Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 13. Housing
Agency 5. Department of Housing And Community Development
Chapter 51. Virginia Statewide Fire Prevention Code
6/25/2022

13VAC5-51-135.5. IFC Chapter 10 Means of Egress.

A. The following changes shall be made to Section 1001, Administration:

1. Change Section 1001.1 to read:

1001.1 General. Means of egress systems for buildings or portions thereof shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code and Section 1031.

2. Add Sections 1001.3 and 1001.3.1 to read:

1001.3 Overcrowding. Overcrowding, admittance of any person beyond the approved occupant load established by the USBC or other building code under which the building was constructed, or obstructing aisles, passageways, or any part of the means of egress shall not be allowed. The fire code official, upon finding any condition that constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be authorized to cause the event to be stopped until such condition or obstruction is corrected.

1001.3.1 Temporary occupant load determination. Where the fire code official determines that overcrowding may exist, the fire code official shall be permitted to utilize the egress component sizing requirements and occupant load allowances of the VCC to determine a temporary occupant load. Where such determination is made, the fire code official shall be permitted to require an approved temporary sign posting of the maximum allowable occupant load and such sign shall be maintained until the building official approves the allowable occupant load at which time a permanent sign shall be posted, where applicable, or the temporary sign may be removed.

3. Add Section 1001.4 to read:

1001.4 Unauthorized use of emergency supplemental hardware. No person shall utilize any approved emergency supplemental hardware to prevent the ingress or egress from any occupied space.

Exceptions:

1. Utilized by authorized persons or other persons occupying such space in the event of any actual or perceived hostile threat or active shooter event.

2. Utilized in conjunction with any approved lockdown drill requiring the utilization of the approved emergency supplemental hardware.

3. Utilization for the testing, use, and training by emergency response personnel.

Where such device is utilized in accordance with the Exceptions 1, 2, and 3, the hardware device shall be removed immediately following the conditions of such exceptions.

B. The following changes shall be made to Section 1003, General Means of Egress:

1. Change Section 1003.1 to read:

1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1015 shall apply to the maintenance of the building.

2. Change Section 1003.2 to read:

1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress ceiling height shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1003.3 to read:

1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects on circulation paths shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 and 1003.3.4.

4. Change Section 1003.3.1 to read:

1003.3.1 Headroom. Minimum headroom shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1003.3.2 to read:

1003.3.2 Post-mounted objects. Clearances for a free-standing object mounted on a post or pylon shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1003.3.3 to read:

1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Limitations of projection of objects into a means of egress in accordance with the applicable building code shall be maintained and not reduce the means of egress.

7. Change Section 1003.3.4 to read:

1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes.

8. Change Section 1003.4 to read:

1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code. Slip and trip hazards in the means of egress shall be abated.

9. Change Section 1003.5 to read:

1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation in the means of egress exist they shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable code.

10. Change Section 1003.6 to read:

1003.6 Means of egress continuity. Means of egress continuity shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code. Obstructions, except those permitted by the applicable building code, shall not reduce the minimum width or required capacity of means of egress components.

11. Change Section 1003.7 to read:

1003.7 Elevators, escalators, and moving walks. Elevators, escalators, and moving walks that are an approved component of a required means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

C. The following changes shall be made to Section 1004, Occupant Load:

1. Change Section 1004.1 to read:

1004.1 Design occupant load. The design occupant load shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Delete Sections 1004.2 through 1004.3, 1004.5, 1004.5.1, and 1004.6, including Table 1004.5.

3. Change Sections 1004.4 and 1004.7 to read:

1004.4 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

1004.7 Outdoor areas. The means of egress for outdoor areas shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Delete Section 1004.8.

5. Change Section 1004.9 to read:

1004.9 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy and where the occupant load of that room or space is 50 or more shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or the owner's authorized agent.

D. The following changes shall be made to Section 1005, Means of Egress Sizing:

1. Change Section 1005.1 to read:

1005.1 General. All portions of the means of egress system shall be sized in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1005.2 to read:

1005.2 Minimum width based on component. The minimum width of any means of egress components shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1005.3 to read:

1005.3 Required capacity based on occupant load. The required capacity of the means of egress for any room, area, space or story shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1005.3.1 to read:

1005.3.1 Stairways. The capacity, in inches, of means of egress stairways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Delete Section 1005.3.2.

6. Change Section 1005.4 to read:

1005.4 Continuity. The minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress required from any story of a building shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Delete Section 1005.5.

8. Change Section 1005.6 to read:

1005.6 Egress convergence. Where the means of egress from stories above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable code.

9. Change Section 1005.7 to read:

1005.7 Encroachment. Encroachments into the required means of egress width shall be in accordance with the provisions of the applicable building code.

10. Change Section 1005.7.1 to read:

1005.7.1 Doors. Doors shall be maintained such that when fully opened, shall not reduce the required width by more than what is permitted by the applicable building code. Door swing in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half unless allowed by the applicable building code.

