Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
3/8/2021

Article 3. Prek-12 Endorsements, Special Education, Secondary Grades 6-12 Endorsements, and Adult Education

8VAC20-543-140. Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education.

Professional studies requirements for preK-12 endorsements, special education, secondary grades 6-12 endorsements, and adult education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and cognitive - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related, but not limited to, low socioeconomic status; attention deficit disorders; developmental disabilities; gifted education including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students; substance abuse; trauma, including child abuse, and neglect, and other adverse childhood experiences; and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families and ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school and the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included.

g. Study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators must be included.

h. Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education.

i. Pre-student teaching experiences or field experiences should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners shall be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand and help students understand their own progress and growth shall be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress shall be included.

e. Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment and skills for developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education such as, diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments.

4. Foundations of education and the teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention shall be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities, shall be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity must be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers shall be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment must be included. The link between classroom management and the students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6. Language and literacy.

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12 literacy in the content areas. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social sciences, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic and other phonological awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development and the writing process, as well as and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of successful full-time student teaching under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall be in the endorsed area sought and under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement in a public or accredited nonpublic school.

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised student teaching experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2  of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-150. Adult education.

The program in adult education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Foundations of adult education;

2. Understanding of the nature or psychology of the adult learner or adult development;

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes needed for the selection, evaluation, and instructional applications of the methods and materials for adults to become college and career ready including:

a. Curriculum development in adult basic education or high school equivalency instruction;

b. Literacy skills for adults;

c. Numeracy skills for adults; and

d. Workforce skills for adults.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in andragogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

6. One semester of supervised successful full-time, or an equivalent number of hours of part-time, experience teaching adults.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-160. Adult English as a second language (add-on endorsement).

The program in adult English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge in the growth and development of the adult learner;

2. Knowledge in methods and materials in the teaching of English to adult speakers of other languages;

3. Skills in the teaching of reading and writing to include (i) the five areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension; (ii) similarities and differences between reading in a first language and reading in a second language; and (iii) a balanced literacy approach;

4. Knowledge in adult second language acquisition;

5. Knowledge of assessment methods in instruction of English to adult speakers of other languages;

6. Skills in teaching the adult learner;

7. Understanding of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

8. Skills in teaching a variety of adult learning styles;

9. Proficiency in cross-cultural communication;

10. Proficiency in speaking, listening, and reading;

11. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

12. Understanding of and proficiency in andragogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-170. Career and technical education – agricultural education.

The program in agricultural education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the importance and relationship of and contribution to the agricultural industry to the community, state, nation, and global economy including:

a. Knowledge of the fundamental historical foundation of the state and national agricultural industry;

b. Knowledge of contemporary components of the United States food and fiber system; and

c. Knowledge of the career opportunities in agriculture and related fields.

2. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in plant and soil sciences, including:

a. Production, use, and marketing of row crops, specialty crops, forage crops, fruits, small grains, vegetables, and cereal crops; and

b. Soil and water management.

3. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in the production, management, and marketing of animals, including:

a. Production of cattle, swine, poultry, dairy cows, sheep, aquaculture species, goats, and horses; and

b. Care and management of horses and small companion animals.

4. Applying knowledge, skills, and processes involved in agricultural mechanics and technology, including:

a. Set up safe operation, repair, and maintenance of equipment, tools, and measuring devices used in agriculture;

b. Knowledge of energy transfer systems used in agriculture;

c. Knowledge of properties of metals used in tools and equipment; and

d. Knowledge of alternative energy sources, fuels, and lubricants from agricultural and natural resources.

5. Understanding of agricultural economics, including the various markets, international trade, government policies, and the operation and management of various agricultural businesses.

6. Applying the knowledge, skills, and processes involved in natural resources, including:

a. Care, management, and conservation of soil, air, water, energy, and wildlife; and

b. Production and management of the forest.

7. Understanding the relationship of agriculture to community resource and partnership development, including:

a. Local agricultural program advisory committees;

b. Adult education programs;

c. Agricultural enterprises;

d. Student work-based learning opportunities;

e. Public and private programs and resources; and

f. Civic organizations.

8. Implementing classroom management techniques and pedagogical knowledge necessary to:

a. Understand the biological, physical, chemical, and applied sciences to practical solutions of agricultural problems;

b. Teach agricultural competencies needed by secondary students to be successful in continuing their education and entering a related career pathway;

c. Develop effective leadership skills through the Future Farmers of America (FFA) student organization as an integral part of instruction; and

d. Apply knowledge and skills for the administration of the agricultural program, including managing budgets, maintaining student performance records and equipment inventories.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in the use of instructional technologies.

12. Demonstrating and integrating workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-180. Career and technical education – business and information technology.

The program in business and information technology shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge, skills, and principles of manual and automated accounting, including:

a. Accounting concepts, terminology, and applications;

b. Accounting systems;

c. The basic accounting cycle of source documents, verifications, analyzing, recording, posting, trial balances, and preparing financial statements; and

d. Use of accounting computer software to automate accounting tasks.

2. Knowledge and skills in economics, including:

a. Basic economic concepts and structures;

b. The role of producers and consumers in a market economy;

c. The price system;

d. The many factors that may affect income;

e. The nation's economic goals, including full employment, stable prices, and economic growth;

f. The nation's finance system;

g. How monetary and fiscal policy influence employment, output, and prices;

h. The role of government in a market economy;

i. The global economy; and

j. Distinguishing between trade deficit and trade surplus.

3. Knowledge of the foundations of business selected from the following areas:

a. Business law.

(1) Ability to recognize the legal requirements affecting business organization; and

(2) Ability to apply legal principles to business situations.

b. Business principles.

(1) Ability to identify, explain, and apply contemporary business principles;

(2) Ability to identify and explain the advantages and disadvantages of various business organizational structures; and

(3) Knowledge of the foundations of international business, the global business environment, international business communications, and global business ethics.

c. Management. Understanding and analyzing of basic management functions, tools, theories, and leadership styles to explore and solve problems in business organizations, economics, international business, and human relations issues.

d. Marketing and entrepreneurship.

(1) Understanding of basic marketing concepts in sales techniques, advertising, display, buying, wholesale and retail, distribution, service occupations, market analysis, warehousing, and inventory control; and

(2) Understanding of the unique characteristics of an entrepreneur and the knowledge and skills necessary for an entrepreneurial venture.

e. Finance.

(1) Knowledge about and skills in the areas of managing personal finance and budgeting, saving and investing, buying goods and services, banking and financial institutions, and earning and reporting income needed for sound financial decision making; and

(2) Understanding of the basic concepts of economics, insurance, credit, consumer skills, and other related topics.

4. Knowledge and skills in all of the following communications and information technologies:

a. Communications.

(1) Ability to communicate in a clear, courteous, concise, and correct manner for personal and professional purposes through the foundations of listening, writing, reading, speaking, nonverbal cues, and following written and oral directions;

(2) Ability to use information systems and technology to expedite and enhance the effectiveness of communications and telecommunications; and

(3) Ability to gather, evaluate, use, and cite information from information technology sources.

b. Impact of technology on society and the individual or digital citizenship. Knowledge to assess the impact of information technology on society.

c. Computer architecture. Ability to describe current and emerging computer architecture; configure, install, and upgrade hardware; and diagnose and repair hardware problems.

d. Operating systems, environments, and utilities. Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, customize, and diagnose and solve problems with various types of operating systems, environments, and utilities.

e. Application software, such as word processing; database; spreadsheet; graphics; web design; desktop, presentation, multimedia, and imaging; and emerging technologies.

(1) Ability to identify, evaluate, select, install, use, upgrade, and customize application software; and

(2) Ability to diagnose and solve problems resulting from an application software's installation and use.

f. Input technologies. Ability to use input devices and technologies, such as touch keyboarding, speech recognition, handwriting recognition, hand-held devices, touch screen or mouse, scanning, and other emerging input technologies to enter, manipulate, and format text and data.

g. Database management systems. Ability to use, plan, develop, and maintain database management systems. Ability to diagnose and solve problems using database management systems.

h. Programming and application development. Ability to help students design, develop, test, and implement multi-platform, such as mobile, different operating systems programs that solve business problems.

i. Networking and communications infrastructures.

(1) Facilitate students' development in the skills to design, deploy, and administer networks and communications systems;

(2) Facilitate students' ability to use, evaluate, and deploy communications and networking applications; and

(3) Facilitate students' ability to analyze networks for security vulnerabilities and develop and deploy appropriate security plans and applications.

j. Information management.

(1) Ability to plan the selection and acquisition of information technologies (hardware and software);

(2) Ability to instruct students in the development of technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge to support the user community; and

(3) Ability to describe, analyze, develop, and follow policies for managing privacy and ethical issues in organizations and in a technology-based society.

k. Web development and multimedia;

(1) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of web applications based on industry standards and principles of good design;

(2) Ability to instruct students in the design and development of multimedia applications; and

(3) Ability to design and develop multimedia and web-based applications for multiple operating systems and environments, such as mobile, desktop, cloud.

l. Project management.

(1) Understand the components of project management and its importance to business and information technology; and

(2) Use project management tools to coordinate information technology, business, or related projects and manage teamwork.

5. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to apply basic mathematical operations to solve business problems.

9. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

10. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-190. Career and technical education – family and consumer sciences.

The program in family and consumer sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of the human growth and developmental processes throughout the lifespan, including infancy, childhood, preadolescence, adolescence, adulthood and aging, and in creating and maintaining an environment in which family members develop and interact as individuals and as members of a group;

2. Knowledge of the decision-making processes related to housing, furnishings, and equipment for individuals and families with attention given to special needs and the diversity of individuals;

3. The ability to plan, purchase, and prepare food choices that promote nutrition and wellness and safety and sanitation;

4. Knowledge of the management of resources to achieve individual and family goals at different stages of the life span and the family life cycle;

5. Knowledge of the sociological, psychological, and physiological aspects of apparel and textiles for individuals and families;

6. Knowledge of the management of families, community, work, and their interrelationships;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning;

8. Knowledge of the use of critical science and creative skills to address problems in diverse family, community, and work environments;

9. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership, communication, interpersonal problem-solving, and ethical decision-making skills;

10. The ability to plan, develop, teach, supervise, and evaluate programs in occupational programs at the secondary, postsecondary, and adult levels;

11. The ability to organize and implement Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) programs as an integral part of classroom instruction;

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

14. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

15. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-200. Career and technical education – health and medical sciences.

