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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 25. State Water Control Board
Chapter 151. Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) General Permit Regulation for Discharges of Stormwater Associated with Industrial Activity

9VAC25-151-80. Stormwater pollution prevention plans.

A stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPPP) shall be developed and implemented for the facility covered by this permit. The SWPPP is intended to document the selection, design, and installation of control measures, including BMPs, to minimize the pollutants in all stormwater discharges from the facility, and to meet applicable effluent limitations and water quality standards.

The SWPPP requirements of this general permit may be fulfilled, in part, by incorporating by reference other plans or documents such as a spill prevention control and countermeasure (SPCC) plan developed for the facility under § 311 of the Clean Water Act, or best management practices (BMP) programs otherwise required for the facility, provided that the incorporated plan meets or exceeds the plan requirements of Part III B (Contents of the SWPPP). All plans incorporated by reference into the SWPPP become enforceable under this permit. If a plan incorporated by reference does not contain all of the required elements of the SWPPP of Part III B, the permittee shall develop the missing SWPPP elements and include them in the required plan.

A. Deadlines for SWPPP preparation and compliance.

1. Facilities that were covered under the 2014 Industrial Stormwater General Permit. Owners of facilities that were covered under the 2014 Industrial Stormwater General Permit who are continuing coverage under this general permit shall update and implement any revisions to the SWPPP within 90 days of the board granting coverage under this permit.

2. New facilities, facilities previously covered by an expiring individual permit, and existing facilities not currently covered by a VPDES permit. Owners of new facilities, facilities previously covered by an expiring individual permit, and existing facilities not currently covered by a VPDES permit who elect to be covered under this general permit shall prepare and implement the SWPPP prior to submitting the registration statement.

3. New owners of existing facilities. Where the owner of an existing facility that is covered by this permit changes, the new owner of the facility shall update and implement any revisions to the SWPPP within 60 days of the ownership change.

4. Extensions. Upon a showing of good cause, the director may establish a later date in writing for the preparation and compliance with the SWPPP.

B. Contents of the SWPPP. The contents of the SWPPP shall comply with the requirements listed below and those in the appropriate sectors of Part IV (9VAC25-151-90 et seq.). These requirements are cumulative. If a facility has colocated industrial activities that are covered in more than one sector of Part IV, that facility's SWPPP shall comply with the requirements listed in all applicable sectors. The following requirements are applicable to all SWPPPs developed under this general permit. The SWPPP shall include, at a minimum, the following items:

1. Pollution prevention team. The SWPPP shall identify the staff individuals by name or title who comprise the facility's stormwater pollution prevention team. The pollution prevention team is responsible for assisting the facility or plant manager in developing, implementing, maintaining, revising and ensuring compliance with the facility's SWPPP. Specific responsibilities of each staff individual on the team shall be identified and listed.

2. Site description. The SWPPP shall include the following:

a. A description of the industrial activities at the facility.

b. A site map identifying the following:

(1) The boundaries of the property and the size of the property in acres;

(2) The location and extent of significant structures and impervious surfaces;

(3) Locations of all stormwater conveyances, including ditches, pipes, swales, and inlets, and the directions of stormwater flow using arrows to indicate which direction stormwater will flow;

(4) Locations of all stormwater control measures, including BMPs;

(5) Locations of all surface water bodies, including wetlands;

(6) Locations of potential pollutant sources identified under Part III B 3;

(7) Locations where significant spills or leaks identified under Part III B 3 c have occurred;

(8) Locations of stormwater outfalls.

(a) An approximate outline of the area draining to each outfall;

(b) The drainage area of each outfall in acres;

(c) The longitude and latitude of each outfall;

(d) The location of any MS4 conveyance receiving discharge from the facility; and

(e) Each outfall shall be identified with a unique numerical identification code. For example: Outfall Number 001, Outfall Number 002, etc.;

(9) Location and description of all nonstormwater discharges;

(10) Location of any storage piles containing salt;

(11) Locations and sources of suspected run-on to the site from an adjacent property if the run-on is suspected of containing significant quantities of pollutants; and

(12) Locations of all stormwater monitoring points.

c. Receiving waters and wetlands. The name of all surface waters receiving discharges from the site, including intermittent streams, dry sloughs, and arroyos. Provide a description of wetland sites that may receive discharges from the facility. If the facility discharges through an MS4, identify the MS4 operator, and the receiving water to which the MS4 discharges.

