Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
6/14/2024

Part VI. Standards for the Use of Biosolids or Disposal of Sewage Sludge

Article 1
General Requirements

9VAC25-31-420. Purpose and applicability.

Article 1
General Requirements

A. This part establishes standards, which consist of general requirements, pollutant limits, management practices, and operational standards, for the final use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Standards are included in this part for biosolids applied to the land or sewage sludge placed on a surface disposal site. Also included in this part are pathogen and alternative vector attraction reduction requirements for biosolids applied to the land or sewage sludge placed on a surface disposal site.

B. In addition, the standards in this part include the frequency of monitoring and recordkeeping requirements when biosolids is applied to the land or sewage sludge is placed on a surface disposal site. Also included in this part are reporting requirements for Class I sludge management facilities, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, and POTWs that serve 10,000 people or more.

C. Applicability.

1. This part applies to any person who prepares sewage sludge or biosolids, or applies biosolids to the land and to the owner/operator of a surface disposal site.

2. This part applies to biosolids applied to the land or sewage sludge placed on a surface disposal site.

3. This part applies to land where biosolids is applied and to a surface disposal site.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-430. [Reserved]. (Reserved)

9VAC25-31-440. Permits and direct enforceability.

A. The requirements in this part may be implemented through a permit issued to a treatment works treating domestic sewage, in accordance with this chapter. Treatment works treating domestic sewage shall submit a permit application in accordance with this chapter.

B. No person shall use biosolids or dispose of sewage sludge through any practice for which requirements are established in this part except in accordance with such requirements.

C. No person shall land apply Class B biosolids on any land in Virginia unless that land has been identified in an application to issue, reissue, or modify a permit and approved by the department.

D. No person shall land apply, market, or distribute biosolids in Virginia unless the biosolids source has been approved by the department.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-450. Relationship to other regulations.

Disposal of sewage sludge in a municipal solid waste landfill unit that complies with the requirements in the Solid Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-81) constitutes compliance with § 405(d) of the CWA. Any person who prepares sewage sludge that is disposed in a municipal solid waste landfill unit shall ensure that the sewage sludge meets the requirements in 9VAC20-81 concerning the quality of materials disposed in a municipal solid waste landfill unit.

Statutory Authority

§§ 62.1-44.15 and 62.1-44.18 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the Clean Water Act, 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403 and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 26, eff. September 28, 2011.

9VAC25-31-460. Additional or more stringent requirements.

A. On a case-by-case basis, the department may impose requirements for the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge in addition to or more stringent than the requirements in this part when necessary to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effect of a pollutant in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

B. Nothing in this part precludes the authority of another state agency, any political subdivision of Virginia, or an interstate agency with respect to the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge.

C. For biosolids land application where, because of site-specific conditions, including soil type, identified during the permit application review process, the department determines that special requirements are necessary to protect the environment or the health, safety or welfare of persons residing in the vicinity of a proposed land application site, the department may incorporate in the permit at the time it is issued reasonable special conditions regarding setback distances, transportation routes, slope, material source, methods of handling and application, and time of day restrictions exceeding those required by this regulation. The permit applicant shall have at least 14 days in which to review and respond to the proposed conditions.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-470. Exclusions.

A. Treatment processes. This part does not establish requirements for processes used to treat domestic sewage or for processes used to treat sewage sludge prior to final use or disposal, except as provided in 9VAC25-31-710 and 9VAC25-31-720.

B. Selection of a use or disposal practice. This part does not require the selection of a sewage sludge use or disposal practice. The determination of the manner in which sewage sludge is used or disposed is a local determination.

C. Incineration of sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for sewage sludge fired in a sewage sludge incinerator or co-fired in an incinerator with other wastes or for the incinerator in which sewage sludge and other wastes are co-fired.

D. Sludge generated at an industrial facility. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sludge generated at an industrial facility during the treatment of industrial wastewater, including sewage sludge generated during the treatment of industrial wastewater combined with domestic sewage.

E. Hazardous sewage sludge. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge determined to be hazardous in accordance with 40 CFR Part 261 or the Code of Virginia.

F. Sewage sludge with high PCB concentration. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sewage sludge with a concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) equal to or greater than 50 milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis).