The program in health and medical sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of teaching methods.

a. Instructional planning - ability to determine the needs and interests of students;

b. Organizing instruction - ability to prepare teacher-made instructional materials for clinical laboratory experience;

c. Instructional execution - ability to use techniques for simulating patient care and demonstrating manipulative skills;

d. Application of technology in the classroom; and

e. Instructional evaluation - ability to determine grades for students in classroom and clinical settings.

2. Knowledge of program management.

a. Planning - ability to organize an occupational advisory committee;

b. Curriculum development - ability to keep informed of current curriculum content and patient care practices;

c. Planning and organizing teaching and occupational laboratory for laboratory simulations and demonstrations;

d. Understanding of the process for issuing credentials for health workers;

e. Understanding of the health care industry; and

f. Evaluation - ability to conduct a student follow-up study.

3. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

6. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

7. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-210. Career and technical education – marketing education.

The program in marketing shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of marketing processes and the environment; management and supervision; economics; merchandising and operations; advertising and promotion; sales and selling; communication theory and techniques; consumer behavior; international or global marketing; finance; accounting or marketing mathematics; and technology applications through a variety of educational and work experiences;

2. Knowledge of skills and principles common across the marketing pathways: channel management; marketing-information management; market planning; pricing; product and service management promotion; and selling;

3. Ability to plan, develop, and administer a comprehensive marketing program for high school students and adults;

4. Ability to organize and use a variety of instructional methods and techniques for teaching youths and adults;

5. Ability to conduct learning programs that include a variety of career objectives and recognize and respond to individual differences in students;

6. Ability to assist learners of different abilities in developing skills needed to qualify for further education and employment;

7. Knowledge of occupational skill development and career planning for opportunities in marketing, merchandising, hospitality, and management;

8. Knowledge and skills necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, such as DECA and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction;

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

11. Application of and proficiency in instructional technology and current technological applications as these relate to marketing functions;

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities;

13. Ability to plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction, such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship; and

14. Ability to apply mathematical operations to solve marketing problems.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-220. Career and technical education – technology education.

The program in technology education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the nature of technology, including knowledge of the following:

a. Characteristics and scope of technology;

b. Core concepts of physical, biological, and informational technologies; and

c. Relationships among technologies, including the natural intersects between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and other fields.

2. Understanding the relationships between technology and society, including the following:

a. Sociocultural, political, and economic influences of technology;

b. Local and global effects of technological products and systems on the environment;

c. Role that society plays in the use and development of technology; and

d. Influence of technology on human history.

3. Comprehension and utilization of engineering design, including the following:

a. Attributes of technological design;

b. Role of constraints, optimization, and predictive analysis in engineering design;

c. Requirement of problem-solving, critical thinking, and technical writing skills; and

d. Intentional integration of mathematics and science concepts and practices.

4. Ability to succeed in a technological world, including a capacity to:

a. Employ the design process in the engineering of technological products and systems;

b. Determine and control the behavior of technological products and systems;

c. Use and maintain technological products and systems; and

d. Assess the impacts and consequences of technological products and systems.

5. Ability to select and use the major physical, biological, and informational technologies of the designed world, including the following:

a. Principles and processes characteristic of contemporary and emerging transportation, manufacturing, and construction technologies, inclusive of research, engineering design and testing, planning, organization, resources, and modes of distribution;

b. Range of enabling technologies that utilize fundamental biological principles and cellular processes characteristic of traditional and modern biotechnical technologies, including research, design-based engineering and testing of agricultural products, biotechnical systems, and associated medical technologies;

c. Purpose, processes, and resources involved with creating, encoding, transmitting, receiving, decoding, storage, retrieval, and understanding of information data using communication systems in a global information society; and

d. Concept, laws, forms, and characteristics of energy as a fundamental requirement of the technological world, inclusive of the resultant power and work requisites, both renewable and nonrenewable, of the tools, machines, products, and systems within.

6. Knowledge, skills, and processes required for teaching in a STEM laboratory environment, including:

a. Laboratory safety rules, regulations, processes, and procedures;

b. Ability to organize content and practices into effective instructional units;

c. Ability to deliver instruction to diverse learners;

d. Ability to evaluate student achievement, curriculum materials, instructional strategies, and teaching practices;

e. Ability to incorporate new and emerging instructional technologies to enhance student performance across the varied domains of knowledge - cognitive, affective, and psychomotor; and

f. Ability to convey the concepts and procedures for developing a learner's technological literacy specifically and integrative STEM literacy in general.

7. Demonstration of the knowledge, abilities, and capacity necessary to teach leadership skills, organize and manage an effective co-curricular student organization, and implement the organization's activities as an integral part of instruction.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in formal technical writing.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

10. Demonstrate and integrate workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

11. Ability to plan, deliver, evaluate, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-230. Career and technical education – trade and industrial education.

The program in trade and industrial education shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of industrial education and its role in the development of technically competent, socially responsible, and culturally sensitive individuals with potential for leadership in skilled technical work and professional studies;

2. Understanding of and the ability to relate experiences designed to develop skills in the interpretation and implementation of industrial education philosophy in accordance with changing demand;

3. The knowledge and experience of systematically planning, executing, and evaluating individual and group instruction;

4. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for effective organization and management of laboratory instruction;

5. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for making physical, social, and emotional adjustments in multicultural student-teacher relationships;

6. Knowledge of the competencies necessary for developing and utilizing systematic methods and instruments for appraising and recording student progress in the career and technical educational classroom;

7. Knowledge of the ability to provide technical work experience through cooperative education or provide a method of evaluating previous occupational experience commensurate with the minimum required standard;

8. Knowledge of the competencies and industry credentials necessary to assist students in job placement and in otherwise bridging the gap between education and work;

9. Understanding of the awareness of the human relations factor in industry, with emphasis on the area of cooperation among labor, management, and the schools;

10. Knowledge of the teacher's role in the school and community;

11. Understanding of the content, skills, and techniques necessary to teach a particular trade area;

12. Knowledge of the competencies necessary to organize and manage an effective student organization;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

14. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

15. Demonstration and integration of work place readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities; and

16. Understanding of the planning, delivery, and management of work-based learning methods of instruction such as internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-240. Career and technical education – transition and special needs (add-on endorsement).

The transition and special needs (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge of special needs and transition programs and services, characteristics of students who are disadvantaged, disabled, and gifted, and individuals with barriers to educational achievement and employment, including individuals with who are English learners.

2. Knowledge of program development, implementation, and evaluation.

3. Basic understanding of cultural issues pertaining to employment and postsecondary education and training.

4. Understanding of the federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to special education, rehabilitation, and the American with Disabilities Act (42 USC § 12101 et seq.).

5. Understanding and demonstration of the integration of instructional methods, resources, and transition programs for targeted populations in career and technical education, including:

a. Use of learning and teaching styles to plan and deliver differentiated instruction and differentiated assessment;

b. Knowledge of age appropriate assessments;

c. Use of assessment results to plan individual instruction strategies and assist with long-range and short-term planning;

d. Understanding of required skills that demonstrate college and career readiness;

e. Ability to plan and manage a competency-based education system;

f. Ability to adapt and modify curriculum materials and utilize Universal Design for Learning Principles to meet special student needs;

g. Use of a variety of classroom and behavior management techniques to develop an enhanced learning environment, behavior change techniques, and individual and group instruction;

h. Use of different processes to improve collaboration and develop partnerships with colleagues, parents, and the community to include service agencies and businesses; and

i. Ability to plan learning experiences that prepare individuals for transition to more advanced education and career development options.

6. Ability to develop, plan, deliver, and manage work-based learning methods of instruction such as community-based instruction, internship, job shadowing, cooperative education, mentorship, service learning, clinical, and youth apprenticeship.

7. Understanding and application of strategies for enabling students to learn all aspects of particular industries - planning, management, finances, technical and production skills, labor and community issues, health and safety, environmental issues, and the technology associated with the specific industry.

8. Ability to articulate career and life planning procedures, transitioning processes and procedures, and career-search techniques.

9. Application of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

11. Ability to use a variety of technologies to deliver instruction and media to students, parents, teachers, and community partners.

12. Demonstration and integration of workplace readiness skills in the classroom and real-world activities.

13. Demonstrate person-centered planning skills.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-250. Computer science.

The program in computer science shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of mathematical principles that are the basis of many computer applications;

2. Knowledge of the functions, capabilities, and limitations of computers and computer systems;

3. Knowledge of the ethical, moral, and legal issues associated with applications in programming and computer science;

4. Knowledge of programming in at least two widely used programming languages, including definition, structure, and comparison;

5. Knowledge of computers and computer systems and their applications;

6. Knowledge of data structures and algorithms;

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-260. Dance arts preK-12.

The program in dance arts shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the dance arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a foundation needed to teach dance arts.

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching dance arts to meet the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12, including the following:

a. Knowledge of and experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of dance arts education;

b. Knowledge and understanding for teaching dance arts, including performance, creation, and production; dance history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics;

c. Ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance with an area of concentration in one of these areas;

d. Scientific foundations, including human anatomy, kinesiology, and injury prevention and care for dance arts;

e. The relationship of dance arts and culture and the influence of dance on past and present cultures;

f. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

g. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio and use of toxic art materials in various aspects of dance arts production, performance, and the classroom;

h. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student dance arts learning;

i. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

j. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding;

k. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as music, theatre arts, and the visual arts; and

l. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-270. Driver education (add-on endorsement).

The program in driver education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Basic understanding of the administration of a driver education program as required by § 22.1-205 of the Code of Virginia and the Administrative Guide for Driver Education in Virginia 2010 (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruc tion/driver_education/curriculum_admin_guide/index.shtml) including:

a. Coordinating and scheduling of classroom and in-car instruction;

b. Understanding the Board of Education's and the Department of Motor Vehicle's regulations governing driver education programs;

c. Managing student safety using route and lesson planning, appropriate training techniques, driving environments, speed, driving experiences, and constant monitoring;

d. Administering the juvenile licensing process;

e. Highway traffic safety and the driver licensing laws in the Code of Virginia;

f. Vehicle procurement, maintenance and safety equipment requirements;

g. The Department of Education's and the Department of Motor Vehicle's juvenile licensing forms;

h. Monitoring and oversight procedures that ensure the approved program meets state curriculum objectives, goals, and learning outcomes; the classroom and in-car hour requirements; and teachers have valid Virginia driver's licenses, acceptable driving records, and meet teacher licensure and in-car instructor training requirements;

i. Promoting parent involvement;

j. Providing opportunities for ongoing professional development; and

k. Integrating classroom and in-car instruction when possible to maximize transfer of skills.

2. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of classroom driver education instruction including:

a. Traffic laws, signs, signals, pavement markings, and right-of-way rules;

b. Licensing procedures and other legal responsibilities associated with the driving privilege and vehicle ownership;

c. Ability to explain the effect of speed and steering on vehicle balance and control;

d. Knowledge of performance characteristics of other highway users and ability to apply problem-solving skills to minimize risks with (pedestrians, animals, motorcycles, bicycles, trucks, buses, trains, trailers, motor homes, ATVs, and other recreational users);

e. Facilitating students' ability to manage time, space, and visibility, using perceptual skills, and a risk management process;

f. Ability to identify and analyze the physiological, psychological, cognitive, and economic consequences associated with alcohol and other drug use;

g. Understanding proper use of vehicle occupant protective devices and analyzing how they can reduce injury severity and increase collision survival;

h. Recognizing how regular preventive maintenance reduces vehicle malfunctions and the warning signs that indicate the need for maintenance, repair, or replacement;

i. Recognizing the consequences of aggressive driving, fatigue, distracted driving, and other physical, social, and psychological influences that affect driver behavior and performance;

j. Understanding of the effects of momentum, gravity, and inertia on vehicle control and balance, and the relationship between kinetic energy and force of impact;

k. Ability to evaluate emergency-response strategies to avoid or reduce the severity of a collision in high-risk driving situations, and how technological advancements in intelligent handling and stability control systems affect driving practices;

l. Knowledge about map-reading and trip planning technologies and evaluating personal transportation needs and their impact on the environment;

m. Ability to differentiate instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

n. Knowledge of assessments that foster student learning to inform decisions about instruction; and

o. Using new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning.

3. Understanding of knowledge, skills, and processes of the laboratory phase of instruction including:

a. Utilizing simulation and other instructional technologies;

b. Managing a multiple-car range;

c. Designing sequential instructional performances that lead to effective habit formation;

d. Providing clear, concise instructions when describing the critical elements of a driving skill;

e. Correctly using occupant restraints and protective devices;

f. Understanding the role of the driver and the observer;

g. Using commentary driving to determine visual search skills needed to identify and make risk-reducing decisions for safe speed and position;

h. Using reference points to gauge vehicle position and execute maneuvers with precision;

i. Selecting vehicle position to communicate or establish line of sight to targets;

j. Balancing vehicle movement through precise and timely steering, braking, and accelerating to manage vehicle weight transfer;

k. Applying visual search skills to manage risks in low, moderate, and high-risk driving environments;

l. Adjusting speed and space to communicate and reduce risks to avoid conflicts;

m. Preventing, detecting, and managing vehicle traction loss in simulated and adverse driving conditions;

n. Using vehicle braking, traction, and stability technologies;

o. Recognizing environmental factors that influence vehicle control;

p. Applying space management strategies to the front and sides and monitoring space to the rear;

q. Understanding the consequences of speed selection;

r. Dividing mental attention between intended path of travel and other tasks;

s. Demonstrating basic and evasive maneuvers and off-road recovery;

t. Recognizing understeer and oversteer, and the effects of traction, gravity, inertia and momentum on vehicle handling and control;

u. Controlling vehicle from instructor's seat;

v. Interacting with other roadway users in a positive manner;

w. Using manual transmission;

x. Developing precision in the use of skills, processes, and habits for approach to intersection, curves, turns, parking, turnabouts, backing, lane change, passing and being passed, getting on and off highways, and responding to emergencies;

y. Administering the driver's license road skills test and issuing the six-month temporary provisional license; and

z. Completing a debriefing with a parent or guardian that includes a reminder that the parent must ultimately determine readiness for a driver's license.

4. Guiding parents to provide meaningful guided practice including:

a. Understanding the juvenile licensing laws and the parents' role in the juvenile licensing process;

b. Determining the readiness of the child to begin learning how to drive in a car;

c. Planning and supervising the learner's permit experience;

d. Keeping a record of the meaningful supervised driving hours; and

e. Adopting a written agreement with the child that reflects expectations, defines rules and consequences, and allows the parents to progressively grant broader driving privileges.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-280. Engineering.

The program in engineering shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the engineering discipline as defined in Virginia's high school engineering courses and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching engineering.

2. Understanding the nature of engineering design and analysis, including the following:

a. Function of the engineering design process;

b. Methods used by engineers to generate, develop, and test ideas to meet design requirements; and

c. Role of failure in the engineering design process.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching engineering, including the ability to:

a. Formulate instruction reflecting the goals of the engineering courses that are taught in Virginia high schools;

b. Design, prototype, test, analyze, and operate solutions to engineering challenges;

c. Implement laboratory and field safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

d. Organize key engineering content and skills into meaningful units of instruction;

e. Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

f. Evaluate student achievement, instructional materials, and teaching materials; and

g. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of engineering, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in engineering, with course work in principles of engineering, engineering design, statics and dynamics, circuits, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, materials, ordinary differential equations, and linear algebra.

5. Understanding of basic chemistry, biology, Earth and space sciences, physics, and mathematics, including statistics and calculus, to ensure:

a. The placement of engineering in an appropriate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of the natural and physical sciences to analyze successful and failed engineering designs; and

c. Student achievement in engineering.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of engineering, including:

a. Its social and cultural significance;

b. The relationship of engineering and its sub-fields, such as electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, bio-engineering, to the sciences, mathematics and technology; and

c. The historical development of engineering concepts and reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing, oral, and multi-media presentations.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-290. English.

The program in English shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of English as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning;

2. Skills necessary to teach the writing process and the different modes of writing such as narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and analytical and to employ available technology;

3. Knowledge of grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

5. Understanding of the nature and development of language including vocabulary appropriate to the topic, audience, and purpose;

6. Knowledge of reading strategies and techniques used to enhance reading comprehension skills in both fiction and nonfiction texts;

7. Knowledge of communication skills including speaking and listening skills and media literacy;

8. Knowledge of varied fiction and nonfiction from young adult, British, American, world, and ethnic and minority texts appropriate for English instruction;

9. The ability to provide experiences in communication arts, such as journalism, dramatics, debate, forensics, radio, television, films, and other media production;

10. Skills necessary to teach the analysis and production of media literacy;

11. Skills necessary to teach research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information; and

12. Knowledge of the Virginia Computer Technology Standards of Learning and their integration into English Language Arts.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-300. English as a second language preK-12.

The program in English as a second language shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Skills in methods of teaching English as a second language to include instruction based on the World-Class Instructional Design Assessment (WIDA) English Language Development (ELD) Standards;

2. Skills in designing and administering formative or classroom-based assessments and interpreting results of both formative and summative assessments, including the WIDA Access test. Using the results of a variety of formative assessments, including performance-based assessments of oral language and writing, to direct instruction. Ensuring that formative assessments reflect high validity and reliability for the purposes for which they are used and are appropriate for the targeted students. Teaching test-taking skills in preparation for standardized tests;

3. Skills in the teaching of reading to include: phonemic awareness; pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading strategies; vocabulary development; and guided reading. Ability to structure interactive tasks that engage students in using oral language to develop reading skills. Ability to determine students' reading levels and design instruction for multi-level classrooms by incorporating appropriate scaffolding or language supports;

4. Skills in teaching grammar and syntax in the context of writing. Ability to model and teach editing skills and organization of writing using predominant text structures in the content areas;

5. Knowledge of the effects of sociocultural variables in the instructional setting;

6. Proficiency in spoken and written English;

7. Skills in providing language and cognitive support or scaffolding bases on the various stages of the second language acquisition process;

8. Knowledge of another language and its structure;

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

10. Knowledge of both general linguistics and English linguistics.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-310. Foreign language preK-12.

A. The specific language of the endorsement shall be noted on the license.

B. Foreign language preK-12 - languages other than Latin and American Sign Language. The program in the foreign language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of authentic speech at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to speak with a command of vocabulary, pronunciation, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to a native speaker not used to dealing with foreigners;

c. Ability to read and comprehend authentic texts of average difficulty and of mature content;

d. Ability to write a variety of texts including description and narration with clarity and correctness in vocabulary and syntax;

e. Knowledge of geography, history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the target societies;

f. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the target societies;

g. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology, syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the foreign language;

h. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

i. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

j. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

k. Knowledge of the assessment of foreign language skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and the differing types of assessments and their uses, including portfolio-based assessments, integrated performance assessments, and oral proficiency interviews; and

l. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant foreign language study or living experiences in this country or abroad, or both.

C. Foreign language preK-12 - Latin. The program in Latin shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Ability to read and comprehend Latin in the original;

2. Ability to pronounce Latin with consistent classical or ecclesiastical pronunciation;

3. Knowledge of the vocabulary, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Latin and the etymological impact of Latin;

4. Ability to discuss the culture and civilization of Greco-Roman society, including history, daily life, art, architecture, and geography;

5. Ability to explain the relationship of Greco-Roman culture and civilization to subsequent cultures and civilizations;

6. Knowledge of major literary masterpieces and their relationship to the historical and social context of the society;

7. Competency in current methodologies for teaching Latin at the elementary and secondary levels; lesson planning; scope and sequencing of material; instructional strategies and assessment under the guidance of an experienced Latin teacher;

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

10. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

D. Foreign language preK-12 - American Sign Language. The program in American Sign Language shall ensure that the candidate has:

1. Demonstrated the following competencies:

a. Understanding of native users of American Sign Language at a normal tempo;

b. Ability to sign with a command of vocabulary, nominal behaviors, and syntax adequate for expressing thoughts to an American Sign Language user not accustomed to dealing with individuals who do not use American Sign Language;

c. Knowledge of history, social structure, and artistic and literary contributions of the deaf culture;

d. Ability to interpret contemporary lifestyles, customs, and cultural patterns of the deaf culture;

e. Understanding of the application of basic concepts of phonology, including hand shapes, location, palm orientation, and sign movements, syntax, and morphology to the teaching of the American Sign Language;

f. Knowledge of the national standards for foreign language learning, current proficiency-based and performance-based objectives of the teaching of foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels, elementary and secondary methods and techniques for attaining these objectives, the assessment of foreign language skills, the use of technology and media in teaching languages, current curricular developments, the relationship of language study to other areas of the curriculum, and the professional literature of foreign language teaching;

g. Understanding of and proficiency in English grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

h. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

i. Knowledge of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching, including the standards and key elements related to foreign language teaching as outlined in the Virginia Standards for the Professional Practice of Teachers.

2. Participated in opportunities for significant study of the linguistics of American Sign Language and immersion experiences in the deaf culture.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-320. Gifted education (add-on endorsement).