11. Change Section 1005.7.2 to read:

1005.7.2 Other projections. Other projections shall be maintained and shall be in accordance with the applicable building code.

12. Delete Section 1005.7.3.

E. The following changes shall be made to Section 1006, Numbers of Exits and Exit Access Doorways:

1. Change Section 1006.1 to read:

1006.1 General. The number of exits or exit access doorways required within the means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1006.2 to read:

1006.2 Egress from spaces. Egress from spaces shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Delete Sections 1006.2.2.1 through 1006.2.6, including subsections, and Table 1006.2.1 and change Sections 1006.2.1 through 1006.2.2 to read:

1006.2.1 Egress based on occupant load and common path of egress travel distance. The minimum number of exits or exit access doorways required by the applicable building code from any space shall be maintained.

1006.2.1.1 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. Where three or more exits or exit access doorways are required by the applicable building code, the number required shall be maintained.

1006.2.2 Egress based on use. The minimum number of exits or access to exits required by the applicable building code shall be maintained. Approved egress for boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms, refrigeration machinery rooms, refrigerated rooms or spaces, I-4 day care, vehicular ramps, and R-3 or R-4 occupancies or spaces shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1006.3 to read:

1006.3 Egress from stories or occupied roofs. The means of egress system serving any story or occupied roof shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Delete Tables 1006.3.2, 1006.3.3(1), and 1006.3.3(2) and change Sections 1006.3.1 through 1006.3.3 to read:

1006.3.1 Adjacent story. A path of travel, approved in accordance with the applicable building code, that passes through an adjacent story shall be maintained.

1006.3.2 Egress based on occupant load. Each story and roof of a building shall maintain the minimum number of separate and distinct exits required by the applicable building code.

1006.3.3 Single exits. A single exit or access to a single exit from any story or occupied roof approved in accordance with the applicable building code shall be maintained.

F. The following changes shall be made to Section 1007, Exit and Exit Access Doorway Configuration:

1. Change Section 1007.1 to read:

1007.1 General. Exits, exit access doorways, and exit access stairways and ramps serving spaces, including individual building stories, shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable code.

2. Delete Section 1007.1.1.

3. Delete Section 1007.1.1.1.

4. Delete Section 1007.1.2.

5. Delete Section 1007.1.3.

6. Delete Section 1007.1.3.1.

G. The following changes shall be made to Section 1008, Means of Egress Illumination:

1. Change Section 1008.1 to read:

1008.1 Means of egress illumination. Illumination provided in the means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable code.

2. Change Section 1008.2 to read:

1008.2 Illumination required. Illumination provided for the means of egress serving a room or space shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1008.2.1 to read:

1008.2.1 Illumination level under normal power. The means of egress illumination level required by the applicable building code shall be maintained.

4. Delete Section 1008.2.2 and change Section 1008.2.3 to read:

1008.2.3 Exit discharge. Illumination required by the applicable building code along the path of travel for the exit discharge from each exit to the public way shall be maintained.

5. Change Section 1008.3 to read:

1008.3 Emergency power for illumination. The power supply for means of egress illumination shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Delete Sections 1008.3.1 through 1008.3.4 and change Section 1008.3.5 to read:

1008.3.5 Illumination level under emergency power. Emergency lighting facilities required and approved by the applicable building code shall be maintained.

H. The following changes shall be made to Section 1009, Accessible Means of Egress:

1. Change Section 1009.1 to read:

1009.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1009.2 to read:

1009.2 Continuity and components. Continuity and components provided for accessible means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Delete Section 1009.2.1.

4. Change Section 1009.3 and delete Sections 1009.3.1, 1009.3.2, and 1009.3.3.

Section 1009.3 to read:

1009.3 Stairways. Stairways part of an accessible means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1009.4 and delete Sections 1009.4.1 and 1009.4.2.

Section 1009.4 to read:

1009.4 Elevators. Elevators considered part of the means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1009.5 to read:

1009.5 Platform lifts. Platform lifts serving as a part of an accessible means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Change Section 1009.6 to read:

1009.6 Areas of refuge. Areas of refuge shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Delete Sections 1009.6.1 through 1009.6.5.

9. Change Section 1009.7 to read:

1009.7 Exterior areas for assisted rescue. Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

10. Delete Sections 1009.7.1 through 1009.7.4.

11. Change Section 1009.8 to read:

1009.8 Two-way communication. Where provided, two-way communication systems shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

12. Delete Section 1009.8.1.

I. The following changes shall be made to Section 1010, Doors, Gates and Turnstiles:

1. Change Section 1010.1 to read:

1010.1 Doors. Doors serving a means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code. Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.