G. Incinerator ash. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator.

H. Grit and screenings. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of grit (e.g., sand, gravel, cinders, or other materials with a high specific gravity) or screenings (e.g., relatively large materials such as rags) generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

I. Drinking water treatment sludge. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of sludge generated during the treatment of either surface water or ground water used for drinking water.

J. Commercial and industrial septage. This part does not establish requirements for the use or disposal of commercial septage, industrial septage, a mixture of domestic septage and commercial septage, or a mixture of domestic septage and industrial septage.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 9, eff. February 15, 2002; Volume 28, Issue 10, eff. February 15, 2012.

9VAC25-31-475. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 5, eff. January 1, 2016.

9VAC25-31-480. Requirements for a person who prepares biosolids or sewage sludge.

A. Any person who prepares biosolids shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when biosolids is applied to the land.

B. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the applicable requirements in this part are met when the sewage sludge is placed on a surface disposal site.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-485. Requirements for a person who land apply biosolids.

A. No person shall land apply biosolids pursuant to a permit issued in accordance with this regulation unless an individual holding a valid certificate of competence as specified in the Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation, Article 5, Certification of Land Applicators, as set forth in 9VAC25-32-690 through 9VAC25-32-760, is onsite at all times during such land application.

B. When an application for a permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids is submitted to the department:

1. Permit holders shall use a DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying each land application field. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the site identification code used by the permit applicant to report activities and the site's location.

2. A written agreement shall be established between the landowner and permit applicant or permit holder to be submitted with the permit application, whereby the landowner shall consent to the application of biosolids on his property. The landowner agreement shall include:

a. A statement certifying that the landowner is the sole owner or one of multiple owners of the property or properties identified on the landowner agreements;

b. A statement certifying that no concurrent agreements are in effect for the fields to be permitted for biosolids application;

c. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee when land is sold or ownership transferred;

d. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee if any conditions change such that any component of the landowner agreement becomes invalid;

e. Permission to allow department staff on the landowner's property to conduct inspections;

f. An acknowledgement by the landowner of any site restrictions identified in the regulation;

g. An acknowledgement that the landowner has received a biosolids fact sheet approved by the department; and

h. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall not remove notification signs placed by the permit holder.

3. New landowner agreements, using the most current form provided by the department, shall be submitted to the department for proposed land application sites identified in each application for issuance or reissuance of a permit or the modification to add land to an existing permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids.

4. For permits modified in order to incorporate changes to this chapter, the permit holder shall, within 60 days of the effective date of the permit modification, advise the landowner by certified letter of the requirement to provide a new landowner agreement. The letter shall include instructions to the landowner for signing and returning the new landowner agreement and shall advise the landowner that the permit holder's receipt of such new landowner agreement is required prior to application of biosolids to the landowner's property.

5. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the permit holder.

C. The permit holder shall ensure that the landowner agreement is still valid at the time of land application.

D. Notification requirements.

1. At least 100 days prior to commencing the first land application of biosolids at a permitted site the permittee shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the chief executive officer or his designee for the local government where the site is located. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the biosolids to be applied to the site. This requirement may be satisfied by the department's notice to the local government at the time of receiving the permit application if all necessary information is included in the notice or by providing a list of all available permitted sites in the locality at least 100 days prior to commencing the application at any site on the list. If the site is located in more than one county, the notice shall be provided to all jurisdictions where the site is located.

2. At least 14 days prior to commencing land application of biosolids at a permitted site, the permit holder shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the sewage sludge to be applied to the site.

3. Not more than 24 hours prior to commencing land application activities, including delivery of biosolids at a permitted site, the permittee shall notify in writing the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. This notification shall include identification of the biosolids source and shall include only sites where land application activities will commence within 24 hours or where the biosolids will be staged within 24 hours.

E. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with requirements specified in Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation.

F. Posting signs.

1. At least five business days prior to delivery of biosolids for land application on any site permitted under this regulation, the permit holder shall post signs at the site that comply with this section, are visible and legible from the public right-of-way in both directions of travel, and conform to the specifications in this subsection. The sign shall remain in place for at least five business days after land application has been completed at the site. The permit holder shall not remove the signs until at least 30 days after land application has been completed at the site.

a. A sign shall be posted at or near the intersection of the public right-of-way and the main site access road or driveway to the site used by the biosolids transport vehicles.

b. If the field is located adjacent to a public right-of-way, at least one sign shall be posted along each public road frontage beside the field to be land applied.

c. The department may grant a waiver to the requirements in this section, or require alternative posting options due to extenuating circumstances or where requirements conflict with local government ordinances and other requirements regulating the use of signs.