The program in gifted education shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of principles of the integration of gifted education and general education, including:

a. Strategies to facilitate the interaction of gifted students with students of similar and differing intellectual and academic abilities;

b. Development of activities to encourage parental and community involvement in the education of the gifted;

c. Strategies to encourage collaboration among professional colleagues, especially in the areas of curriculum and professional development; and

d. Strategies to collaborate and consult with general education teachers and other resource specialists on behalf of gifted students.

2. Understanding of the characteristics of gifted students, including:

a. Varied expressions of advanced aptitudes, skills, creativity, and conceptual understandings;

b. Varied expressions of the affective, such as social-emotional needs of gifted students; and

c. Gifted behaviors in special populations, including those who are culturally and linguistically diverse, economically disadvantaged, highly gifted, or have special needs or disabilities, including twice-exceptional students.

3. Understanding of specific techniques to identify gifted students using diagnostic and prescriptive approaches to assessment, including:

a. The selection, use, and interpretation of multiple standardized, norm-referenced aptitude and achievement assessment instruments;

b. The selection, use, and evaluation of multiple identification criteria and strategies;

c. The use of both formal and informal nonbiased measures to provide relevant information regarding the aptitude and ability or achievement of potentially gifted students;

d. The use of authentic assessment tools such as portfolios to determine performance, motivation, interest, and other characteristics of potentially gifted students;

e. The use and interpretation of reliable rating scales, checklists, and questionnaires by parents, teachers, and others;

f. The evaluation of data collected from student records such as grades, honors, and awards;

g. The use of case study reports providing information regarding exceptional conditions; and

h. The roles and responsibilities of the identification and placement committee.

4. Understanding and application of a variety of curricular and instructional models, methodologies, and strategies that ensure:

a. The use of the Virginia Standards of Learning as a foundation to develop a high level of proficiency, academic rigor, and complexity for gifted learners in all curricular academic areas;

b. The acquisition of knowledge and development of products that demonstrate creative and critical thinking as applied to student learning both in and out of the classroom, including inquiry-based instruction, questioning strategies, and problem-solving skills;

c. The development of learning environments that guide students to become self-directed, reflective, independent learners;

d. The acquisition of tools to enable students to contribute to a multicultural, diverse society, including preparation for college and careers; and

e. The development of learning environments that recognize and support the affective needs of the gifted students.

5. Understanding and application of theories and principles of appropriately differentiating curriculum specifically designed to accommodate the accelerated learning aptitudes of gifted students, including:

a. Accelerated and enrichment opportunities that recognize gifted students' needs for advanced content and pacing of instruction, original research or production, problem-finding and problem-solving, higher level thinking that leads to the generation of products, and a focus on issues, themes, and ideas integrated within and across disciplines;

b. Opportunities for students to explore, develop, and research their areas of interest, talent, or strength using varied modes of expression;

c. Emphasis on advanced and complex content that is paced and sequenced to respond to gifted students' persistent intellectual, artistic, or technical curiosity; exceptional problem-solving abilities; rapid acquisition and mastery of information; conceptual thinking processes; and imaginative expression across a broad range of disciplines;

d. Evaluation of student academic growth and learner outcomes through appropriate multiple criteria, including a variety of pre-assessments and post-assessments; and

e. Use of current and advanced technologies to enhance student performance and academic growth.

6. Understanding the fundamental principles of differentiated curricula for effective program planning and evaluation, including:

a. Program design and development for gifted learners;

b. Research and topics for effective administrative arrangements, supervision, and program implementation;

c. Activities to encourage parental and community involvement in gifted education; and

d. Strategies for building an effective advisory committee.

7. Understanding of contemporary issues and research in gifted education, including:

a. The systematic gathering, analyzing, and reporting of formative and summative data from local, state, and national perspectives; and

b. Current local, state, and national policies, trends, and issues.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in all forms of communication.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

10. The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with gifted students in a public or accredited nonpublic school.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-330. Health and physical education preK-12.

The program in health and physical education preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of health and physical education as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning including the following:

a. Competence in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities;

b. Knowledge of structures and functions of the body and how they relate to and are affected by human movement to learning and developing motors skills and specialized movement forms;

c. Demonstrate the aptitude, attitude, and skills to lead responsible, fulfilling, and respectful lives; and

d. Understand the importance of energy balance and nutritional needs of the body to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease.

2. Understanding basic human anatomy, physiology, kinesiology, and exercise physiology needed to apply discipline-specific biomechanical concepts critical to the development of physically educated individuals.

3. Understanding of the basic scientific principles of human movement as they apply to:

a. Health-related fitness, such as flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, cardio respiratory endurance, and body composition;

b. Skill-related fitness, such as coordination, agility, power, balance, speed, and reaction time; and

c. Analyzing and correcting critical elements of motor skills and performance concepts related to skillful movement and fitness.

4. Basic understanding of the administration and planning for a health and physical education program, including:

a. Differentiated instruction based on a continuous learning cycle;

b. Student safety, classroom management, injury prevention, and liability issues;

c. Standards-based curriculum and assessments that foster student learning and inform decisions about instruction;

d. The role of coordinated school and community health.

e. Utilizing school health advisory boards, local health departments, and other representative stakeholders for support for best practice; and

f. Increasing physical activity behaviors before, during, and after school.

5. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of health education as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning, including:

a. Demonstrate the knowledge and skills to make healthy decisions that reduce health risks and enhance the health of self and others;

b. Demonstrate the ability to access, evaluate, and use health information, products, and services that influence health and wellness in a positive manner; and

c. Demonstrate the use of appropriate health practices and behaviors to promote a safe and healthy community when alone, with family, at school, and in other group settings.

6. Understanding of the essential health knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching developmentally and culturally appropriate health education content standards, including:

a. Health promotion and chronic disease prevention;

b. Mental, social, and emotional health;

c. Nutrition, body image, eating disorders, energy balance, and weight management;

d. Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use prevention;

e. Safety and emergency care, including first aid, CPR, AED, universal precautions;

f. Injury and violence prevention;

g. Consumer health and information access;

h. Communicable and noncommunicable disease prevention and treatment;

i. Environmental health;

j. Personal, family, and community health;

k. Bullying prevention, resistance skills, and conflict mediation; and

l. Theories and models of behavior change and goal-setting.

7. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching physical education, including:

a. Articulated, sequential preK-12 instruction in a variety of movement forms that include:

(1) Functional fitness;

(2) Developmentally appropriate movement skills; and

(3) Movement principles and concepts.

b. Activities that meet the needs of the diverse learner;

c. Ability to design learning activities to help students understand, develop, value and achieve personal fitness;

d. Knowledge of human growth, development, and motor learning;

e. The relationship between a physically active lifestyle and health;

f. Knowledge of the cognitive, social, and emotional development through physical activity;

g. Ability to incorporate strategies that promote effective physical activity learning environments;

h. Use of authentic, traditional, psychomotor, and fitness assessment methods;

i. The cultural significance of dance, leisure, competition, and sportsmanship; and

j. Demonstration of personal competence in motor skill performance for a variety of movement patterns, modeling healthy behaviors, and maintaining health-enhancing level of fitness.

8. Understanding of and ability to design developmentally appropriate curriculum, instruction, and performance-based assessment that is aligned with the Virginia Standards of Learning for Health and Physical Education including the following:

a. Develop a developmentally appropriate scope and sequence plan of essential health and physical education concepts, information, and skills based on the Virginia Standards of Learning;

b. Use the scope and sequence plan to develop performance indicators that describe the essential concepts and skills;

c. Use new and emerging instructional technology and media effectively to enhance learning;

d. Use research-based educational strategies to meet diverse learning styles and needs;

e. Adapt and create strategies best suited for delivering instruction in diverse settings;

f. Employ individual and cooperative group learning strategies;

g. Connect instruction to prior student learning, and to other curricular areas; and

h. Use evaluation to plan a continuous cycle of learning strategies that reinforce mastery of performance indicators.

9. Obtaining, analyzing and applying health-related and fitness-related data to meet the cultural, social, growth, and development needs of the students and community:

a. Select valid and current sources of information and data;

b. Use computerized sources of information and appropriate data-gathering instruments; and

c. Analyze and interpret data and determine priority areas of focused instruction.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-340. History and social sciences.

The program in history and social sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and the social sciences, including in:

a. United States history.

(1) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the philosophical origins in the Enlightenment through the debates of the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); Articles of Confederation; and historical challenges to the American political system;

(2) The influence of religious traditions on American heritage and contemporary American society;

(3) The influence of immigration on American political, social, cultural, and economic life;

(4) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(5) The social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century;

(6) The tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and national unity; and

(7) The difference between a democracy and a republic and other types of economic and political systems.

b. World history.

(1) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(2) The origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(3) Medieval society, institutions, and civilizations; feudalism; and the evolution of representative government;

(4) The social, political, cultural, and economic innovations of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(5) The ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(6) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual and political revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(7) The sources, results, and influences of the American, French, and Latin American revolutions;

(8) The social and economic consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics, culture, and the lives of everyday people;

(9) The influence of global ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries;

(10) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era; and

(11) The development of globalization and the growing interdependence and inter-relationship among countries and cultures in the world.

c. Civics, government, and economics.

(1) The essential characteristics of governments;

(2) The importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(3) The rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(4) The nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(5) American political culture;

(6) Principles of the American constitutional republic;

(7) The idea of federalism and states' rights;

(8) The structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(9) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(10) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia;

(11) The structures, functions, and powers of the national government;

(12) The role of the United States government in foreign policy and national security;

(13) The structure and role of the local, state, and federal judiciary;

(14) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies;

(15) Knowledge of the impact of the government role in the economy and individual economic and political freedoms;

(16) Knowledge of economic systems in the areas of productivity and key economic indicators;

(17) The analysis of global economic trends; and

(18) Knowledge of international organizations, both political and economic, such as the United Nations, International Court in the Hague, and the International Monetary Fund.

d. Geography.

(1) Relationship between human activity and the physical environment, the ways in which geography governs human activity, and the effects of human activity on geographic features;

(2) Use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(3) Physical and human characteristics of places;

(4) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth;

(5) Characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations;

(6) Patterns and networks of economic interdependence;

(7) Processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement;

(8) How the forces of conflict and cooperation influence the division and control of the earth's surface;

(9) Changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources;

(10) Applying geography to interpret the past and the present and to plan for the future; and

(11) Impact of geospatial technologies on the study of geography, physical and human.

2. Understanding of history and social sciences to appreciate the significance of:

a. Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

b. How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

c. The interplay of change and continuity;

d. How people in other times and places have struggled with fundamental questions of truth, justice, and personal responsibility;

e. The importance of individuals and groups who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

f. The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics;

g. The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions;

h. How ideas have real consequences; and

i. The importance of primary documents and the potential problems with second-hand accounts.