3. Summary of potential pollutant sources. The SWPPP shall identify each separate area at the facility where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater. Industrial materials or activities include material handling equipment or activities, industrial machinery, raw materials, industrial production and processes, intermediate products, byproducts, final products, and waste products. Material handling activities include the storage, loading and unloading, transportation, disposal, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate product, final product or waste product. For each separate area identified, the description shall include:

a. Activities in the area. A list of the industrial activities exposed to stormwater.

b. Pollutants. A list of the pollutants, pollutant constituents, or industrial chemicals associated with each industrial activity that could potentially be exposed to stormwater. The pollutant list shall include all significant materials handled, treated, stored or disposed that have been exposed to stormwater in the three years prior to the date this SWPPP was prepared or amended. The list shall include any hazardous substances or oil at the facility.

c. Spills and leaks. The SWPPP shall clearly identify areas where potential spills and leaks that can contribute pollutants to stormwater discharges can occur and their corresponding outfalls. The SWPPP shall include a list of significant spills and leaks of toxic or hazardous pollutants that actually occurred at exposed areas, or that drained to a stormwater conveyance during the three-year period prior to the date this SWPPP was prepared or amended. The list shall be updated within 60 days of the incident if significant spills or leaks occur in exposed areas of the facility during the term of the permit.

d. Sampling data. The SWPPP shall include stormwater discharge sampling data collected during the previous three years.

4. Stormwater controls.

a. Control measures shall be implemented for all the areas identified in Part III B 3 to prevent or control pollutants in stormwater discharges from the facility. Regulated stormwater discharges from the facility include stormwater run-on that commingles with stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity at the facility. The SWPPP shall describe the type, location and implementation of all control measures for each area where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater.

Selection of control measures shall take into consideration:

(1) That preventing stormwater from coming into contact with polluting materials is generally more effective, and less costly, than trying to remove pollutants from stormwater;

(2) Control measures generally shall be used in combination with each other for most effective water quality protection;

(3) Assessing the type and quantity of pollutants, including their potential to impact receiving water quality, is critical to designing effective control measures;

(4) That minimizing impervious areas at the facility can reduce runoff and improve groundwater recharge and stream base flows in local streams (however, care must be taken to avoid groundwater contamination);

(5) Flow attenuation by use of open vegetated swales and natural depressions can reduce instream impacts of erosive flows;

(6) Conservation or restoration of riparian buffers will help protect streams from stormwater runoff and improve water quality; and

(7) Treatment interceptors (e.g., swirl separators and sand filters) may be appropriate in some instances to minimize the discharge of pollutants.

b. Nonnumeric technology-based effluent limits. The permittee shall implement the following types of control measures to prevent and control pollutants in the stormwater discharges from the facility, unless it can be demonstrated and documented that such controls are not relevant to the discharges.

(1) Good housekeeping. The permittee shall keep clean all exposed areas of the facility that are potential sources of pollutants to stormwater discharges. The permittee shall perform the following good housekeeping measures to minimize pollutant discharges:

(a) The SWPPP shall include a schedule for regular pickup and disposal of waste materials, along with routine inspections for leaks and conditions of drums, tanks, and containers;

(b) As feasible, the facility shall sweep or vacuum;

(c) Store materials in containers constructed of appropriate materials;

(d) Manage all waste containers to prevent a discharge of pollutants;

(e) Minimize the potential for waste, garbage, and floatable debris to be discharged by keeping areas exposed to stormwater free of such materials or by intercepting such materials prior to discharge; and

(f) Facilities that handle pre-production plastic or plastic waste shall implement BMPs to eliminate stormwater discharges of plastics.