2. Upon the posting of signs at a land application site prior to commencing land application, the permittee shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. Notification shall be delivered to the department within 24 hours of the posting of the signs. The notice shall include the following:

a. The name and telephone number of the permit holder, including the name of a representative knowledgeable of the permit;

b. Identification by tax map number and the DEQ control number for sites on which land application is to take place;

c. The name or title and telephone number of at least one individual designated by the permit holder to respond to questions and complaints related to the land application project if not the permit holder identified in subdivision a of this subdivision; and

d. The approximate dates on which land application is to begin and end at the site.

3. The sign shall be made of weather-resistant materials and shall be sturdily mounted so as to be capable of remaining in place and legible throughout the period that the sign is required at the site. Signs required by this section shall be temporary, nonilluminated, and four square feet or more in area, and only contain the following information:

a. A statement that biosolids are being land applied at the site;

b. The name of the permit holder;

c. The telephone number of an individual designated by the permit holder to respond to complaints and inquiries; and

d. Contact information for the department, including a telephone number for complaints and inquiries.

4. The permit holder shall make a good faith effort to replace or repair any sign that has been removed from a land application site or that has been damaged so as to render any of its required information illegible prior to five business days after completion of land application.

G. Biosolids management plan.

1. The permit holder shall maintain and implement a biosolids management plan, which shall consist of three components:

a. The materials, including site booklets, developed and submitted at the time of permit application or permit modification adding a site to the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-31-100 Q;

b. Nutrient management plan for each site, in accordance with 9VAC25-31-505; and

c. Operation and maintenance (O&M) manual, developed and submitted to the department within 90 days of the effective date of the permit.

2. The biosolids management plan and all of its components shall be incorporated as an enforceable part of the permit.

3. The O&M manual shall include at a minimum:

a. Equipment maintenance and calibration procedures and schedules;

b. Storage facility maintenance procedures and schedules;

c. Sampling schedules for:

(1) Required monitoring; and

(2) Operational control testing;

d. Sample collection, preservation and analysis procedures, including laboratories and methods used; and

e. Instructions for recording and reporting all monitoring activities.

4. Current VPDES permit holders who land apply biosolids may use their existing VPDES O&M plan addressing land application to satisfy the requirements of this section if the existing plan addresses all of the required minimum components identified in this section.

H. Handling of complaints.

1. Within 24 hours of receiving notification of a complaint, the permit holder shall commence investigation of the complaint and shall determine whether the complaint is substantive. The permit holder shall confirm receipt of all substantive complaints by phone, email, or facsimile to the department, the chief executive officer or designee for the local government of the jurisdiction in which the complaint originates, and the owner of the treatment facility from which the biosolids originated within 24 hours after receiving the complaint.

2. For the purposes of this section, a substantive complaint shall be deemed to be any complaint alleging a violation of these regulations, state law, or local ordinance; a release of biosolids to state waters or to a public right-of-way or to any location not authorized in the permit; or failure to comply with the nutrient management plan for the land application site.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-490. Sampling and analysis.

A. Representative samples of biosolids that is applied to the land, or placed on a surface disposal site shall be collected and analyzed.

B. Methods in the materials listed below or in 40 CFR Part 136 shall be used to analyze samples of biosolids and calculation procedures in the materials shall be used to calculate the percent volatile solids reduction for biosolids.

1. Enteric viruses.

ASTM Designation: D 4994-89, "Standard Practice for Recovery of Viruses From Wastewater Sludges," Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Section 11 - Water and Environmental Technology, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA., 1992.

2. Fecal coliform.

Part 9221 E. or Part 9222 D., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992.

3. Helminth ova.

Yanko, W.A., "Occurrence of Pathogens in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges," EPA 600/1-87-014, 1987. PB 88-154273/AS, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.

4. Inorganic pollutants.

"Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods," EPA Publication SW-846, Third Edition as amended by Final Updates I, II, IIA, IIB, III, IIIA, IIIB, IVA and IVB. PB88-239223, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.