3. Understanding of the use of the content and processes of history and social sciences instruction, including:

a. Fluency in historical thinking and geographic analysis skills;

b. Skill in debate, discussion, and persuasive writing;

c. The ability to organize key social science content into meaningful units of instruction based on historical thinking skills;

d. The ability to provide instruction using a variety of instructional techniques;

e. The ability to evaluate primary and secondary instructional resources, instruction, and student achievement;

f. The ability to incorporate appropriate technologies into social science instruction; and

g. The development of digital literacy skills while recognizing the influence of the media.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of one of the social sciences disciplines at a level equivalent to an undergraduate major, along with proficient understanding of supporting disciplines to ensure:

a. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of social science;

b. An understanding of the significance of the social sciences; and

c. Student achievement in the social sciences.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

7. Skills necessary to teach research including use of primary and secondary sources, ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-350. Journalism (add-on endorsement).

The program in journalism (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding the history and functions of journalism in American culture including the value of freedom of speech and of the press and the complexity of legal and ethical issues;

2. Understanding press law and ethics as it applies to scholastic media, including First Amendment-related rights and responsibilities;

3. Understanding of and experience in theory and practice of both print and nonprint media including design and layout production and the use of technology;

4. Possession of skills in teaching journalistic writing, interviewing, and editing for a variety of purposes, audiences, and formats;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications;

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes; and

7. Skills to lead student media and production, including an understanding of fiscal responsibility, conflict resolution, and time management.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-360. Keyboarding (add-on endorsement).

The program in keyboarding (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Possession of skills in fingering and keyboard manipulation techniques to model and provide touch keyboarding instruction;

2. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop touch fingering techniques in a kinesthetic response to the keyboard required for rapid, accurate entry of data and information;

3. Ability to provide instruction for current procedures in formatting documents;

4. Ability to provide instruction that allows students to develop proper keyboarding techniques based on ergonomics research to minimize future repetitive strain injuries;

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications; and

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-370. Library media preK-12.

The program in library media preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Proficiency in teaching for learning, including knowledge of learners and learning; effective and knowledgeable teaching; collaborative instructional partners; integration of 21st century skills, learning standards, and technologies; assessment of and for student learning; and the design and implementation of instruction that engages students' interests and develops their ability to inquire, think critically, and gain and share knowledge.

2. Proficiency in literacy and reading, including familiarity with children's, young adult, and professional literature in multiple formats; use of a variety of strategies to promote reading for enjoyment and information; collection development to support diverse learning needs; and collaboration to reinforce reading instructional strategies.

3. Proficiency in information and knowledge, including efficient and ethical information-seeking behavior, ethical and equitable access to information, design and delivery of authentic learning through current and emerging technology, and the use of evidence-based action research to create and share knowledge.

4. Proficiency in advocacy and leadership, including networking with the library community, commitment to professional development, leadership in articulating the role of the school library program in the educational community and in student learning, and advocacy for school library programs, resources, and services.

5. Proficiency in program management and administration, including planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating library programs, collections, and facilities; personnel; funding; organization of materials; professional ethics; and strategic planning and program assessment.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing in multiple formats.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-380. Mathematics.

The program in mathematics shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

2. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number systems and number theory, geometry and measurement, analytic geometry, statistics and probability, functions and algebra, multivariate calculus, discrete mathematics, and linear and abstract algebra;

3. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics, the vertical progression of mathematical standards, and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

4. Understanding of the connections among mathematical concepts and procedures and their practical applications;

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity;

6. Understanding the contributions of different individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

7. Understanding of major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

8. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning mathematics, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives;

9. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, differentiate, evaluate, and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

10. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors;

11. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners;

12. Knowledge of programming in at least two widely used programming languages, including definition, structure, and comparison;

13. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing; and

14. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-390. Mathematics – algebra I (add-on endorsement).

The program in Algebra I shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Mathematics Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching middle level mathematics through Algebra I, including:

a. The structure of real numbers and subsets, basic operations, and properties;

b. Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

c. Algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry: operations with monomials and polynomials; rational expressions; linear, quadratic, and higher degree equations and inequalities; linear systems of equations and inequalities; nonlinear systems of equations; radicals and exponents; complex numbers; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic, trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, absolute value, and step functions; domain and range of functions; composite and inverse functions; one-to-one mapping; transformations between graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions; direct and inverse variation; line and curve of best fit; conics; and recognition and application of trigonometric identities;

d. Calculus: applications of limits, differentiation, and integration;

e. Linear algebra: matrices, vectors, and linear transformations;

f. Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, and application of the Pythagorean Theorem; using deductive axiomatic methods of proof and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; constructions and applications of algebra in geometry;

g. Probability and statistics: experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations, including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, range, standard deviation, z-scores, and simple and normal distributions; and

h. Discrete mathematics: symbolic logic, sets, permutations and combinations, functions that are defined recursively, and linear programming.

2. Understanding of varied pedagogical approaches to teaching algebraic concepts and their connected procedures.

3. Understanding of the connections among algebraic concepts, procedures, models, and practical applications.

4. Understanding of the sequential and interrelated nature of mathematics and the mathematical structures inherent in algebra.

5. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem-solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity.

6. Understanding how to utilize appropriate technologies for teaching and learning algebra, including graphing utilities, dynamic software, spreadsheets, and virtual manipulatives.

7. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors.

8. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach algebra to diverse learners.

9. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

10. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-400. Music education – instrumental preK-12.

The program in music education - instrumental preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and employing this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization on a musical instrument and functional teaching knowledge on each of the string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.

8. Competency in teaching rehearsing and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small instrumental ensembles.

9. Knowledge of vocal techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined instrumental and vocal groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils in elementary, middle, and secondary schools, including instruction of instrumental groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-410. Music education – vocal/choral preK-12.

A. The program in music education - vocal/choral preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the music discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how they provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching instrumental music.

2. Understanding of the common elements of music - rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, texture, dynamics, and form - and their relationship with each other and student academic needs and to employ this understanding in the analysis of music.

3. Effective musicianship through the development of:

a. Basic skills in conducting, score reading, teaching musical courses, and rehearsal techniques for choral and instrumental music;

b. Skills in composing, arranging, and adapting music to meet the classroom needs and ability levels of school performing groups;

c. Skills in providing and directing creative experiences and improvising when necessary;

d. Proficiency, sufficient for classroom instruction, on keyboard or other accompanying instrument; and

e. The ability to perform in ensembles.

4. Knowledge and understanding of teaching music, including music theory; performance; music history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics.

5. Knowledge of music history and literature with emphasis on the relationship of music to culture and the ability to place compositions in historical and stylistic perspective.

6. Knowledge of a comprehensive program of music education based upon sound philosophy, content, and methodology for teaching in elementary, middle, and secondary schools.

7. Specialization in the methods, materials, and media appropriate to the teaching of vocal/choral and general music at elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

8. Competency in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting choral ensembles and combined vocal and instrumental school groups. In addition, the program shall provide instruction in business procedures, organization, and management of large and small choral ensembles.

9. Knowledge of instrumental techniques in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting combined vocal and instrumental school groups.

10. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws.

11. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio.

12. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student music learning.

13. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, business procedures, assessment, and communication.

14. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding.

15. Knowledge of related areas of the fine arts, such as dance arts, theatre arts, and the visual arts.

16. Observation and professional laboratory experiences with pupils at elementary, middle, and secondary levels, including instruction of choral groups.

17. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

18. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-420. Science – biology.

The program in biology shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices of the four core science disciplines, including Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching biology.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the following:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, augmentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement classroom, field, and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key biological content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials technologies, and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in biology.

4. Understanding of the content, skills, and practices of biology, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in biology, with course work in genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry including organic chemistry, the Earth sciences, and mathematics including statistics to ensure:

a. The placement of biology in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the skills, practices, and crosscutting concepts common to the Earth, biological, and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in biology to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of biology, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of biology and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-430. Science – chemistry.

The program in chemistry shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices of the four core science disciplines of Earth and space sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how they provide a sound foundation for teaching chemistry.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement classroom, field, and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key chemistry content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in chemistry.

4. Understanding of content, skills, and practices of chemistry, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in chemistry, with course work in biochemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, and analytical chemistry.

5. Understanding of basic physics, Earth science, biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of chemistry in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the skills, practices, and crosscutting concepts common to the Earth, biological, and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in chemistry to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of chemistry, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of chemistry and other sciences to mathematics, the design process and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-440. Science – Earth science.

The program in Earth science shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices of the four core science disciplines of Earth and space sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching Earth science.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement classroom, field, and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key Earth science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials technologies, and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in Earth science.

4. Understanding of the content, skills, and practices of Earth science, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in geology, or a related area, with course work in structural geology, paleontology, petrology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science.

5. Understanding of basic physics, chemistry including organic chemistry, biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of Earth science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the skills, practices, and crosscutting concepts common to the Earth, biological, and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in Earth science to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of Earth science, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of Earth science and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-450. Science – physics.

The program in physics shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices of the four core science disciplines of Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching physics.

2. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the following:

a. Function of research design and experimentation;

b. Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

c. Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

d. Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

e. Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity including peer review; and

f. Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

3. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching laboratory science, including the ability to:

a. Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

b. Implement classroom, field, and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

c. Conduct research projects and experiments including applications of the design process and technology;

d. Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

e. Organize key physics content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

f. Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

g. Evaluate instructional materials technologies, and teaching practices;

h. Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

i. Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance; and

j. Ensure student competence in physics.

4. Understanding of content, processes, and skills of physics, equivalent to an undergraduate degree in physics, with course work in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

5. Understanding of basic Earth science, chemistry (including organic chemistry), biology, and mathematics to ensure:

a. The placement of physics in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

b. The ability to teach the skills, practices, and crosscutting concepts common to the Earth, biological, and physical sciences;

c. The application of key principles in physics to solve practical problems; and

d. A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

6. Understanding of the contributions and significance of physics, including:

a. Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

b. The relationship of physics and other sciences to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

c. The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

8. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-460. Special education adapted curriculum K-12.