2. Delete Sections 1010.1.1 through 1010.1.4.3 and 1010.1.6 and 1010.1.7, including subsections, and Tables 1010.1.4.1(1) and 1010.1.4.1(2) and change Sections 1010.1.5 and 1010.1.8 to read:

1010.1.5 Floor elevation. Floors or landings at doorways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

1010.1.8 Door arrangement. Minimum space between doors in a series of doors shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable code.

3. Change Section 1010.1.9 to read:

1010.1.9 Door operations. Locks and latches approved in accordance with the applicable building code shall be maintained. Except as specifically permitted by the applicable building code, egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

4. Delete Section 1010.1.9.2 and change Sections 1010.1.9.1 and 1010.1.9.3 to read:

1010.1.9.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operating devices on doors required by the applicable building code to be accessible shall be maintained. Additions or alterations of hardware shall be approved by the building official in accordance with Section 102.6.

1010.1.9.3 Monitored or recorded egress. Electrical systems that monitor or record egress activity and impact the door operations shall be approved in accordance with the applicable building code and shall be maintained in accordance with this section.

5. Change Section 1010.1.9. to read:

1010.1.9.4 Locks and latches. Where required, a readily visible durable sign is posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THIS SPACE IS OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting background. Emergency supplemental hardware provided in accordance with the applicable building code shall be provided with a readily visible durable sign posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS HARDWARE SHALL BE USED BY AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting background.

6. Delete Sections 1010.1.8.1 and 1010.1.10.1 through 1010.1.10.2, including subsections and change Sections 1010.1.9.5 through 1010.1.1.10 to read:

1010.1.9.5 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts approved in accordance with the applicable building code shall be maintained.

1010.1.9.6 Unlatching. Where the applicable building code requires that the unlatching of any door or leaf require no more than one operation, one operation shall be maintained.

1010.1.9.6.1 Closet doors. Where closet doors that latch in the closed position are required by the applicable building code to be openable from the inside, they shall be maintained.

1010.1.9.7 Controlled egress doors in Groups I-1 and I-2. Electric locking systems, including electromechanical locking systems and electromagnetic locking systems, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

1010.1.9.8 Delayed egress. Delayed egress locking systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

1010.1.9.9 Sensor release of electrically locked egress doors. The electric locks on sensor-released doors located in a means of egress shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

1010.1.9.10 Door hardware release of electrically locked egress doors. Door hardware release of electric locking systems installed on doors in the means of egress shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable code.

1010.1.9.11 Locking arrangements in buildings within correctional facilities. In buildings within correctional and detention facilities, doors in means of egress serving rooms or spaces occupied by persons whose movements are controlled for security reasons shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

1010.1.9.12 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of egress doors required by the applicable building code to be openable from both sides shall be maintained.

1010.1.10 Panic and fire exit hardware. Where the applicable building code requires panic or fire exit hardware on doors it shall be maintained.

7. Change Section 1010.2 to read:

1010.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Delete Section 1010.2.1.

9. Change Section 1010.3 to read:

1010.3 Turnstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

10. Delete Sections 1010.3.1 1010.3.1.1, 1010.3.3, and 1010.3.4 and change 1010.3.2 to read:

1010.3.2 Security access turnstiles. Security access turnstiles that inhibit travel in the direction of egress shall only be maintained and only operated in accordance with the applicable building code.

J. The following changes shall be made to Section 1011, Stairways:

1. Change Section 1011.1 to read:

1011.1 General. Stairways serving any portion of a building shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1011.2 to read:

1011.2 Width and capacity. The capacity of stairways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1011.3 to read:

1011.3 Headroom. Headroom requirements for stairways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1011.4 to read:

1011.4 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1011.5 to read:

1011.5 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code

6. Delete Sections 1011.5.2 through 1011.5.5.3, 1011.7.1, and 1011.7.2 and change Sections 1011.5.1, 1011.6, 1011.7, 1011.7.3, and 1011.7.4 to read:

1011.5.1 Dimensional uniformity. Stair tread and riser dimensions shall comply with the applicable building code and shall be maintained.

1011.6 Stairway landings. The floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

1011.7 Stairway arrangement. Stairways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code. Construction or alterations shall be approved by the building official in accordance with Section 102.6.

1011.7.3 Storage and enclosures under interior stairways. The usable spaces under enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall only be used for combustible storage where approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1011.7.4 Storage and enclosures and storage under exterior stairways. The usable spaces under exterior stairways shall only be used for combustible storage where approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Change Section 1011.8 to read:

1011.8 Vertical rise. Vertical rise of a flight of stairs shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Change Section 1011.9 to read:

1011.9 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with winder treads shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

9. Change Section 1011.10 to read:

1011.10 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways used as a component in the means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

10. Change Section 1011.11 to read:

1011.11 Handrails. Handrails for stairways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

11. Change Section 1011.12 to read:

1011.12 Stairway to roof. Stairways to a roof shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

12. Change Sections 1011.12.1 and 1011.12.2 to read:

1011.12.1 Stairway to elevator equipment. Access to roofs and penthouses for maintenance of elevator equipment shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1011.12.2 Roof access. Where a stairway provides access to a roof through a penthouse, such access shall be maintained as approved and in accordance with the applicable building code.