5. Salmonella sp. bacteria.

Part 9260 D., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992; or

Kenner, B.A. and H.P. Clark, "Detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa," J. Water Pollution Control Federation, 46(9):2163-2171, 1974.

6. Specific oxygen uptake rate.

Part 2710 B., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992.

7. Total, fixed, and volatile solids.

Part 2540 G., "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater," 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1992.

8. Percent volatile solids reduction calculation.

"Environmental Regulations and Technology - Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage Sludge," EPA-625/R-92/013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, Revised July 2003.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 28, Issue 10, eff. February 15, 2012; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-500. Definitions.

In addition to the definitions given in Part I (9VAC25-31-10 et seq.) of this chapter, the following definitions apply to Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter. Where the same term is defined in both parts, the definition of Part VI of this chapter applies to the use of the term in Part VI of this chapter.

"Active sewage sludge unit" means a sewage sludge unit that has not closed.

"Aerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.

"Agricultural land" means land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land and land used as pasture.

"Agronomic rate" means the whole sludge application rate (dry weight basis) designed: (i) to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, cover crop, or vegetation grown on the land and (ii) to minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the groundwater.

"Anaerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.

"Annual pollutant loading rate " or "APLR" means the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Annual whole sludge application rate" or "AWSAR" means the maximum amount of biosolids (dry weight basis) that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Apply biosolids" or "biosolids applied to the land" means land application of biosolids.

"Aquifer" means a geologic formation, group of geologic formations, or a portion of a geologic formation capable of yielding groundwater to wells or springs.

"Base flood" means a flood that has a one percent chance of occurring in any given year (i.e., a flood with a magnitude equaled once in 100 years).

"Bulk biosolids" means biosolids that are not sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

"Class I sludge management facility" means any publicly owned treatment works (POTW) required to have an approved pretreatment program under this chapter and any treatment works treating domestic sewage classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the department because of the potential for its biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practice to affect public health and the environment adversely.

"Contaminate an aquifer" means to introduce a substance that causes the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in the Virginia Water Quality Standards or in 40 CFR 141.62(b) to be exceeded in groundwater or that causes the existing concentration of nitrate in groundwater to increase when the existing concentration of nitrate in the groundwater exceeds the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in the Virginia Water Quality Standards or 40 CFR 141.62(b).

"Cover" means soil or other material used to cover sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

"Cumulative pollutant loading rate" means the maximum amount of an inorganic pollutant that can be applied to an area of land.

"Density of microorganisms" means the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Displacement" means the relative movement of any two sides of a fault measured in any direction.

"Domestic septage" means either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.

"Domestic sewage" means waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids and expressed in units of English tons.

"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge or biosolids after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as percent solids.

"Dry weight basis" means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105°C until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100% solids content).

"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.

"Fault" means a fracture or zone of fractures in any materials along which strata on one side are displaced with respect to strata on the other side.

"Feed crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.

"Fiber crops" means crops such as flax and cotton.

"Field" means an area of land within a site where land application is proposed or permitted.

"Final cover" means the last layer of soil or other material placed on a sewage sludge unit at closure.

"Food crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.

"Forest" means a tract of land thick with trees and underbrush.

"Groundwater" means water below the land surface in the saturated zone.

"Holocene time" means the most recent epoch of the Quaternary period, extending from the end of the Pleistocene epoch to the present.

"Industrial wastewater" means wastewater generated in a commercial or industrial process.

"Land application" means in regard to biosolids, the distribution of biosolids by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing the crops and vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this chapter are not to be considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this chapter, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback distances, where the biosolids may be applied.

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this chapter and 9VAC25-32-690 through 9VAC25-32-760.

"Land with a high potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g., a construction site located in a city).

"Land with a low potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).

"Leachate collection system" means a system or device installed immediately above a liner that is designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to collect and remove leachate from a sewage sludge unit.

"Liner" means soil or synthetic material that has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 X 10-7 centimeters per second or less.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by a local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Lower explosive limit for methane gas" means the lowest percentage of methane gas in air, by volume that propagates a flame at 25°C and atmospheric pressure.

"Monthly average" means the arithmetic mean of all measurements taken during the month.

