below 30% of the area median gross income and that are not subsidized by project-based rental assistance. (plus 1 point for each percentage point of such housing units in the proposed development, up to an additional 10 points)

b. Commitment by the applicant to impose rent limits on the low-income housing units throughout the extended use period (as defined in the IRC) below those required by the IRC in order for the development to be a qualified low-income development. Applicants receiving points under this subdivision 7 b may not receive points under subdivision 7 a. (Up to 25 points, the product of (i) 50 multiplied by (ii) the percentage of housing units in the proposed development rent restricted to households at or below 50% of the area median gross income; plus one point for each percentage point of such housing units in the proposed development that are further restricted to rents at or below 30% of 40% of the area median gross income up to an additional 10 points. Points for proposed developments in low-income jurisdictions shall be two times the points calculated in the preceding sentence, up to 50 points.)

c. Commitment by the applicant to maintain the low-income housing units in the development as a qualified low-income housing development beyond the 30-year extended use period (as defined in the IRC). Applicants receiving points under this subdivision 7 c may not receive bonus points under subdivision 7 d. (40 points for a 10-year commitment beyond the 30-year extended use period or 50 points for a 20-year commitment beyond the 30-year extended use period.)

d. Participation by a local housing authority or qualified nonprofit organization (substantially based or active in the community with at least a 10% ownership interest in the general partnership interest of the partnership) and a commitment by the applicant to sell the proposed development pursuant to an executed, recordable option or right of first refusal to such local housing authority or qualified nonprofit organization or to a wholly owned subsidiary of such organization or authority, at the end of the 15-year compliance period, as defined by IRC, for a price not to exceed the outstanding debt and exit taxes of the for-profit entity. The applicant must record such option or right of first refusal immediately after the low-income housing commitment described in 13VAC10-180-70. Applicants receiving points under this subdivision 7 d may not receive bonus points under subdivision 7 c. (60 points; plus five points if the local housing authority or qualified nonprofit organization submits a homeownership plan satisfactory to the authority in which the local housing authority or qualified nonprofit organization commits to sell the units in the development to tenants.)

e. Any development participating in the Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD) program, or other conversion to project-based vouchers or project-based rental assistance approved by the authority, competing in the local housing authority pool will receive an additional 10 points. Applicants must show proof of a commitment to enter into housing assistance payment or a RAD conversion commitment.

In calculating the points for subdivisions 7 a and b above, any units in the proposed development required by the locality to exceed 60% of the area median gross income will not be considered when calculating the percentage of low-income units of the proposed development with incomes below those required by the IRC in order for the development to be a qualified low-income development, provided that the locality submits evidence satisfactory to the authority of such requirement.

After points have been assigned to each application in the manner described above, the executive director shall compute the total number of points assigned to each such application. Any application that is assigned a total number of points less than a threshold amount of 425 points (325 points for developments financed with tax-exempt bonds in such amount so as not to require under the IRC an allocation of credits hereunder) shall be rejected from further consideration hereunder and shall not be eligible for any reservation or allocation of credits.

During its review of the submitted applications in all pools, the authority may conduct its own analysis of the demand for the housing units to be produced by each applicant's proposed development. Notwithstanding any conclusion in the market study submitted with an application, if the authority determines that, based upon information from its own loan portfolio or its own market study, inadequate demand exists for the housing units to be produced by an applicant's proposed development, the authority may exclude and disregard the application for such proposed development.

During its review of the submitted applications in all pools, the authority may conduct a site visit to the applicant's proposed development. Notwithstanding any conclusion in any environmental site assessment submitted with an application, if the authority determines that the applicant's proposed development presents health or safety concerns for potential tenants of the development, the authority may exclude and disregard the application for such proposed development.

The executive director may exclude and disregard any application that he determines is not submitted in good faith or that he determines would not be financially feasible.

Upon assignment of points to all of the applications, the executive director shall rank the applications based on the number of points so assigned. If any pools shall have been established, each application shall be assigned to a pool and, if any, to the appropriate tier within such pool and shall be ranked within such pool or tier, if any. The amount of credits made available to each pool will be determined by the executive director. Available credits will include unreserved per capita dollar amount credits from the current calendar year under § 42(h)(3)(C)(i) of the IRC, any unreserved per capita credits from previous calendar years, and credits returned to the authority prior to the final ranking of the applications and may include up to 40% of next calendar year's per capita credits as shall be determined by the executive director. Those applications assigned more points shall be ranked higher than those applications assigned fewer points. However, if any set-asides established by the executive director cannot be satisfied after ranking the applications based on the number of points, the executive director may rank as many applications as necessary to meet the requirements of such set-aside (selecting the highest ranked application, or applications, meeting the requirements of the set-aside) over applications with more points.