13. Change Section 1011.13 to read:

1011.13 Guards. Guards shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

14. Change Section 1011.14 to read:

1011.14 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

15. Delete Sections 1011.14.1 and 1011.14.2.

16. Change Section 1011.15 to read:

1011.15 Ships ladders. Ships ladders shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

17. Delete Sections 1011.15.1 and 1011.15.2 and change Section 1011.16 to read:

1011.16 Ladders. Permanent ladders shall be maintained as approved and in accordance with the applicable building code.

K. The following changes shall be made to Section 1012, Ramps:

1. Change Section 1012.1 to read:

1012.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to the maintenance of ramps used as a component of a means of egress.

2. Change Section 1012.2 to read:

1012.2 Slope. Ramp slopes shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1012.3 to read:

1012.3 Cross slope. The cross slope for ramps shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1012.4 to read:

1012.4 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1012.5 to read:

1012.5 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimensions of means of egress ramps shall be maintained as approved and in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Delete Sections 1012.5.1 through 1012.5.3.

7. Change Section 1012.6 to read:

1012.6 Landings. Landings serving ramps shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Delete Sections 1012.6.1 through 1012.6.5, 1012.7.1, and 1012.7.2 and change 1012.7 to read:

1012.7 Ramp construction. Ramps shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code. Construction or alterations shall be approved by the building official in accordance with Section 102.6.

9. Change Section 1012.8 to read:

1012.8 Handrails. Handrails serving ramps shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

10. Change Section 1012.9 to read:

1012.9 Guards. Guards shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

11. Change Section 1012.10 to read:

1012.10 Edge protection. Edge protection shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

12. Delete Sections 1012.10.1

and 1012.10.2.

L. The following changes shall be made to Section 1013, Exit Signs:

1. Change Section 1013.1 to read:

1013.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1013.2 to read:

1013.2 Floor-level exit signs in Group R-1. Floor-level exit signs in Group R-1 buildings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1013.3 to read:

1013.3 Illumination. Exit sign illumination shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1013.4 to read:

1013.4 Raised character and braille exit signs. Raised character and braille exit signs shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1013.5 to read:

1013.5 Internally illuminated exit signs. Electrically powered, self-luminous, and photoluminescent exit signs shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1013.6 to read:

1013.6 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illuminated exit signs shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Delete Sections 1013.6.1 through 1013.6.3.

M. The following changes shall be made to Section 1014, Handrails:

1. Change Section 1014.1 to read:

1014.1 Where required. Handrails serving stairways, ramps, stepped aisles, and ramped aisles shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1014.2 to read:

1014.1 Height. Handrail height shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1014.3 to read:

1014.3 Handrail graspability. Handrail graspability shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Delete Section 1014.3.1.

5. Delete Section 1014.3.2.

6. Change Section 1014.4 to read:

1014.4 Continuity. Handrail continuity shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Delete Section 1014.5.

8. Delete Section 1014.6.

9. Change Section 1014.7 to read:

1014.7 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall or other surface shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

10. Change Section 1014.8 to read:

1014.8 Projections. Projections into the required width of aisles, stairways, and ramps at each side shall be maintained as approved and in accordance with the applicable building code.

11. Change Section 1014.9 to read:

1014.9 Intermediate handrails. Where provided, intermediate handrails shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

N. The following changes shall be made to Section 1015, Guards:

1. Change Section 1015.1 to read:

1015.1 General. Guards shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Delete Section 1015.2.

3. Delete Section 1015.2.1.

4. Change Section 1015.3 to read:

1015.3 Height. Guard height shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1015.4 to read:

1015.4 Opening limitations. Openings in guards shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1015.5 to read:

1015.5 Screen porches. Guards provided for screen porches shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Change Section 1015.6 to read:

1015.6 Mechanical equipment, systems and devices. Guards provided for mechanical equipment shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Change Section 1015.7 to read:

1015.7 Roof access. Guards provided for roof access shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

9. Change Section 1015.8 to read:

1015.8 Window openings. Windows shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

10. Change Section 1015.8.1 to read:

1015.8.1 Window opening control devices. Window opening control devices shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

O. The following changes shall be made to Section 1016, Exit Access:

1. Change Section 1016.1 to read:

1016.1 General. The exit access shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1016.2 to read:

1016.2 Egress through intervening spaces. Egress through intervening spaces shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1016.2.1 to read:

1016.2.1 Multiple tenants. Where more than one tenant occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant space, dwelling unit, and sleeping unit means of egress shall maintain access to the required exits without passing through adjacent tenant spaces, dwelling units, and sleeping units unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code.