(2) Eliminating and minimizing exposure. To the extent practicable, manufacturing, processing, and material storage areas (including loading and unloading, storage, disposal, cleaning, maintenance, and fueling operations) shall be located inside, or protected by a storm-resistant covering to prevent exposure to rain, snow, snowmelt, and runoff. Eliminating exposure at all industrial areas may make the facility eligible for the "Conditional Exclusion for No Exposure" provision of 9VAC25-31-120 E, thereby eliminating the need to have a permit. Unless infeasible, facilities shall implement the following:

(a) Use grading, berming, or curbing to prevent runoff of contaminated flows and divert run-on away from potential sources of pollutants;

(b) Locate materials, equipment, and activities so that potential leaks and spills are contained, or able to be contained, or diverted before discharge;

(c) Clean up spills and leaks immediately, upon discovery of the spills or leaks, using dry methods (e.g., absorbents) to prevent the discharge of pollutants;

(d) Store leaking vehicles and equipment indoors or, if stored outdoors, use drip pans and adsorbents;

(e) Utilize appropriate spill or overflow protections equipment;

(f) Perform all vehicle maintenance or equipment cleaning operations indoors, under cover, or in bermed areas that prevent runoff and run-on and also capture any overspray; and

(g) Drain fluids from equipment and vehicles that will be decommissioned, and for any equipment and vehicles that remain unused for extended periods of time, inspect at least monthly for leaks.

(3) Preventive maintenance. The permittee shall have a preventive maintenance program that includes regular inspection, testing, maintenance and repairing of all industrial equipment and systems to avoid situations that could result in leaks, spills and other releases of pollutants in stormwater discharged from the facility. This program is in addition to the specific control measure maintenance required under Part III C (Maintenance).

(4) Spill prevention and response procedures. The SWPPP shall describe the procedures that will be followed for preventing and responding to spills and leaks, including:

(a) Preventive measures, such as barriers between material storage and traffic areas, secondary containment provisions, and procedures for material storage and handling;

(b) Response procedures, including notification of appropriate facility personnel, emergency agencies, and regulatory agencies, and procedures for stopping, containing and cleaning up spills. Measures for cleaning up hazardous material spills or leaks shall be consistent with applicable Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations at 40 CFR Part 264 and 40 CFR Part 265. Employees who may cause, detect or respond to a spill or leak shall be trained in these procedures and have necessary spill response equipment available. If possible, one of these individuals shall be a member of the Pollution Prevention Team;

(c) Procedures for plainly labeling containers (e.g., "used oil," "spent solvents," "fertilizers and pesticides," etc.) that could be susceptible to spillage or leakage to encourage proper handling and facilitate rapid response if spills or leaks occur; and

(d) Contact information for individuals and agencies that must be notified in the event of a spill shall be included in the SWPPP, and in other locations where it will be readily available.

(5) Salt storage piles or piles containing salt. Storage piles of salt or piles containing salt used for deicing or other commercial or industrial purposes shall be enclosed or covered to prevent exposure to precipitation. The permittee shall implement appropriate measures (e.g., good housekeeping, diversions, containment) to minimize exposure resulting from adding to or removing materials from the pile. All salt storage piles shall be located on an impervious surface. All runoff from the pile, and runoff that comes in contact with salt, including under drain systems, shall be collected and contained within a bermed basin lined with concrete or other impermeable materials, or within an underground storage tank or tanks, or within an above ground storage tank or tanks, or disposed of through a sanitary sewer (with the permission of the owner of the treatment facility). A combination of any or all of these methods may be used. In no case shall salt contaminated stormwater be allowed to discharge directly to the ground or to surface waters.

(6) Employee training. The permittee shall implement a stormwater employee training program for the facility. The SWPPP shall include a schedule for all types of necessary training, and shall document all training sessions and the employees who received the training. Training shall be provided at least annually for all employees who work in areas where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater, and for employees who are responsible for implementing activities identified in the SWPPP (e.g., inspectors, maintenance personnel, etc.). The training shall cover the components and goals of the SWPPP, and include such topics as spill response, good housekeeping, material management practices, control measure operation and maintenance, etc. The SWPPP shall include a summary of any training performed.