In the event of a tie in the number of points assigned to two or more applications within the same pool, or, if none, within the Commonwealth, and in the event that the amount of credits available for reservation to such applications is determined by the executive director to be insufficient for the financial feasibility of all of the developments described therein, the authority shall, to the extent necessary to fully utilize the amount of credits available for reservation within such pool or, if none, within the Commonwealth, select one or more of the applications with the highest combination of points from subdivision 7, and each application so selected shall receive (in order based upon the number of such points, beginning with the application with the highest number of such points) a reservation of credits. If two or more of the tied applications receive the same number of points from subdivision 7 and if the amount of credits available for reservation to such tied applications is determined by the executive director to be insufficient for the financial feasibility of all the developments described therein, the executive director shall select one or more of such applications by lot, and each application so selected by lot shall receive (in order of such selection by lot) a reservation of credits.

For each application which may receive a reservation of credits, the executive director shall determine the amount, as of the date of the deadline for submission of applications for reservation of credits, to be necessary for the financial feasibility of the development and its viability as a qualified low-income development throughout the credit period under the IRC. In making this determination, the executive director shall consider the sources and uses of the funds, the available federal, state and local subsidies committed to the development, the total financing planned for the development as well as the investment proceeds or receipts expected by the authority to be generated with respect to the development, and the percentage of the credit dollar amount used for development costs other than the costs of intermediaries. He shall also examine the development's costs, including developer's fees and other amounts in the application, for reasonableness, and if he determines that such costs or other amounts are unreasonably high, he shall reduce them to amounts that he determines to be reasonable. The executive director shall review the applicant's projected rental income, operating expenses and debt service for the credit period. The executive director may establish such criteria and assumptions as he shall deem reasonable for the purpose of making such determination, including criteria as to the reasonableness of fees and profits and assumptions as to the amount of net syndication proceeds to be received (based upon such percentage of the credit dollar amount used for development costs, other than the costs of intermediaries, as the executive director shall determine to be reasonable for the proposed development), increases in the market value of the development, and increases in operating expenses, rental income and, in the case of applications without firm financing commitments (as defined hereinabove) at fixed interest rates, debt service on the proposed mortgage loan. The executive director may, if he deems it appropriate, consider the development to be a part of a larger development. In such a case, the executive director may consider, examine, review and establish any or all of the foregoing items as to the larger development in making such determination for the development.

Maximum developer's fee calculations will be indicated on the application form, instructions, or other communication available to the public. Notwithstanding such calculations of developer's fee, (i) no more than $3 million developer's fee may be included in the development's eligible basis, (ii) no developer's fee may exceed $5 million, and (iii) no developer's fee may exceed 15% of the development's total development cost, as determined by the authority.

At such time or times during each calendar year as the executive director shall designate, the executive director shall reserve credits to applications in descending order of ranking within each pool and tier, if applicable, until either substantially all credits therein are reserved or all qualified applications therein have received reservations. (For the purpose of the preceding sentence, if there is not more than a de minimis amount, as determined by the executive director, of credits remaining in a pool after reservations have been made, "substantially all" of the credits in such pool shall be deemed to have been reserved.) The executive director may rank the applications within pools at different times for different pools and may reserve credits, based on such rankings, one or more times with respect to each pool. The executive director may also establish more than one round of review and ranking of applications and reservation of credits based on such rankings, and he shall designate the amount of credits to be made available for reservation within each pool during each such round. The amount reserved to each such application shall be equal to the lesser of (i) the amount requested in the application or (ii) an amount determined by the executive director, as of the date of application, to be necessary for the financial feasibility of the development and its viability as a qualified low-income development throughout the credit period under the IRC; provided, however, that in no event shall the amount of credits so reserved exceed the maximum amount permissible under the IRC.

If the amount of credits available in any pool is determined by the executive director to be insufficient for the financial feasibility of the proposed development to which such available credits are to be reserved, the executive director may move the proposed development and the credits available to another pool. If any credits remain in any pool after moving proposed developments and credits to another pool, the executive director may for developments that meet the requirements of § 42(h)(1)(E) of the IRC only, reserve the remaining credits to any proposed developments scoring at or above the minimum point threshold established by this chapter without regard to the ranking of such application with additional credits from the Commonwealth's annual state housing credit ceiling for the following year in such an amount necessary for the financial feasibility of the proposed developments. However, the reservation of credits from the Commonwealth's annual state housing credit ceiling for the following year shall be in the reasonable discretion of the executive director if he determines it to be in the best interest of the plan. In the event a reservation or an allocation of credits from the current year or a prior year is reduced, terminated, or canceled, the executive director may substitute such credits for any credits reserved from the following year's annual state housing credit ceiling.