P. The following changes shall be made to Section 1017, Exit Access Travel Distance:

1. Change Section 1017.1 to read:

1017.1 General. Travel distance within the exit access portion of the means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Delete Sections 1017.2 through 1017.3.1 and Table 1017.2.

Q. The following changes shall be made to Section 1018, Aisles:

1. Change Section 1018.1 to read:

1018.1 General. Aisles and aisle accessways serving as a portion of the exit access in the means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1018.2 to read:

1018.2 Aisles in assembly spaces. Aisles and aisle accessways serving a room or space used for assembly purposes shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1018.3 to read:

1018.3 Aisles in Groups B and M. In Groups B and M occupancies, the aisle width shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1018.4 to read:

1018.4 Aisle accessways in Group M. Aisle accessways in Group M shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1018.5 to read:

1018.5 Aisles in other than assembly spaces and Groups B and M. Aisles in other than assembly spaces and Groups B and M shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

R. The following changes shall be made to Section 1019, Exit Access Stairways and Ramps.

1. Change Section 1019.1 to read:

1019.1 General. Exit access stairways and ramps serving as an exit access component in a means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Delete Sections 1019.2

through 1019.4.

S. The following changes shall be made to Section 1020, Corridors:

1. Change Section 1020.1 to read:

1020.1 Maintenance. Corridors shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code. Fire-resistance rated construction shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 7.

2. Delete Table 1020.1 and change Section 1020.1.1 to read:

1020.1.1 Hoistway openings. Elevator hoistway openings shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1020.2 to read:

1020.2 Width and capacity. The width and capacity of corridors shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Delete Table 1020.2.

5. Delete Section 1020.5 and change Sections 1020.4 and 1020.5.1 to read:

1020.4 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required by the applicable building code, the exit access, including any dead end conditions, shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1020.5.1 Corridor ceiling. When the space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above is used as a return air plenum, the space and any contents shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1020.6 to read:

1020.6 Corridor continuity. The continuity of fire-resistance-rated corridors shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

T. The following changes shall be made to Section 1021, Egress Balconies:

1. Change Section 1021.1 to read:

1021.1 General. Balconies used for egress purposes shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1021.2 to read:

1021.2 Wall separation. Wall separation for egress balconies shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1021.3 to read:

1021.3 Openness. The required openness of egress balconies shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1021.4 to read:

1021.4 Location. The fire separation distance for exterior egress balconies shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

U. The following changes shall be made to Section 1022, Exits:

1. Change Section 1022.1 to read:

1022.1 General. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge. Exits shall be continuous from the point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge. Exits shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1022.2 to read:

1022.2 Exterior exit doors. Exterior exit doors shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Delete Sections 1022.2.1 and 1022.2.2.

V. The following changes shall be made to Section 1023, Interior Exit Stairways and Ramps:

1. Change Section 1023.1 to read:

1023.1 General. Interior exit stairways and ramps serving as an exit component in a means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1023.2 to read:

1023.2 Maintenance. Enclosures for interior exit stairways and ramps shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code. Fire-resistance rated construction shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 7.

3. Change Section 1023.3 to read:

1023.3 Termination. Interior exit stairways and ramps shall terminate as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1023.3.1 to read:

1023.3.1 Connections. Where interior exit stairways and ramps connect to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the interior exit stairway and ramp shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code. Fire-resistance rated construction shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 7.

5. Change Section 1023.4 to read:

1023.4 Openings. Interior exit stairway and ramp opening protectives shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1023.5 to read:

1023.5 Penetrations. Penetrations into or through interior exit stairways shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code. Fire-resistance rated construction shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 7.

7. Change Section 1023.6 to read:

1023.6 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for interior exit stairway and ramp ventilation shall be maintained as approved and remain operational in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Change Section 1023.7 to read:

1032.7 Interior exit stairway and ramp exterior walls. Exterior walls of the interior exit stairway or ramp shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

9. Change Section 1023.8 to read:

1023.8 Discharge identification. Where the applicable building code requires a barrier to prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels below the level of exit discharge for an interior exit stairway or ramp, the barrier shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code. Directional exit signs shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

10. Change Section 1023.9.1 to read:

1023.9.1 Signage requirements. Stairway identification signs shall comply with all of the following requirements:

1. The signs shall be a minimum size of 18 inches (457 mm) by 12 inches (305 mm).

2. The letters designating the identification of the interior exit stairway and ramp shall be not less than 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) in height.

3. The number designating the floor level shall be not less than of 5 inches (127 mm) in height and located in the center of the sign.