A. The program in special education is designed to ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the core competencies in this section to prepare children and youth for participation in the general education curriculum and within the community to the maximum extent possible. The candidate also shall complete the competencies in at least one of the endorsement areas of Special Education Adapted Curriculum K-12, in addition to those required under professional studies, including reading and language acquisition. The program shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Foundations. Characteristics, legal, and medical aspects.

a. Knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities, including:

(1) Historical perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends that provide the basis for special education practice;

(2) Characteristics of children and youth with disabilities relative to age, varying levels of severity, and developmental differences manifested in cognitive, linguistic, physical, psychomotor, social, or emotional functioning;

(3) Normal patterns of development, such as physical, psychomotor, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional development and their relationship to the various disabilities;

(4) Medical aspects of disabilities;

(5) The dynamic influence of the family system and cultural and environmental milieu and related issues pertinent to the education of students with disabilities;

(6) Educational implications of the various disabilities; and

(7) Understanding of ethical issues and the practice of accepted standards of professional behavior.

b. An understanding and application of the legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities, including:

(1) Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, etc.;

(2) Current regulations governing special education, including individualized education program (IEP) development; disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures; and alternative placements and programs in schools; and

(3) Rights and responsibilities of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to individuals with disabilities and disability issues.

2. Assessments and evaluation.

An understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best special education practice, including:

a. Ethical issues and responsibilities in the assessment of individuals with disabilities;

b. Procedures for screening, prereferral, referral, and eligibility determinations;

c. Factors that may influence assessment findings such as cultural, behavioral, and learning diversity;

d. A general knowledge of measurement theory and practice, including validity, reliability, norming, bias, sensitivity, and specificity;

e. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of commonly used individual and group instruments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based measures, as well as task analysis, observation, portfolio, and environmental assessments;

f. Synthesis and interpretation of assessment findings for eligibility, program planning, and program evaluation decisions; and

g. Knowledge of the Virginia Accountability System, assessment options, and procedures for participation for students with disabilities.

3. Management of instruction and behavior.

An understanding and application of classroom and behavior management techniques and individual interventions, including techniques that:

a. Promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment;

b. Address diverse approaches and classroom organization based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice;

c. Provide positive behavioral supports; and

d. Are based on functional assessment of behavior.

4. Collaboration.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including:

Coordination of service delivery with related service providers, general educators, and other professions in collaborative work environments to include:

(1) Understanding the Virginia Standards of Learning, structure of the curriculum, and accountability systems across K-12;

(2) Understanding and assessing the organization and environment of general education classrooms across the K-12 setting;

(3) Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching with co-planning, and student intervention teams;

(4) Procedures to collaboratively develop, provide, and evaluate instructional and behavioral plans consistent with students' individual needs;

(5) Understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each member of the collaborative team; and

(6) Knowledge and application of effective communication strategies and culturally responsive strategies with a variety of stakeholders in the collaborative environment;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involving of families in the education of their children with disabilities;

d. Understanding the standards of professionalism;

e. Cooperating with community agencies and other resource providers; and

f. Models and strategies for promoting students' self-advocacy skills.

B. The program in special education adapted curriculum K-12 shall ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate seeking endorsement in special education adapted curriculum has the special education core competencies and the specific competency requirements specified in this section. The candidate shall demonstrate the following competencies to prepare children and youth to acquire the functional, academic, and community living skills necessary to reach an appropriate level of independence and be assessed in progress toward an aligned curriculum while participating in programs with nondisabled peers to the fullest extent possible:

1. Characteristics.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the definitions; characteristics, including medical and health conditions; and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities (K-12) whose cognitive impairments or adaptive skills require adaptations to the general curriculum and whose functional skills are significantly different from typically developing peers, and therefore require adaptations to the general curriculum for an appropriate education, including students with:

(1) Autism spectrum disorders;

(2) Developmental delay;

(3) Intellectual disability;

(4) Traumatic brain injury; and

(5) Multiple disabilities, including sensory, deaf-blindness, speech-language, orthopedic and other health impairments as an additional disability to those referenced in subdivision 1 a of this subsection.

b. Knowledge of characteristics shall include:

(1) Medical needs, sensory needs, and position and handling needs of children with multiple disabilities;

(2) Speech and language development and communication and impact on educational, behavioral, and social interactions;

(3) Impact of disability on self-determination and self-advocacy skills; and

(4) Historical and legal perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends related to specific student populations.

2. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements for IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

b. Apply knowledge of content standards, assessment, and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to:

(1) Construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques, such as task analysis, observation, portfolio assessment, and other curriculum-based measures;

(2) Make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, modifications, adaptations, placement, teaching methodology, and transitional services and activities for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning through an aligned curriculum;

(3) Be able to write educationally relevant IEP goals and objectives that address self-care and self-management of student physical, sensory, and medical needs that also enhance academic success in the adapted curriculum.

3. Instructional methods and strategies for the adapted curriculum.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on grade level content standards;

b. Foundational knowledge of reading and writing that includes an understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, such as those found in the professional studies requirements in 8VAC40-543-140. Skills in this area include phonemic and other phonological awareness, an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, explicit phonics instruction, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word attack skills, and knowledge of how phonics, syntax, and semantics interact. Additional skills shall include proficiency in a wide variety of comprehension strategies and writing, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature and independent reading; and reading and writing across the content areas;

c. Foundational knowledge of the complex nature of numeracy acquisition and the sequential nature of mathematics including mathematical concepts, mathematical thinking, calculation, and problem-solving;

d. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

e. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

f. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

g. Use of technology to promote student learning;

h. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences;

i. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and Virginia Standards of Learning through an aligned curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Implement a blended curriculum that includes teaching academic skills using the aligned Virginia Standards of Learning and incorporating functional and essential life skills into instruction;

(3) Provide explicit instruction of reading, writing and mathematics at appropriate developmental and grade level in a cumulative manner to students with disabilities accessing the general education curriculum through an aligned curriculum;

(4) Conduct and analyze results of functional behavior assessment;

(5) Implement behavioral intervention plans incorporating positive behavioral supports;

(6) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high functional, academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(7) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying and adapting the general education curriculum;

(8) Develop appropriate transition between grade levels, setting, and environments;

(9) Use assistive and instructional technology, including augmentative and alternative communication methods and systems;

(10) Implement and evaluate group management technique and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills;

(11) Implement and monitor IEP specified modifications and adaptations within the general education classroom; and

(12) Integrate students in the community through collaboration with community service systems.

4. Individualized supports and specialized care of students with significant disabilities.

a. An understanding and application of service delivery for students with significant disabilities and their unique care needs, including the ability to identify the physical, sensory, and health and medical needs of students with significant disabilities and understand how these needs impact the educational program including:

(1) Understanding of typical physical development of children and application of this knowledge in developing learning experiences for students with significant disabilities;

(2) Basic understanding of the most common medical diagnoses associated with students with significant disabilities and the impact on their functioning in school and community settings;

(3) Understanding of the role muscle tone plays in the positioning and handling of students and familiarity with common positioning equipment used in the classroom; and

(4) Understanding of alternative and augmentative communication systems and the ability to identify an appropriate communication system based on the needs of the student.

b. Understanding of the roles and responsibilities of related and support staff working in a collaborative setting and the process and procedures related to initiating a related service request.

c. Ability to develop lesson plans that blend and incorporate the academic, functional, and behavioral goals and objectives, while integrating positioning, self-help, feeding, grooming, sensory, and toileting programs into the instructional delivery.

5. Transitioning.

Demonstrate the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, age-appropriate transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, and self-determination to include goal setting, decision-making, problem-solving, self-awareness and self-advocacy, guardianship, and other legal considerations.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration for students with varying degrees of disability severity, including.

(1) Coordinate service delivery with general educators including career and technical educators and school counselors, related services providers, and other providers;

(2) Awareness of community resources agencies and strategies to interface with community agencies when developing and planning IEPs;

(3) Knowledge of related services and accommodations that pertain to postsecondary transitions that increase student access to postsecondary education and community resources; and

(4) Ability to coordinate and facilitate meetings involving parents, students, outside agencies, and administrators to include the understanding of consent to share information, including confidentiality and disability disclosure.

b. Understand the difference between entitlement and eligibility for agency services as students move to the adult world, including a basic understanding of Social Security Income benefits planning, work incentive, Medicaid, community independent living, and waivers.

c. Recognize uses of technology and seek out technology at postsecondary settings that shall aid the student in their education, work, and independent living.

d. Recognize and plan for individual student potential and their capacity to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations and the impact of academic and social success on personal development.

e. Knowledge of person-centered planning strategies to promote student involvement in planning.

f. Knowledge of generic skills that lead to success in school, work, and community, including time management, preparedness, social interactions, and communication skills.

g. Understand social skill development and the unique social skills deficits and challenges associated with disabilities:

(1) Assesses social skill strengths and needs; and

(2) Plans and uses specialized social skills strategies.

h. Knowledge of use and implementation of vocational assessments to encourage and support students' advocacy and self-determination skills.

i. Knowledge of legal issues surrounding age of majority and guardianship.

j. Knowledge of graduation requirements, diploma options and legal issues surrounding age of majority, and guardianship.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

C. Completion of supervised classroom experiences with students with disabilities and an adapted curriculum K-12.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-470. Special education blindness/visual impairments preK-12.

The program in special education visual impairments preK-12 is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the characteristics of individuals with disabilities, including:

a. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of children and youth with disabilities, particularly blindness or visual impairment;

b. Language development and the effects of blindness, visual impairment, and other disabling conditions and cultural and linguistic diversity on language development;

c. Characteristics of individuals with visual impairments, including impact of visual impairment on children's social and emotional development, and family interaction patterns; and

d. Understanding of psychosocial aspects of visual impairment and cultural identity.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities and students with visual impairments, including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education, including individualized education program (IEP) development, individualized family service plan (IFSP), and transition services; and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placements or programs in schools.

3. Understanding of the foundation of assessment and evaluation with an emphasis on individuals with visual impairments, including:

a. Administering, scoring, and interpreting assessments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based individual and group assessments;

b. Administration and interpretation of a functional vision assessment (FVA), learning media assessment (LMA), and assistive technology assessment and assessment in the areas of the expanded core curriculum (ECC);

c. Interpreting assessments for eligibility, placement, and program decisions and to inform instruction;

d. Techniques to collect, record, and analyze information;

e. Diagnostic instruction using ongoing assessment data;

f. Techniques for recognizing capacity and diversity and its influence on student assessment and evaluation;

g. Using data from student program evaluation to inform curriculum development, instructional practice, and accommodations; and

h. Low vision practices and procedures, including assessment and instructional programming for functional vision.