In the event that during any round of application review and ranking the amount of credits reserved within any pools is less than the total amount of credits made available therein during such round, the executive director may (i) leave such unreserved credits in such pools for reservation and allocation in any subsequent round, (ii) redistribute such unreserved credits to such other pools as the executive director may designate, (iii) supplement such unreserved credits in such pools with additional credits from the Commonwealth's annual state housing credit ceiling for the following year for reservation and allocation if in the reasonable discretion of the executive director, it serves the best interest of the plan, or (iv) carry over such unreserved credits to the next succeeding calendar year for inclusion in the state housing credit ceiling (as defined in § 42(h)(3)(C) of the IRC) for such year.

Notwithstanding anything contained herein, the total amount of credits that may be awarded in any credit year after credit year 2001 to any applicant or to any related applicants for one or more developments shall not exceed 15% of Virginia's per capita dollar amount of credits for such credit year (credit cap). However, if the amount of credits to be reserved in any such credit year to all applications assigned a total number of points at or above the threshold amount set forth above shall be less than Virginia's dollar amount of credits available for such credit year, then the authority's board of commissioners may waive the credit cap to the extent it deems necessary to reserve credits in an amount at least equal to such dollar amount of credits. Applicants shall be deemed to be related if any principal in a proposed development or any person or entity related to the applicant or principal will be a principal in any other proposed development or developments. For purposes of this paragraph, a principal shall also include any person or entity who, in the determination of the executive director, has exercised or will exercise, directly or indirectly, substantial control over the applicant or has performed or will perform (or has assisted or will assist the applicant in the performance of), directly or indirectly, substantial responsibilities or functions customarily performed by applicants with respect to applications or developments. For the purpose of determining whether any person or entity is related to the applicant or principal, persons or entities shall be deemed to be related if the executive director determines that any substantial relationship existed, either directly between them or indirectly through a series of one or more substantial relationships (e.g., if party A has a substantial relationship with party B and if party B has a substantial relationship with party C, then A has a substantial relationship with both party B and party C), at any time within three years of the filing of the application for the credits. In determining in any credit year whether an applicant has a substantial relationship with another applicant with respect to any application for which credits were awarded in any prior credit year, the executive director shall determine whether the applicants were related as of the date of the filing of such prior credit year's application or within three years prior thereto and shall not consider any relationships or any changes in relationships subsequent to such date. Substantial relationships shall include the following relationships (in each of the following relationships, the persons or entities involved in the relationship are deemed to be related to each other): (i) the persons are in the same immediate family (including a spouse, children, parents, grandparents, grandchildren, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, nieces, and nephews) and are living in the same household; (ii) the entities have one or more common general partners or members (including related persons and entities), or the entities have one or more common owners that (by themselves or together with any other related persons and entities) have, in the aggregate, 5.0% or more ownership interest in each entity; (iii) the entities are under the common control (e.g., the same persons and any related persons serve as a majority of the voting members of the boards of such entities or as chief executive officers of such entities) of one or more persons or entities (including related persons and entities); (iv) the person is a general partner, member or employee in the entity or is an owner (by himself or together with any other related persons and entities) of 5.0% or more ownership interest in the entity; (v) the entity is a general partner or member in the other entity or is an owner (by itself or together with any other related persons and entities) of 5.0% or more ownership interest in the other entity; or (vi) the person or entity is otherwise controlled, in whole or in part, by the other person or entity. In determining compliance with the credit cap with respect to any application, the executive director may exclude any person or entity related to the applicant or to any principal in such applicant if the executive director determines that (i) such person or entity will not participate, directly or indirectly, in matters relating to the applicant or the ownership of the development to be assisted by the credits for which the application is submitted, (ii) such person or entity has no agreement or understanding relating to such application or the tax credits requested therein, and (iii) such person or entity will not receive a financial benefit from the tax credits requested in the application. A limited partner or other similar investor shall not be determined to be a principal and shall be excluded from the determination of related persons or entities unless the executive director shall determine that such limited partner or investor will, directly or indirectly, exercise control over the applicant or participate in matters relating to the ownership of the development substantially beyond the degree of control or participation that is usual and customary for limited partners or other similar investors with respect to developments assisted by the credits. If the award of multiple applications of any applicant or related applicants in any credit year shall cause the credit cap to be exceeded, such applicant shall, upon notice from the authority, jointly designate those applications for which credits are not to be reserved so that such limitation shall not be exceeded. Such notice shall specify the date by which such designation shall be made. In the absence of any such designation by the date specified in such notice, the executive director shall make such designation as he shall determine to best serve the interests of the program. Each applicant and each principal therein shall make such certifications, shall disclose such facts and shall submit such documents to the authority as the executive director may require to determine compliance with the credit cap. If an applicant or any principal therein makes any misrepresentation to the authority concerning such applicant's or principal's relationship with any other person or entity, the executive director may reject any or all of such applicant's pending applications for reservation or allocation of credits, may terminate any or all reservations of credits to the applicant, and may prohibit such applicant, the principals therein and any persons and entities then or thereafter having a substantial relationship (in the determination of the executive director as described above) with the applicant or any principal therein from submitting applications for credits for such period of time as the executive director shall determine.