"Municipality" means a city, town, county, district, association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal Agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under state law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge management; or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under state law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity, or an integrated waste management facility as defined in § 201(e) of the CWA, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Odor sensitive receptor" means, in the context of land application of biosolids, any health care facility, such as hospitals, convalescent homes, etc. or a building or outdoor facility regularly used to host or serve large groups of people such as schools, dormitories, or athletic and other recreational facilities.

"Other container" means either an open or closed receptacle. This includes, but is not limited to, a bucket, a box, a carton, and a vehicle or trailer with a load capacity of one metric ton or less.

"Pasture" means land on which animals feed directly on feed crops such as legumes, grasses, grain stubble, or stover.

"Pathogenic organisms" means disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.

"Person who prepares biosolids" means either the person who generates biosolids during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person who derives a material from sewage sludge.

"pH" means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25° Celsius or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25° Celsius.

"Place sewage sludge or sewage sludge placed" means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.

"Pollutant" means an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the department, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.

"Pollutant limit" means a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of biosolids (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids); the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare); or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).

"Public contact site" means land with a high potential for contact by the public. This includes, but is not limited to, public parks, ball fields, cemeteries, and golf courses.

"Qualified groundwater scientist" means an individual with a baccalaureate or post-graduate degree in the natural sciences or engineering who has sufficient training and experience in groundwater hydrology and related fields, as may be demonstrated by state registration, professional certification, or completion of accredited university programs, to make sound professional judgments regarding groundwater monitoring, pollutant fate and transport, and corrective action.

"Range land" means open land with indigenous vegetation.

"Reclamation site" means drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using biosolids. This includes, but is not limited to, strip mines and construction sites.

"Run-off" means rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.

"Seismic impact zone" means an area that has a 10% or greater probability that the horizontal ground level acceleration of the rock in the area exceeds 0.10 gravity once in 250 years.

"Sewage sludge" means solid, semi-solid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

"Sewage sludge unit" means land on which only sewage sludge is placed for final disposal. This does not include land on which sewage sludge is either stored or treated. Land does not include surface waters.

"Sewage sludge unit boundary" means the outermost perimeter of an active sewage sludge unit.

"Site" means the area of land within a defined boundary where an activity is proposed or permitted.

"Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR)" means the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per unit mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.

"Store or storage of sewage sludge" means the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.

"Surface disposal site" means an area of land that contains one or more active sewage sludge units.

"Total solids" means the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried at 103°C to 105°C.

"Treat or treatment of sewage sludge" means the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.

"Treatment works" means either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature.

"Unstable area" means land subject to natural or human-induced forces that may damage the structural components of an active sewage sludge unit. This includes, but is not limited to, land on which the soils are subject to mass movement.

"Unstabilized solids" means organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.

"Use" means to manage or recycle a processed waste product in a manner so as to derive a measurable benefit as a result of such management.

"Vector attraction" means the characteristic of biosolids or sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.

"Volatile solids" means the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550°C in the presence of excess air.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 18, Issue 9, eff. February 15, 2002; Volume 28, Issue 10, eff. February 15, 2012; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

Article 2
Biosolids Applied to the Land

9VAC25-31-505. Universal requirements for land application operations.

A. A nutrient management plan prepared by a person who is certified as a nutrient management planner by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be developed for all application sites prior to biosolids land application.

1. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be required for application sites prior to department authorization under specific conditions, including but not limited to:

a. Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

b. Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;

c. Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; and

d. Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

e. Where conditions at the land application site change so that it meets one or more of the specific conditions identified in this section, an approved nutrient management plan shall be submitted prior to any future land application at the site.

2. The nutrient management plan shall be available for review by the department at the land application site during biosolids land application.

3. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the nutrient management plan to the farm operator of the site, the Department of Conservation and Recreation, and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government unless they request in writing not to receive the nutrient management plan.

4. The nutrient management plan must be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to land application for land application sites where the soil test phosphorus levels exceed the values in Table 1 of this section. For purposes of approval, permittees should submit the nutrient management plan to the Department of Conservation and Recreation at least 30 days prior to the anticipated date of land application to ensure adequate time for the approval process.

TABLE 1

SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS REQUIRING NMP APPROVAL

Region

Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Test (Mehlich I)*

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain

135

Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont

136

Ridge and Valley

162

*If results are from another laboratory, the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used.