4. Other lettering and numbers shall be not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in height.

5. Characters and their background shall have a nonglare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.

11. Change Section 1023.10 to read:

1023.10 Elevator lobby identification signs. At landings in interior exit stairways where two or more doors lead to the floor level, any door with direct access to an enclosed elevator lobby shall be identified by signage located on the door or directly adjacent to the door stating "Elevator Lobby." Signage shall be in accordance with Section 1023.9.1, Items 4 and 5.

12. Change Section 1023.11 to read:

1023.11 Smokeproof enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

13. Delete Section 1023.11.1 and change Sections 1023.11.2 and 1023.12 to read:

1023.11.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stairway or ramp within a smokeproof enclosure shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1023.12 Standpipes. Standpipe and standpipe hose connections in smokeproof enclosures shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.

W. The following changes shall be made to Section 1024, Exit Passageways:

1. Change Section 1024.1 to read:

1024.1 Exit passageways. Exit passageways serving as an exit component in a means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1024.2 to read:

1024.2 Width. The minimum width or required capacity of exit passageways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1024.3 to read:

1024.3 Maintenance. Exit passageway enclosures shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code. Fire-resistance rated construction shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 7.

4. Change Section 1024.4 to read:

1024.4 Termination. The termination of exit passageways shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1024.5 to read:

1024.5 Openings. Exit passageway opening protectives shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1024.6 to read:

1024.6 Penetrations. Penetration protection shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Change Section 1024.7 to read:

1024.7 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for exit passageway ventilation shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Delete Section 1024.8.

X. The following changes shall be made to Section 1025, Luminous Egress Path Markings:

1. Change Section 1025.1 to read:

1025.1 General. Luminous egress path markings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1025.2 to read:

1025.2 Markings within exit components. Egress path markings provided in interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps, and exit passageways shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Delete Sections 1025.2.1 through 1025.3 except Sections 1025.2.5 and 1025.2.6 and change those to read:

1025.2.5 Obstacles. Where the applicable building code requires luminous egress path markings of obstacles projecting into the egress path, the markings shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1025.2.6 Doors within the exit path. Luminous egress path markings of doors through which occupants must pass in order to complete the exit path shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1025.4 to read:

1025.4 Self-luminous and photoluminescent. Self-luminous and photoluminescent egress path markings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1025.5 to read:

1025.5 Illumination. Photoluminescent exit path markings shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

Y. The following changes shall be made to Section 1026, Horizontal Exits:

1. Change Section 1026.1 to read:

1026.1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an exit in a means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1026.2 to read:

1026.2 Separation. The separation between buildings or refuge areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1026.3 to read:

1026.3 Opening protectives. Fire doors in horizontal exits shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1026.4 to read:

1026.4 Refuge area. Where provided, the refuge area of a horizontal exit shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Delete Sections 1026.4.1 through 1026.5.

Z. The following changes shall be made to Section 1027, Exterior Exit Stairways and Ramps:

1. Change Section 1027.1 to read:

1027.1 Exterior exit stairways and ramps. Exterior exit stairways and ramps serving as an element of a required means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1027.2 to read:

1027.2 Use in a means of egress. Exterior exit stairways and ramps approved as an element of a required means of egress in accordance with the applicable building code shall be maintained.

3. Change Sections 1027.3 through 1027.6 to read:

1027.3 Open side. Required open side area for exterior exit stairways and ramps serving as an element of a required means of egress shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1027.4 Side yards. The open areas adjoining exterior exit stairways or ramps required by the applicable building code to be yards, courts, or public ways shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1027.5 Location. The minimum fire separation distance from the exterior edge of the stairway or ramps, including landings, for exterior exit stairways and ramps shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1027.6 Exterior exit stairway and ramp protection. Separation or fire-resistance rated protection of exterior exit stairways and ramps from the interior of the building shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

AA. The following changes shall be made to Section 1028, Exit Discharge:

1. Change Section 1028.1 to read:

1028.1 General. The exit discharge shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1028.2 to read:

1028.2 Exit discharge width or capacity. The minimum width or required capacity of the exit discharge shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1028.3 to read:

1028.3 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge components shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

4. Change Section 1028.4 to read:

1028.4 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion of the exit discharge in the means of egress system shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1028.4.1 to read:

1028.4.1 Width or capacity. The required capacity of egress courts shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1028.4.2 to read:

1028.4.2 Egress court protection. Separation or fire-resistance rated construction required by the applicable building code for an egress court serving a building or portion thereof shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Change Section 1028.5 to read:

1028.5 Access to a public way. Where provided, access to a public way shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

Exception: Where access to a public way cannot be provided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of the following are met:

1. The area shall be of a size to accommodate not less than 5 square feet (0.46 m2) for each person.

2. The area shall be located on the same lot not less than 50 feet (15,240 mm) away from the building requiring egress.

3. The area shall be permanently maintained and identified as a safe dispersal area.

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unobstructed path of travel from the building.