4. Understanding of service delivery, classroom and behavior management, and instruction for students who are blind and visually impaired, including:

a. The application of current research and evidence-based practice;

b. Classroom organization and curriculum development;

c. Curriculum adaptations and accommodations;

d. The development of language and literacy skills;

e. The use of technology in teaching and instructing students to use assistive technologies to promote learning and provide access to the general education curriculum;

f. Classroom management, including behavior support systems and individual planning;

g. Methods and procedures for teaching students with visual impairments;

h. Instructional programming and modifications of curriculum to facilitate inclusion of students with blindness and visual impairment in programs and services with sighted and typically developing peers;

i. Individual and group behavior management techniques;

j. Career and vocational aspects of individuals with disabilities, including persons with visual impairments, including knowledge of careers, vocational opportunities, and transition from school to work; and

k. Social and recreational skills and resources for individuals with visual impairments, including methods and materials for assessing and teaching activities of daily living.

5. Understanding of consultation, case management, and collaboration including:

a. Coordinating service delivery with other professionals in collaborative work environments;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involving families in the education of their children with blindness or visual impairment;

d. Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching, and student intervention teams; and

e. Interfacing with community agencies and resources.

6. Understanding of the foundations of Braille reading and writing, including:

a. Teaching reading and writing of uncontracted and contracted Unified English Braille on both a Braille writer and a "slate and stylus"; and

b. Knowledge of other codes, including Nemeth, foreign language code, and music code.

7. Understanding of anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the eye and the educational implications.

8. Understanding principles and how to instruct in human guide techniques and pre-cane orientation and mobility instruction.

9. Understanding of the standards of professionalism, including ethical and professional practice.

10. Completion of supervised classroom experiences at the elementary and secondary levels with students who have visual impairments, to include those with blindness and low vision, and with individuals who may have additional disabilities.

11. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-480. Special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12.

The program in special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12 is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the characteristics of individuals with disabilities, including the following:

a. Developmental and cognitive characteristics of children and youth with disabilities;

b. Characteristics of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including sociocultural influences and possible health-related or genetically-related problems; and

c. Foundations of the education and culture of persons who are deaf or hard of hearing.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities and students who are deaf or hard of hearing including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education, including individualized education program (IEP) development, individualized family service plan (IFSP), and transition services; and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placements or programs in schools.

3. Understanding of the foundation of assessment and evaluation with an emphasis on individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, including:

a. Administering, scoring, and interpreting assessments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based individual and group assessments;

b. Interpreting assessment results for eligibility, placement, and to inform instruction, such as linking assessment results to classroom interventions;

c. Techniques to collect, record, and analyze information from observing students;

d. Data-based decision-making skills using assessment data to inform diagnostic instruction and;

e. Techniques for recognizing capacity and diversity and its influence on student assessment and evaluation.

4. Understanding of service delivery, classroom and behavior management, and instruction, including:

a. The application of current research in practice;

b. Classroom organization and curriculum development;

c. Curriculum adaptations and accommodations;

d. The development of language and literacy skills;

e. The use of technology to promote student learning;

f. Classroom and behavior management, including behavior support systems and individual planning;

g. Evidence-based strategies and procedures for teaching persons who are deaf or hard of hearing;

h. Instructional programming and modifications of curriculum to facilitate inclusion of students with disabilities into the continuum of programs and services with peers without disabilities;

i. Strategies to promote successful socialization of students who are deaf or hard of hearing with their hearing peers; and

j. Career and vocational skill development of individuals with disabilities, including persons who are deaf or hard of hearing and who may have additional needs.

5. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including:

a. Coordinating service delivery with other professionals in collaborative work environments;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching, and student intervention teams;

d. Involving families in the education of their children with disabilities; and

e. Cooperating with community agencies and resources.

6. Understanding of speech, hearing, and language development, including:

a. Speech, hearing, and language development and the effects of sensory loss and cultural diversity on typical language development;

b. How to promote development of listening and spoken language skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing and how to promote development of American Sign Language skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing;

c. Anatomy of speech structures, auditory and visual mechanisms, production, transmission, and psychophysical characteristics of sound; and

d. General and specific effects of having partial or no hearing on production and reception of speech and on English language development.

7. Understanding of audiology, including:

a. Diagnostic evaluation, testing procedures, and interpreting audiology reports to inform instruction in and expectations for development of listening and spoken language skills; and

b. Characteristics of individual, group amplification and assistive listening devices, including cochlear implant systems, hearing aids, FM systems, sound field systems with emphasis on utilization in educational environments.

8. Understanding of various communication modalities to include cued speech, speech reading, listening, signed language, and spoken language.

9. Demonstrated proficiency in expressive and receptive sign language, to include American Sign Language and contact varieties.

10. Understanding of the standards for professionalism.

11. Completion of supervised classroom experiences at the elementary and secondary levels with students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those with additional disabilities.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-490. Special education early childhood (birth through age five).

The program in special education early childhood (birth through age five) is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the nature and characteristics of major disabling and at-risk conditions, including:

a. Pathways for service delivery to the birth-through-age-five population;

b. An overview of early intervention and early childhood special education;

c. Historical perspective of special education; and

d. Awareness of cultural and linguistic diversity.

2. Understanding of the foundation of the legal aspects associated with students with disabilities, including:

a. Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education;

b. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act;

c. Legal decisions related to persons with disabilities;

d. Current regulations and procedures governing special education to include individualized education program (IEP) development and individualized family service plan (IFSP); and

e. Disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures and alternative placements and programs in schools.

3. Knowledge of the selection, administration, and interpretation of formal and informal assessment techniques for young children with disabling and at-risk conditions and their families, including:

a. Eligibility and diagnosis of disabling and at-risk conditions;

b. Progress monitoring for growth compared to same age, typically developing peers and functioning in environments where same age peers would normally attend to include settings that the families choose;

c. Program development and improvement; and

d. Curriculum-based assessments for instructional planning.

4. Understanding of the methods for providing instructional programs for early intervention, including:

a. Service delivery options;

b. Development of individualized education programs (IEPs) and individualized family service plans (IFSPs);

c. Curriculum development and implementation to ensure developmentally appropriate intervention techniques in the areas of self-help, motor, cognitive, social and emotional, and language;

d. Service delivery to support success and functionality in all settings where same age, typically developing peers would be located; and

e. Response and recognition of tiered instruction.

5. Understanding of teaching social and emotional skills to assist with behavior management and the application of principles of learning and child development to individual and group management using a variety of techniques that are appropriate to the age of that child.

6. Understanding of speech and language development and intervention methods, including the effects of disabling and at-risk conditions on young children, including:

a. Developmental stages of language acquisition and communication;

b. Cultural and linguistic diversity;

c. English learner language acquisition; and

d. Use of language to get needs and wants met and use of functional communication for social interaction.

7. Understanding of and experiences with the medical aspects of young children with disabling and at-risk conditions and the management of neuro-developmental and motor disabilities, including:

a. Emergency care and the role of health care professionals in the lives of individuals with disabilities; and

b. Use and effects of medications and treatments.

8. Skills in consultation, case management, collaboration, coaching, mentoring, and co-teaching, including techniques in working with children, families, educators, related service providers, and other human service professionals that include:

a. Service coordination;

b. Interagency coordination;

c. Inclusive practices and least restrictive environments;

d. Transition facilitation; and

e. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals.

9. Understanding of the theories and techniques of family-centered intervention, including:

a. Cultural and linguistic influences; and

b. Family dynamics.

10. Understanding of the standards of professionalism.

11. Completion of supervised experiences at the early childhood level in a variety of settings, including to early intervention, home-based, school-based, and community-based settings.

12. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

13. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-500. Special education general curriculum K-12.

A. The program in special education is designed to ensure through course work and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate has demonstrated the core competencies in this section to prepare children and youth for participation in the general education curriculum and within the community to the maximum extent possible. The candidate also shall complete the competencies required under professional studies in 8VAC40-543-140, including reading and language acquisition.

1. Foundations - Characteristics, legal, and medical aspects.

a. Knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities, including:

(1) Historical perspectives, models, theories, philosophies, and trends that provide the basis for special education practice;

(2) Characteristics of children and youth with disabilities relative to age, varying levels of severity, and developmental differences manifested in cognitive, linguistic, physical, psychomotor, social, or emotional functioning;

(3) Normal patterns of development, including physical, psychomotor, cognitive, linguistic, social, or emotional development and their relationship to the various disabilities;

(4) Medical aspects of disabilities;

(5) The dynamic influence of the family system and cultural and environmental milieu and related issues pertinent to the education of students with disabilities;

(6) Educational implications of the various disabilities; and

(7) Understanding of ethical issues and the practice of accepted standards of professional behavior.

b. An understanding and application of the legal aspects, regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities, including:

(1) Legislative and judicial mandates related to education and special education, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, § 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, etc.;

(2) Current regulations governing special education (e.g., individualized education program (IEP) development; disciplinary practices, policies, and procedures; and alternative placements and programs in schools); and

(3) Rights and responsibilities of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to individuals with disabilities and disability issues.

2. Assessments and evaluation.

An understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best special education practice, including:

a. Ethical issues and responsibilities in the assessment of individuals with disabilities;

b. Procedures for screening, pre-referral, referral, and eligibility determinations;

c. Factors that may influence assessment findings such as cultural, behavioral, and learning diversity;

d. A general knowledge of measurement theory and practice, including validity, reliability, norming, bias, sensitivity, and specificity;

e. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of commonly used individual and group instruments, including norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, and curriculum-based measures, as well as task analysis, observation, portfolio, and environmental assessments;

f. Synthesis and interpretation of assessment findings for eligibility, program planning, and program evaluation decisions; and

g. Knowledge of the Virginia Accountability System, assessment options, and procedures for participation for students with disabilities.

3. Management of instruction and behavior.

An understanding and application of classroom and behavior management techniques and individual interventions, including techniques that:

a. Promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment;

b. Address diverse approaches to classroom organization and set-up based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice;

c. Provide positive behavioral supports; and

d. Are based on functional assessment of behavior.

4. Collaboration.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration, including coordination of service delivery with related service providers, general educators, and other professions in collaborative work environments to include:

(1) Understanding the Standards of Learning, the structure of the curriculum, and accountability systems across K-12;

(2) Understanding and assessing the organization and environment of general education classrooms across the K-12 setting;

(3) Implementation of collaborative models, including collaborative consultation, co-teaching with co-planning, and student intervention teams;

(4) Procedures to collaboratively develop, provide, and evaluate instructional and behavioral plans consistent with students' individual needs;

(5) Understanding the roles and responsibilities of each member of the collaborative team; and

(6) Knowledge and application of effective communication strategies and culturally responsive strategies with a variety of stakeholders in the collaborative environment;

b. Training, managing, and monitoring paraprofessionals;

c. Involvement of families in the education of their children with disabilities;

d. Understanding the standards of professionalism;

e. Cooperating with community agencies and other resource providers; and

f. Models and strategies for promoting students' self-advocacy skills.