(7) Sediment and erosion control. The SWPPP shall identify areas at the facility that, due to topography, land disturbance (e.g., construction, landscaping, site grading), or other factors, have a potential for soil erosion. The permittee shall identify and implement structural, vegetative, and stabilization control measures to prevent or control on-site and off-site erosion and sedimentation. Flow velocity dissipation devices shall be placed at discharge locations and along the length of any outfall channel if the flows would otherwise create erosive conditions.

(8) Management of runoff. The SWPPP shall describe the stormwater runoff management practices (i.e., permanent structural control measures) for the facility. These types of control measures shall be used to divert, infiltrate, reuse, or otherwise reduce pollutants in stormwater discharges from the site.

Structural control measures may require a separate permit under § 404 of the Clean Water Act and the Virginia Water Protection Permit Program Regulation (9VAC25-210) before installation begins.

(9) Dust suppression and vehicle tracking of industrial materials. The permittee shall implement control measures to minimize the generation of dust and off-site tracking of raw, final, or waste materials. Stormwater collected on-site may be used for the purposes of dust suppression or for spraying stockpiles. Potable water, well water, and uncontaminated reuse water may also be used for this purpose. There shall be no direct discharge to surface waters from dust suppression activities or as a result of spraying stockpiles.

5. Routine facility inspections. Personnel who possess the knowledge and skills to assess conditions and activities that could impact stormwater quality at the facility and who can also evaluate the effectiveness of control measures shall regularly inspect all areas of the facility where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater, areas where spills or leaks have occurred in the past three years, discharge points, and control measures. At least one member of the pollution prevention team shall participate in the routine facility inspections.

The inspection frequency shall be specified in the SWPPP based upon a consideration of the level of industrial activity at the facility, but shall be at a minimum of once per calendar quarter unless more frequent intervals are specified elsewhere in the permit or written approval is received from the department for less frequent intervals. Inspections shall be performed during operating hours. At least once each calendar year, the routine facility inspection shall be conducted during a period when a stormwater discharge is occurring.

The requirement for routine facility inspections is waived for facilities that have maintained an active VEEP E3/E4 status. Certain sectors in Part IV have additional inspection requirements. If the VEEP E3/E4 waiver language is not included for the sector specific inspections, these additional inspection requirements may not be waived.

Any deficiencies in the implementation of the SWPPP that are found shall be corrected as soon as practicable, but not later than within 60 days of the inspection, unless permission for a later date is granted in writing by the director. The results of the inspections shall be documented in the SWPPP and shall include at a minimum:

a. The inspection date;

b. The names of the inspectors;

c. Weather information and a description of any discharges occurring at the time of the inspection;

d. Any previously unidentified discharges of pollutants from the site;

e. Any control measures needing maintenance or repairs;

f. Any failed control measures that need replacement;

g. Any incidents of noncompliance observed; and

h. Any additional control measures needed to comply with the permit requirements.

C. Maintenance. The SWPPP shall include a description of procedures and a regular schedule for preventive maintenance of all control measures, and shall include a description of the back-up practices that are in place should a runoff event occur while a control measure is off-line. The effectiveness of nonstructural control measures shall also be maintained by appropriate means (e.g., spill response supplies available and personnel trained, etc.).

All control measures identified in the SWPPP shall be maintained in effective operating condition and shall be observed at least annually when a stormwater discharge is occurring to ensure that they are functioning correctly. Where discharge locations are inaccessible, nearby downstream locations shall be observed. The observations shall be documented in the SWPPP.

If routine facility inspections required by Part III B 5 identify control measures that are not operating effectively, repairs or maintenance shall be performed before the next anticipated storm event. If maintenance prior to the next anticipated storm event is not possible, maintenance shall be scheduled and accomplished as soon as practicable. In the interim, back-up measures shall be employed and documented in the SWPPP until repairs or maintenance is complete. Documentation shall be kept with the SWPPP of maintenance and repairs of control measures, including the dates of regular maintenance, dates of discovery of areas in need of repair or replacement, dates for repairs, dates that the control measures returned to full function, and the justification for any extended maintenance or repair schedules.

D. Nonstormwater discharges.

1. Discharges of certain sources of nonstormwater listed in Part I B 1 are allowable discharges under this permit. All other nonstormwater discharges are not authorized and shall be either eliminated or covered under a separate VPDES permit.