BB. The following changes shall be made to Section 1029, Assembly:

1. Change Section 1029.1 to read:

1029.1 General. The means of egress serving a room or space used for assembly purposes that contains seats, tables, displays, equipment or other material shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1029.1.1 to read:

1029.1.1 Bleachers. Bleachers, grandstands, and folding and telescopic seating shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

3. Change Section 1029.1.1.1 to read:

1029.1.1.1 Spaces under grandstands and bleachers. Fire-resistance rated construction for spaces under grandstands and bleacher shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 7.

4. Change Section 1029.2 to read:

1029.2 Assembly main exit. The assembly main exit shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

5. Change Section 1029.3 to read:

1029.3 Assembly other exits. Other assembly exits shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

6. Change Section 1029.4 to read:

1029.4 Foyers and lobbies. In Group A-1 occupancies, where persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not available, such persons shall be allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, provided such lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the minimum width or required capacity of the means of egress. Such foyer, if not directly connected to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall be maintained with a straight and unobstructed path of travel to every such main entrance or exit in accordance with the applicable building code.

7. Change Section 1029.5 to read:

1029.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress. Interior balcony and gallery means of egress shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

8. Change Section 1029.6 to read:

1029.6 Capacity of aisle for assembly. The required capacity of aisles shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

9. Delete Sections 1029.6.1 through 1029.6.3 and Table 1029.6.2.

10. Change Section 1029.7 to read:

1029.7 Travel distance. The exit access travel distance shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

11. Change Section 1029.8 to read:

1029.8 Common path of egress travel. The common path of egress travel shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

12. Change Section 1029.8.1 to read:

1029.8.1 Path through adjacent row. Paths through adjacent rows shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

13. Change Section 1029.9 to read:

1029.9 Assembly aisles are required. Aisles leading to exits for every occupied portion of any building, room, or space used for assembly purposes that contains seats, tables, displays, similar fixtures, or equipment shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

14. Change Section 1029.9.1 to read:

1029.9.1 Minimum aisle width. The minimum clear width for aisles shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

15. Delete Sections 1029.9.6.1 through 1029.9.8 and change Sections 1029.9.2 through 1029.9.6 to read:

1029.9.2 Aisle catchment area. Aisle capacity and catchment areas shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1029.9.3 Converging aisles. Where aisles converge to form a single path of egress travel, the required capacity of that path shall be maintained to not less than that approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1029.9.4 Uniform width and capacity. Where required by the applicable building code for aisles where egress is possible in either of two directions, uniform width and required capacity shall be maintained.

1029.9.5 Dead-end aisles. Dead-end aisles shall be maintained as approved by the applicable building code. Each end of an aisle shall remain unobstructed to a cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomitory, concourse, or stairway having access to an exit where required by the applicable building code.

1029.9.6 Aisle measurement. The clear width for aisles shall be measured in accordance with the applicable building code.

16. Change Section 1029.10 to read:

1029.10 Transitions. Transitions between stairways and stepped aisles shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

17. Delete Sections 1029.10.1 through 1029.12.2.2 except Sections 1029.10.3, 1029.12.1, and 1029.12.2. Change those sections to read:

1029.10.3 Transition marking. Distinctive marking stripes at each nosing or leading edge adjacent to the transition shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1029.12.1 Walking surface. Surface of aisles, stepped aisles, and ramped aisles required by the applicable building code to be of slip-resistant materials that are securely attached shall be maintained.

1029.12.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor aisles, stepped aisles, and ramped aisles and outdoor approaches to aisles, stepped aisles, and ramped aisles required by the applicable building code to be designed to prevent the accumulation of water shall be maintained as approved so that water will not accumulate on the walking surface. Outdoor aisles, stepped aisles, and ramped aisles and outdoor approaches to aisles, stepped aisles, and ramped aisles not regulated by the USBC shall be maintained so that water will not accumulate on the walking surface.

18. Change Section 1029.13 to read:

1029.13 Aisle accessways. Aisle accessways for seating at tables and seating in rows shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

19. Delete Sections 1029.13.1 through 1029.13.2.2 and Table 1029.13.2.1.

20. Change Section 1029.14 to read:

1029.14 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. Ramped and stepped aisles shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

21. Delete Sections 1029.14.1 through 1029.14.2.4 and change Section 1029.15 to read:

1029.15 Seat stability. Where the applicable building code requires seats to be securely fastened to the floor or in groups, in a building, room, or space used for assembly purposes, seats shall be arranged and maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

22. Change Section 1029.16 to read:

1029.16 Handrails. Handrails serving ramped aisles shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

23. Delete Sections 1029.16.1 through 1029.16.4.

24. Change Sections 1029.17 and 1029.17.1 to read:

1029.17 Assembly guards. Guards required by the applicable building code adjacent to seating in a building, room, or space used for assembly purposes shall be maintained as approved in accordance with the applicable building code.