B. Sewage sludge shall be treated to meet standards for land application of biosolids as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter prior to delivery at the land application site. No person shall alter the composition of biosolids at a site approved for land application of biosolids under a VPDES permit. Any person who engages in the alteration of such biosolids shall be subject to the penalties provided in Article 6 (§ 62.1-44.31 et seq.) of Chapter 3.1 of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. The addition of lime or deodorants to biosolids that have been treated to meet standards for land application as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter, shall not constitute alteration of the composition of biosolids. The department may authorize public institutions of higher education to conduct scientific research on the composition of biosolids that may be applied to land.

C. Bulk biosolids meeting Class B pathogen reduction standards shall be land applied in accordance with the Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation, Article 3, Biosolids Use Standards and Practices, set forth in 9VAC25-32-490 through 9VAC25-32-580.

D. Surface incorporation may be required on cropland by the department, or the local monitor with approval of the department, to mitigate malodors, when incorporation is practicable and compatible with a soil conservation plan or contract meeting the standards and specifications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.

E. For applications where surface applied biosolids are not incorporated, the department (or the local monitor with approval of the department) may require as a site-specific permit condition, extended setback distances when necessary to protect odor sensitive receptors.

F. No person shall apply to the Department of Environmental Quality for a permit, a variance, or a permit modification authorizing storage of sewage sludge or biosolids without first complying with all requirements adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 R of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-510. Applicability; bulk biosolids; biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

A. This article applies to any person who prepares biosolids that is applied to the land, to any person who applies biosolids to the land, to biosolids applied to the land, and to the land on which biosolids is applied.

B. General requirements for bulk biosolids.

1. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when bulk biosolids is applied to the land if the bulk biosolids meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

2. The department may apply any or all of the general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 to the bulk biosolids in subdivision 1 of this subsection on a case-by-case basis after determining that the general requirements or management practices are needed to protect public health and the environment from any reasonably anticipated adverse effect that may occur from any pollutant in the bulk biosolids.

C. General requirements for bulk material derived from biosolids.

1. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when a bulk material derived from biosolids is applied to the land if the derived bulk material meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

2. The department may apply any or all of the general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 or the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 to the bulk material in subdivision 1 of this subsection on a case-by-case basis after determining that the general requirements or management practices are needed to protect public health and the environment from any reasonably anticipated adverse effect that may occur from any pollutant in the bulk biosolids.

D. The requirements in this article do not apply when a bulk material derived from biosolids is applied to the land if the biosolids from which the bulk material is derived meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

E. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

F. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when a material derived from biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the derived material meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

G. The requirements in this article do not apply when a material derived from biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the biosolids from which the material is derived meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-520. [Reserved]. (Reserved)

9VAC25-31-530. General requirements.

A. No person shall apply biosolids to the land except in accordance with the requirements in this article.

B. No person shall apply bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site if any of the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been reached.

C. No person shall apply domestic septage to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site during a 365-day period if the annual application rate in 9VAC25-31-540 C has been reached during that period.

D. The person who prepares bulk biosolids that is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site shall provide the person who applies the bulk biosolids written notification of the concentration of total nitrogen (as N on a dry weight basis) in the bulk biosolids.

E. Application of biosolids to the land.

1. The person who applies biosolids to the land shall obtain information needed to comply with the requirements in this subpart.

2. Before bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 is applied to the land;

a. The person who proposes to apply the bulk biosolids shall contact the department to determine whether bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993.

b. If bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has not been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, the cumulative amount for each pollutant listed in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-540 may be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a.

c. If bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, and the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site in the bulk biosolids since that date is known, the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site shall be used to determine the additional amount of each pollutant that can be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a.

d. If bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993, and the cumulative amount of each pollutant applied to the site in the bulk biosolids since that date is not known, an additional amount of each pollutant shall not be applied to the site in accordance with 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a.

F. When a person who prepares bulk biosolids provides the bulk biosolids to a person who applies the bulk biosolids to the land, the person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall provide the person who applies the biosolids notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

G. When a person who prepares biosolids provides the biosolids to another person who prepares the biosolids, the person who provides the biosolids shall provide the person who receives the biosolids notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

H. The person who applies bulk biosolids to the land shall provide the owner or lease holder of the land on which the bulk biosolids is applied notice and necessary information to comply with the requirements in this article.