Within a reasonable time after credits are reserved to any applicants' applications, the executive director shall notify each applicant for such reservations of credits either of the amount of credits reserved to such applicant's application (by issuing to such applicant a written binding commitment to allocate such reserved credits subject to such terms and conditions as may be imposed by the executive director therein, by the IRC and by this chapter) or, as applicable, that the applicant's application has been rejected or excluded or has otherwise not been reserved credits in accordance herewith. The written binding commitment shall prohibit any transfer, direct or indirect, of partnership interests (except those involving the admission of limited partners) prior to the placed-in-service date of the proposed development unless the transfer is consented to by the executive director. The written binding commitment shall further limit the developers' fees to the amounts established during the review of the applications for reservation of credits and such amounts shall not be increased unless consented to by the executive director.

If credits are reserved to any applicants for developments that have also received an allocation of credits from prior years, the executive director may reserve additional credits from the current year equal to the amount of credits allocated to such developments from prior years, provided such previously allocated credits are returned to the authority. Any previously allocated credits returned to the authority under such circumstances shall be placed into the credit pools from which the current year's credits are reserved to such applicants.

The executive director shall make a written explanation available to the general public for any allocation of housing credit dollar amount that is not made in accordance with established priorities and selection criteria of the authority.

The authority's board shall review and consider the analysis and recommendation of the executive director for the reservation of credits to an applicant, and, if it concurs with such recommendation, it shall by resolution ratify the reservation by the executive director of the credits to the applicant, subject to such terms and conditions as it shall deem necessary or appropriate to assure compliance with the aforementioned binding commitment issued or to be issued to the applicant, the IRC and this chapter. If the board determines not to ratify a reservation of credits or to establish any such terms and conditions, the executive director shall so notify the applicant.

The executive director may require the applicant to make a good faith deposit or to execute such contractual agreements providing for monetary or other remedies as it may require, or both, to assure that the applicant will comply with all requirements under the IRC, this chapter and the binding commitment (including any requirement to conform to all of the representations, commitments and information contained in the application for which points were assigned pursuant to this section). Upon satisfaction of all such aforementioned requirements (including any post-allocation requirements), such deposit shall be refunded to the applicant or such contractual agreements shall terminate, or both, as applicable.

If, as of the date the application is approved by the executive director, the applicant is entitled to an allocation of the credits under the IRC, this chapter and the terms of any binding commitment that the authority would have otherwise issued to such applicant, the executive director may at that time allocate the credits to such qualified low-income buildings or development without first providing a reservation of such credits. This provision in no way limits the authority of the executive director to require a good faith deposit or contractual agreement, or both, as described in the preceding paragraph, nor to relieve the applicant from any other requirements hereunder for eligibility for an allocation of credits. Any such allocation shall be subject to ratification by the board in the same manner as provided above with respect to reservations.

The executive director may require that applicants to whom credits have been reserved shall submit from time to time or at such specified times as he shall require, written confirmation and documentation as to the status of the proposed development and its compliance with the application, the binding commitment and any contractual agreements between the applicant and the authority. If on the basis of such written confirmation and documentation as the executive director shall have received in response to such a request, or on the basis of such other available information, or both, the executive director determines any or all of the buildings in the development that were to become qualified low-income buildings will not do so within the time period required by the IRC or will not otherwise qualify for such credits under the IRC, this chapter or the binding commitment, then the executive director may (i) terminate the reservation of such credits and draw on any good faith deposit, or (ii) substitute the reservation of credits from the current credit year with a reservation of credits from a future credit year if the delay is caused by a lawsuit beyond the applicant's control that prevents the applicant from proceeding with the development. If, in lieu of or in addition to the foregoing determination, the executive director determines that any contractual agreements between the applicant and the authority have been breached by the applicant, whether before or after allocation of the credits, he may seek to enforce any and all remedies to which the authority may then be entitled under such contractual agreements.