2. Annual outfall evaluation for unauthorized discharges.

a. The SWPPP shall include documentation that all stormwater outfalls associated with industrial activity have been evaluated annually for the presence of unauthorized discharges. The documentation shall include:

(1) The date of the evaluation;

(2) A description of the evaluation criteria used;

(3) A list of the outfalls or on-site drainage points that were directly observed during the evaluation;

(4) A description of the results of the evaluation for the presence of unauthorized discharges; and

(5) The actions taken to eliminate unauthorized discharges if any were identified.

b. The permittee may request in writing to the department that the facility be allowed to conduct annual outfall evaluations at 20% of the outfalls. If approved, the permittee shall evaluate at least 20% of the facility outfalls each year on a rotating basis such that all facility outfalls will be evaluated during the period of coverage under this permit.

E. Signature and SWPPP review.

1. Signature and location. The SWPPP, including revisions to the SWPPP to document any corrective actions taken as required by Part I A 6, shall be signed in accordance with Part II K, dated, and retained on-site at the facility covered by this permit in accordance with Part II B 2. All other changes to the SWPPP, and other permit compliance documentation, shall be signed and dated by the person preparing the change or documentation. For inactive and unstaffed facilities, the plan may be kept at the nearest office of the permittee.

2. Availability. The permittee shall retain a copy of the current SWPPP required by this permit at the facility, and it shall be immediately available to the department, EPA, or the operator of an MS4 receiving discharges from the site at the time of an on-site inspection or upon request.

3. Required modifications. The permittee shall modify the SWPPP whenever necessary to address all corrective actions required by Part I A 6 a (Data exceeding benchmark concentration values) or Part I A 6 b (Corrective actions). Changes to the SWPPP shall be made in accordance with the corrective action deadlines in Part I A 6 a and Part I A 6 b, and shall be signed and dated in accordance with Part III E 1.

The director may notify the permittee at any time that the SWPPP, control measures, or other components of the facility's stormwater program do not meet one or more of the requirements of this permit. The notification shall identify specific provisions of the permit that are not being met, and may include required modifications to the stormwater program, additional monitoring requirements, and special reporting requirements. The permittee shall make any required changes to the SWPPP within 60 days of receipt of such notification, unless permission for a later date is granted in writing by the director, and shall submit a written certification to the director that the requested changes have been made.

F. Maintaining an updated SWPPP.

1. The permittee shall review and amend the SWPPP as appropriate whenever:

a. There is construction or a change in design, operation, or maintenance at the facility that has a significant effect on the discharge, or the potential for the discharge, of pollutants from the facility;

b. Routine inspections or compliance evaluations determine that there are deficiencies in the control measures, including BMPs;

c. Inspections by local, state, or federal officials determine that modifications to the SWPPP are necessary;

d. There is a significant spill, leak, or other release at the facility;

e. There is an unauthorized discharge from the facility; or

f. The department notifies the permittee that a TMDL has been developed and applies to the permitted facility, consistent with Part I B.

2. SWPPP modifications shall be made within 60 calendar days after discovery, observation or event requiring a SWPPP modification. Implementation of new or modified control measures (distinct from regular preventive maintenance of existing control measures described in Part III C) shall be initiated before the next storm event if possible, but no later than 60 days after discovery, or as otherwise provided or approved by the director. The amount of time taken to modify a control measure or implement additional control measures shall be documented in the SWPPP.

3. If the SWPPP modification is based on a significant spill, leak, release, or unauthorized discharge, include a description and date of the incident, the circumstances leading to the incident, actions taken in response to the incident, and measures to prevent the recurrence of such releases. Unauthorized discharges are subject to the reporting requirements of Part II G of this permit.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, and 124.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 15, Issue 9, eff. June 30, 1999; amended, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 16, eff. July 1, 2004; Volume 25, Issue 19, eff. June 24, 2009; Volume 30, Issue 11, eff. July 1, 2014; Errata, 31:3 VA.R. 194 October 6, 2014; amended, Virginia Register Volume 35, Issue 19, eff. July 1, 2019.

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