I. Any person who prepares bulk biosolids in another state that is applied to land in Virginia shall provide written notice to the department prior to the initial application of bulk biosolids to the land application site by the applier. The notice shall include:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each land application site;

2. The approximate time period bulk biosolids will be applied to the site;

3. The name, address, telephone number, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) for the person who prepares the bulk biosolids; and

4. The name, address, telephone number, and National (or Virginia) Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) for the person who will apply the bulk biosolids.

J. Any person who applies bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B 2 to the land shall provide written notice, prior to the initial application of bulk biosolids to a land application site by the applier, to the department and the department shall retain and provide access to the notice. The notice shall include:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of the land application site; and

2. The name, address, telephone number, and Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number (if appropriate) of the person who will apply the bulk biosolids.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-540. Pollutant limits.

A. Biosolids.

1. Bulk biosolids or biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall not be applied to the land if the concentration of any pollutant in the biosolids exceeds the ceiling concentration for the pollutant in Table 1 of this section.

2. If bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, either:

a. The cumulative loading rate for each pollutant shall not exceed the cumulative pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 2 of this section; or

b. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 3 of this section.

3. If bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden, the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 3 of this section.

4. If biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, either:

a. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 3 of this section; or

b. The product of the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids and the annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids shall not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section to be exceeded. The procedure used to determine the annual whole sludge application rate is presented in subsection D of this section.

B. Pollutant concentrations and loading rates - biosolids.

TABLE 1
CEILING CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Ceiling Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

75

Cadmium

85

Copper

4,300

Lead

840

Mercury

57

Molybdenum

75

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

7,500

*Dry weight basis

TABLE 2
CUMULATIVE POLLUTANT LOADING RATES(1)

Pollutant

Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate

(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic(2)

41

36

Cadmium

39

35

Copper

1,500

1,340

Lead

300

270

Mercury

17

16

Molybdenum(2)

Nickel

420

375

Selenium

100

89

Zinc

2,800

2,500

Notes:

(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application rate is currently under study by the USEPA. Research suggests that for Molybdenum a cumulative pollutant loading rate below 40 kg/hectare may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals.

TABLE 3
POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Monthly Average Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

41

Cadmium

39

Copper

1,500

Lead

300

Mercury

17

Molybdenum(1)

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

2,800

*Dry weight basis

Note:

(1)The monthly average concentration is currently under study by the USEPA. Research suggests that a monthly average Molybdenum concentration below 40 mg/kg may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals.

TABLE 4
ANNUAL POLLUTANT LOADING RATES

Pollutant

Annual Pollutant Loading Rate(1)

(per 365-day period)


(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic

2.0

1.8

Cadmium

1.9

1.7

Copper

75

67

Lead

15

13

Mercury

0.85

0.76

Molybdenum(2)

Nickel

21

19

Selenium

5.0

4.6

Zinc

140

125

Notes:

(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soils mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application rate is currently under study by the USEPA.

C. Domestic septage. The annual application rate for domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site shall not exceed the annual application rate calculated using equation (1).

EQUATION (1)

AAR = N/0.0026

AAR = Annual application rate in gallons per acre per 365-day period.

N = Amount of nitrogen in pounds per acre per 365-day period needed by the crop or vegetation grown on the land.

D. Procedures to determine the annual whole sludge application rate for biosolids. 9VAC25-31-540 A 4 b requires that the product of the concentration for each pollutant listed in Table 4 of this section in biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land and the AWSAR for the biosolids not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 4 to be exceeded. This section contains the procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 4 of this section to be exceeded.

1. The relationship between the APLR for a pollutant and the AWSAR for a biosolids is shown in equation (2).

EQUATION (2)

APLR = C x AWSAR x 0.001

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

0.001 = A conversion factor

2. To determine the AWSAR, equation (2) is rearranged into equation (3):

EQUATION (3)

AWSAR = APLR/(C x 0.001)

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

0.001 = A conversion factor

3. The procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids is presented below.

a. Analyze a sample of the biosolids to determine the concentration for each of the pollutants listed in Table 4 of this section in the biosolids.

b. Using the pollutant concentrations from Step 1 and the APLRs from Table 4 of this section, calculate an AWSAR for each pollutant using equation (3) above.

c. The AWSAR for the biosolids is the lowest AWSAR calculated in Step 2.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-543. Soils monitoring.