1029.17.1 Perimeter guards. Perimeter guards shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

25. Delete Sections 1029.17.2 through 1029.17.4.

CC. The following changes shall be made to Section 1030, Emergency Escape and Rescue:

1. Change Section 1030.1 and delete Section 1030.1.1.

Section 1030.1 to read:

1030.1 General. Emergency escape and rescue openings of a building, including those in R-2, R-3, R-4 and R-5 occupancies, shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code.

2. Change Section 1030.2 to read:

1030.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be maintained to provide the minimum net clear opening area, height, and width in accordance with the applicable building code when normally operated.

3. Delete Section 1030.2.1.

4. Change Section 1030.3 to read:

1030.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and rescue opening height from the floor, as measured in accordance with the applicable building code, shall be maintained.

5. Change Section 1030.4 to read:

1030.4 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue opening and associated window well shall be maintained in accordance with the applicable building code. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall remain able to be fully opened. Ladders or steps shall not be obstructed by the emergency escape and rescue opening or other objects.

6. Delete Sections 1030.4.1 and 1030.4.2.

7. Change Section 1030.5 to read:

1030.5 Bars, grilles, covers, and screens. Bars, grilles, covers, screens, or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, or window wells that serve such openings, provided that the minimum net clear opening size complies with the applicable building code and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the emergency escape and rescue opening.

DD. The following changes shall be made to Section 1031, Maintenance of the means of egress:

1. Change Sections 1031.2, 1031.2.1, 1031.2.2, 1031.4, and 1031.9 to read:

1031.2 Reliability. Unless otherwise permitted by the applicable building code, required exit accesses, exits, and exit discharges shall be continuously maintained free from obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or other emergency where the building area served by the means of egress is occupied. An exit or exit passageway shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with a means of egress.

1031.2.1 Security devices and egress locks. Security devices and locking arrangements in the means of egress that restrict, control, or delay egress shall be maintained as required by this chapter.

1031.2.2 Locking arrangements in educational occupancies. In Group E occupancies, except Group E day care facilities, and Group B educational occupancies, exit access doors from classrooms, offices, and other occupied rooms, except for exit doors and doors across corridors, shall be permitted to be provided with emergency supplemental hardware where all of the following conditions are met:

1. The door shall be capable of being opened from outside the room with a key, proprietary device provided by the manufacturer, or other approved means.

2. The door shall be openable from within the room in accordance with Section 1010.1.9, except emergency supplemental hardware is not required to comply with Chapter 11.

Note: School officials should consult with their legal counsel regarding provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 USC § 12101 et seq.) and any other applicable requirements.

3. Installation of emergency supplemental hardware on fire door assemblies must comply with Section 716.2. Modifications shall not be made to listed panic hardware, fire door hardware, or door closures.

4. The emergency supplemental hardware shall not be capable of being used on other doors not intended to be used and shall have at least one component that requires modification to, or is permanently affixed to, the surrounding wall, floor, door, or frame assembly construction for it to properly function.

5. Employees shall engage in lockdown training procedures on how to deploy and remove the emergency supplemental hardware, and its use shall be incorporated in the approved lockdown plan complying with the SFPC.

6. The emergency supplemental hardware and its components shall be maintained in accordance with the SFPC.

7. Approved emergency supplemental hardware shall be of consistent type throughout a building.

Exception: The building official may approve alternate types of emergency supplemental hardware in accordance with Section 110.1 when a consistent device cannot be installed.

1031.4 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 1013 and 1203 and the applicable building code. Decorations, furnishings, equipment or adjacent signage that impairs the visibility of exit signs, creates confusion or prevents identification of the exit shall not be allowed.

1031.9 Floor identification signs. The floor identification signs shall be maintained in accordance with Section 1023.9 and the applicable building code.

2. Add Section 1031.11, 1031.12, and 1031.13 to read:

1031.11 Emergency supplemental hardware. Emergency supplemental hardware shall be installed in accordance with the applicable building code and shall be maintained in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's instructions. The fire code official shall be authorized to revoke the use and storage of emergency supplemental hardware within a building for due cause based on failure to comply with requirements in this code or the applicable building code. Revocations shall be rescinded upon achieving compliance with this code and the applicable building code.

1031.12 Area of refuge. Areas of refuge shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 1009.6 and 1031.8 and the applicable building code. Designated areas shall be free of obstructions at all times and any required signs, instructions or equipment shall be maintained.

1031.13 Door opening force. The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed the maximum force permitted by the applicable building code. These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door in a closed position.

Statutory Authority

§ 27-97 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 22, Issue 3, eff. November 16, 2005; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 16, eff. July 14, 2014; Volume 34, Issue 18, eff. October 16, 2018; Volume 35, Issue 4, eff. October 16, 2018; Volume 37, Issue 14, eff. July 1, 2021.

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