The executive director may establish such deadlines for determining the ability of the applicant to qualify for an allocation of credits as he shall deem necessary or desirable to allow the authority sufficient time, in the event of a reduction or termination of the applicant's reservation, to reserve such credits to other eligible applications and to allocate such credits pursuant thereto.

Any material changes to the development, as proposed in the application, occurring subsequent to the submission of the application for the credits therefor shall be subject to the prior written approval of the executive director. As a condition to any such approval, the executive director may, as necessary to comply with this chapter, the IRC, the binding commitment and any other contractual agreement between the authority and the applicant, reduce the amount of credits applied for or reserved or impose additional terms and conditions with respect thereto. If such changes are made without the prior written approval of the executive director, he may terminate or reduce the reservation of such credits, impose additional terms and conditions with respect thereto, seek to enforce any contractual remedies to which the authority may then be entitled, draw on any good faith deposit, or any combination of the foregoing.

In the event that any reservation of credits is terminated or reduced by the executive director under this section, he may reserve, allocate or carry over, as applicable, such credits in such manner as he shall determine consistent with the requirements of the IRC and this chapter.

Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the executive director may make a reservation of credits in an accessible supportive housing pool (ASH pool) to any applicant that proposes a nonelderly development that (i) will be assisted by a documented and binding form of rental assistance in order to ensure occupancy by extremely low-income persons; (ii) conforms to HUD regulations interpreting the accessibility requirements of § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act; (iii) will be actively marketed to people with disabilities in accordance with a plan submitted as part of the application for credits and approved by the executive director for at least 15% of the units in the development; (iv) has a principal with a demonstrated capacity for supportive housing evidenced by a certification from a certifying body acceptable to the executive director or other preapproved source; and (v) for which the applicant has completed the authority's supportive housing certification form. Any such reservations made in any calendar year may be up to 6.0% of the Commonwealth's annual state housing credit ceiling for the applicable credit year. However, such reservation will be for credits from the Commonwealth's annual state housing credit ceiling from the following calendar year. If the ASH pool application deadline is simultaneous with the deadline for the other pools, the unsuccessful applicants in the ASH pool will also compete in the applicable geographic pool.

Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the executive director may make reservations of credits to developments having unique and innovative development concepts, such as innovative construction methods or materials; unique or innovative tenant services, tenant selection criteria, or eviction policies; or otherwise innovatively contributing to the authority's identified mission and goals. The applications for such credits must meet all the requirements of the IRC and threshold score. The authority shall also establish a review committee comprised of external real estate professionals, academic leaders, and other individuals knowledgeable of real estate development, design, construction, accessibility, energy efficiency, or management to assist the authority in determining and ranking the innovative nature of the development. Such reservations will be for credits from the next year's per capita credits and may not exceed 12.5% of the credits expected to be available for that following calendar year. Such reservations shall not be considered in the executive director's determination that no more than 40% of the next calendar year's per capita credits have been prereserved.

Statutory Authority

§ 36-55.30:3 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR400-02-0011 § 1, eff. June 21, 1995; amended, Volume 12, Issue 11, eff. February 19, 1996; Volume 13, Issue 12, eff. February 12, 1997; Volume 14, Issue 14, eff. March 4, 1998; Volume 15, Issue 14, eff. March 10, 1999; Volume 16, Issue 11, eff. January 24, 2000; Volume 16, Issue 15, eff. March 22, 2000; Volume 17, Issue 17, eff. April 9, 2001; Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. January 9, 2002; Volume 19, Issue 16, eff. January 1, 2004; Volume 20, Issue 10, eff. January 12, 2004; Volume 21, Issue 11, eff. January 14, 2005; Volume 22, Issue 09, eff. January 1, 2006; Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. February 4, 2008; Volume 25, Issue 07, eff. January 1, 2009; Volume 26, Issue 09, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 27, Issue 11, eff. January 6, 2011; Volume 28, Issue 11, eff. January 30, 2012; Volume 29, Issue 09, eff. January 1, 2013; Volume 30, Issue 06, eff. January 1, 2014; Volume 31, Issue 09, eff. January 1, 2015; Volume 33, Issue 08, eff. January 1, 2017; Volume 35, Issue 10, eff. January 1, 2019.

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