B. The program in special education general curriculum K-12 shall ensure through coursework and field experiences in a variety of settings that the candidate seeking endorsement in special education general curriculum K-12 has the special education core competencies and the specific competency requirements specified in this section.

1. Characteristics.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of definitions, characteristics, and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities whose cognitive and functional skills are not significantly different from typically developing peers and therefore require access to the general education curriculum for an appropriate education, including students with:

(1) Autism spectrum disorder;

(2) Deaf-blindness;

(3) Developmental delay;

(4) Emotional disability;

(5) Hearing impairment, including deaf and hard of hearing;

(6) Intellectual disability;

(7) Learning disability;

(8) Multiple disabilities;

(9) Orthopedic impairment;

(10) Other health impairment;

(11) Speech-language impairment;

(12) Traumatic brain injury; and

(13) Visual impairment, including blindness.

b. Knowledge of characteristics shall include:

(1) Age-span and developmental issues;

(2) Levels of severity;

(3) Cognitive functioning;

(4) Language development;

(5) Emotional and behavioral adjustment;

(6) Social development;

(7) Medical aspects; and

(8) Cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors.

2. Individualized education program development and implementation.

a. Demonstrate knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements for IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

b. Apply knowledge of content standards, assessment, and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to:

(1) Construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques, such as task analysis, observation, portfolio assessment, and other curriculum-based measures;

(2) Make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, accommodations, placement, teaching methodology, and transition services and activities for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and

(3) Develop an individualized education program (IEP) that addresses the academic and functional needs of the student with disabilities in the general education curriculum and meets regulatory requirements.

3. Instructional strategies for reading and writing.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on the general education curriculum Virginia Standards of Learning at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Foundational knowledge of reading and writing that includes an understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, such as reading competencies found in the professional studies requirements. Skills in this area include: phonemic awareness, an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, explicit phonics instruction, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, word attack skills, and knowledge of how phonics, syntax, and semantics interact. Additional skills shall include proficiency in a wide variety of comprehension, vocabulary, and writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature, independent reading, and reading and writing across content areas;

c. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

d. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

e. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

f. Use of technology to promote student learning;

g. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences; and

h. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, study skills, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Teach skills and remediate deficits in academic areas at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

(3) Provide explicit instruction of reading and writing at appropriate developmental and grade level in a systematic and cumulative manner to students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum;

(4) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(5) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying curriculum in both directive and nondirective methodologies;

(6) Use assistive and instructional technology in order to access the general education curriculum;

(7) Implement and evaluate group management techniques and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills; and

(8) Implement and monitor IEP specified accommodations within the general education classroom.

4. Instructional strategies for mathematics.

An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities, including:

a. Curriculum development that includes a scope and sequence, lesson plans, instructional methods, and assessments that are based on the general education curriculum Virginia Standards of Learning at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

b. Foundational knowledge of the complex nature of numeracy acquisition and nature of mathematics including mathematical concepts, mathematical thinking, mathematics vocabulary, calculation, and problem-solving;

c. Alternative ways to teach content material including curriculum adaptation and curriculum modifications;

d. Procedures to develop, provide, and evaluate instruction consistent with students' individual needs;

e. Strategies to promote successful integration of students with disabilities with their nondisabled peers;

f. Use of technology to promote student learning;

g. Structure and organization of general education classrooms and other instructional settings representing the continuum of special education services, to include field experiences;

h. Demonstrate the ability to implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels, including the ability to:

(1) Identify and apply differentiated instructional methodologies including systematic instruction, multisensory approaches, learning cognitive strategies, study skills, diverse learning styles, and technology use;

(2) Teach skills and remediate deficits in academic areas at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels;

(3) Provide explicit instruction in mathematics at appropriate developmental and grade level in a systematic and cumulative manner to students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum;

(4) Promote the potential and capacity of individual students to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations;

(5) Design alternative ways to teach content material including modifying curriculum in both directive and nondirective methodologies;

(6) Use assistive and instructional technology in order to access the general education curriculum;

(7) Implement and evaluate group management techniques and individual interventions that teach and maintain emotional, behavioral, and social skills; and

(8) Implement and monitor IEP specified accommodations within the general education classroom.

5. Transitioning.

Demonstrate the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

a. Skills in consultation, case management, and collaboration for students with varying degrees of disability severity;

(1) Coordinate service delivery with general educators, related service providers, and other providers;

(2) Awareness of community resources agencies and strategies to interface with community agencies when developing and planning IEPs;

(3) Knowledge of related services and accommodations that pertain to postsecondary transitions that increase student access to postsecondary education and community resources and;

(4) Ability to coordinate and facilitate meetings involving parents, students, outside agencies, and administrators.

b. Understand the difference between entitlement and eligibility for agency services as students move to the adult world including a basic understanding of Social Security Income benefits planning, work incentive, Medicaid, and community independent living.

c. Recognize uses of technology and seek out technology at postsecondary settings that shall aid the student in their education, work, and independent living.

d. Recognize and plan for individual student potential and their capacity to meet high academic, behavioral, and social expectations and the impact of academic and social success on personal development:

(1) Knowledge of person-centered planning strategies to promote student involvement in planning; and

(2) Knowledge of generic skills that lead to success in school, work, and community, including time management, preparedness, social interactions, and communication skills.

e. Understand social skill development and the unique social skills deficits and challenges associated with disabilities:

(1) Assess social skill strengths and needs; and

(2) Plan and use specialized social skills strategies.

f. Knowledge of use and implementation of vocational assessments to encourage and support students' self-advocacy and self-determination skills.

g. Knowledge of graduation requirements, diploma options, and legal issues surrounding age of majority and guardianship.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

C. Completion of supervised classroom experiences with students with disabilities and the general curriculum K-12.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-510. Special education – general curriculum elementary education K-6 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum elementary education K-6 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in elementary education (early/primary education preK-3/elementary education preK-6) issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education (early/primary education preK-3/elementary education preK-6);

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation.

(1) Knowledge of the eligibility process, legal, and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities.

(2) Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Assessment and evaluation.

(1) Understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education; including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities.

(2) Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements, and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings and collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings and collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

5. The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or accredited nonpublic school.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-520. Special education – general curriculum middle education grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum middle education grades 6–8 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in middle education (middle education 6–8 English, middle education 6–8 history and social sciences, middle education 6–8 mathematics, or middle education 6–8 sciences) issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in middle education (middle education 6–8 English, middle education 6–8 history and social sciences, middle education 6–8 mathematics, or middle education 6–8 sciences).

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program (IEP) development and implementation. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living which addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

5. The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or accredited nonpublic school.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-530. Special education – general curriculum secondary education grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement).

The program in special education - general curriculum secondary education grades 6–12 (add-on endorsement) shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies. The candidate must:

1. Hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics.

2. Have completed competencies in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living which addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as related to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics.

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

5. The program shall include a practicum that shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or accredited nonpublic school.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-540. Speech communication (add-on endorsement).

The program in speech communication shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding and knowledge of oral communication, including language acquisition involving the processes of expressive and receptive language and voice production involving the aesthetics of speech;

2. Understanding and knowledge of common speech production patterns, including articulation, pronunciation, and dialectical variances as these relate to standard English patterns;

3. Understanding the components of effective messages, including appropriate use of language, voice and diction, and nonverbal elements;

4. Understanding of and proficiency in effective communication, including interpersonal communication, small group communication, skills contributing to effective listening, the art of persuasion, oral interpretation, group discussion, mass communication, public speaking, and debate, verbal and nonverbal messages, and the ability to critique such communication interactions;

5. Understanding media, digital, and visual literacy and the skills to evaluate and utilize these literacies in presentations;

6. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing;

7. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes;

8. Skills necessary to teach research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information as needed for speech communication; and

9. Knowledge of the Virginia Computer Technology Standards of Learning and their integration into Speech Communication.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-550. Theatre arts preK-12.

The program in theatre arts preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the theatre arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how these provide a necessary foundation integral to teaching theatre arts.

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching theatre arts to the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12, including the following:

a. Experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of theatre arts education;

b. Knowledge and understanding for teaching theatre arts, including performance and production; theatre history and cultural context; analysis, evaluation, and critique; and aesthetics;

c. Knowledge and understanding in directing;

d. Knowledge and understanding in technical theatre, including lighting, set design, stage craft, costuming, makeup, and safety;

e. Knowledge and understanding in performance, including acting and acting styles;

f. Knowledge and understanding in dramatic literature;

g. Knowledge and understanding of the relationship of theatre and culture and the influence of theatre on past and present culture;

h. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

i. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including performance and studio and use of toxic art materials in various aspects of theatre arts production, performance, and the classroom;

k. Knowledge of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student theatre arts learning;

l. Knowledge of related areas of theatre arts, such as art, dance arts, music, and the visual arts;

m. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

n. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding; and

o. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-543-560. Visual arts preK-12.

The program in visual arts preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the visual arts discipline as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning, and how they provide a necessary foundation for teaching the visual arts;

2. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching art appropriate to the developmental levels and academic needs of students in preK-12 including the following:

a. Knowledge and experience in planning, developing, administering, and evaluating a program of visual arts education;

b. Two-dimensional media and concepts: basic and complex techniques and concepts in two-dimensional design, drawing, painting, printmaking, computer graphics, and other electronic imagery;

c. Three-dimensional media and concepts: basic and complex techniques and concepts in three-dimensional design, sculpture, ceramics, fiber arts, crafts, and computer and other electronic imagery;

d. Knowledge and understanding for teaching the visual arts, including visual communication and production, art history and cultural context, analysis, evaluation and critique, and aesthetics;

e. The relationship of visual arts and culture and the influence of visual arts on past and present cultures;

f. Related areas of visual arts, such as architecture, dance arts, music, theatre arts, photography, and other expressive arts;

g. Knowledge and understanding of technological and artistic copyright laws;

h. Knowledge and understanding of classroom management and safety, including use of toxic art material in various aspects of studio and classroom work;

i. Knowledge of a variety of instructional and assessment strategies to foster, support, and enhance student visual arts learning;

j. Knowledge and understanding of technology, with applications for instruction, resources, artistic expression, administration, assessment, and communication;

k. Knowledge and understanding of appropriate and sensitive attention to diversity and cultural understanding; and

l. Observation and student teaching experiences at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.

4. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

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