A. Soil shall be sampled and analyzed prior to biosolids application to determine site suitability and to provide background data. No sample analysis used to determine application rates shall be more than three years old at the time of biosolids land application. Soil shall be sampled and analyzed in accordance with Table 1 of this section. Reduced monitoring may also apply to one-time biosolids applications to forest or reclaimed lands. For background analysis, random composite soil samples from the zone of incorporation are required for infrequent applications and frequent applications at less than agronomic rates (total less than 15 dry tons per acre).

TABLE 1
SOIL TEST PARAMETERS FOR LAND APPLICATION SITES1

Parameter

Soil pH (Std. Units)

Available phosphorus (ppm)2

Extractable potassium (ppm)

Extractable sodium (mg/100g)3

Extractable calcium (mg/100g)

Extractable magnesium (mg/100g)

Zinc (ppm)

Manganese (ppm)

1Note: Unless otherwise stated, analyses shall be reported on a dry weight basis.

2Available P shall be analyzed using one of the following methods: Mehlich I or Mehlich III.

3Extractable sodium shall be analyzed only where biosolids known to be high in sodium will be land applied.

B. The department reserves the right to require the permit holder to conduct additional soil monitoring including, but not limited to, additional parameters, based on site-specific history or conditions.

C. Samples shall be collected in accordance with § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-547. Groundwater monitoring.

A. Monitoring wells may be required by the department for land treatment sites, sludge lagoons, biosolids land application sites, or biosolids storage facilities to monitor groundwater quality.

B. If groundwater monitoring is required, a groundwater monitoring plan shall be submitted to the department for approval that includes at a minimum:

1. Geologic and hydrologic conditions at the site;

2. Monitoring well design, placement, and construction;

3. Sampling frequency;

4. Sampling procedures, including quality assurance and quality control; and

5. Collection of background samples.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-550. Management practices.

A. All biosolids land application activities shall comply with the operational requirements of Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of 9VAC25-32 (Biosolids Program of the VPA Permit Regulation).

B. Bulk biosolids shall not be applied to the land if it is likely to adversely affect a threatened or endangered species listed in 9VAC25-260-320 or § 4 of the Endangered Species Act (16 USC § 1533) or if the land application is likely to adversely affect its designated critical habitat.

C. Bulk biosolids shall not be applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site that is flooded, frozen, or snow-covered so that the bulk biosolids enters a wetland or other surface waters except as provided in a VPDES permit or a permit issued pursuant to § 404 of the CWA.

D. Bulk biosolids shall not be applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site that is 10 meters or less from surface waters, unless otherwise specified by the department.

E. Bulk biosolids shall be applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site at a whole sludge application rate that is equal to or less than the agronomic rate for the bulk biosolids, unless, in the case of a reclamation site, otherwise specified by the department.

F. Either a label shall be affixed to the bag or other container in which biosolids that is sold or given away for application to the land, or an information sheet shall be provided to the person who receives biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land. The label or information sheet shall contain the following information:

1. The name and address of the person who prepared the biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land;

2. A statement that application of the biosolids to the land is prohibited except in accordance with the instructions on the label or information sheet; and

3. The annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids that does not cause any of the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 4 of 9VAC25-31-540 to be exceeded.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-560. Operational standards, pathogens, and vector attraction reduction.

A. Pathogens - biosolids.

1. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A or the Class B pathogen requirements and site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-720 B shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

B. Pathogens - domestic septage. The requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 C shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

C. Vector attraction reduction - biosolids.

1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 10 shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

D. Vector attraction reduction - domestic septage. The vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9, B 10, or B 12 shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-570. Frequency of monitoring.

A. Biosolids.

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants listed in Tables 1 through 4 of 9VAC25-31-540; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and B 2 through B 4; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 4, B 7 and B 8 shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1
FREQUENCY OF MONITORING--LAND APPLICATION

Amount of biosolids*

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency

Greater than zero but less than 290

once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

once per quarter (four times a year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

once per month (12 times per year)

*Either the amount of bulk biosolids applied to the land or the amount of biosolids prepared for sale or give-away in a bag or other container for application to the land (dry weight basis).

2. After the biosolids has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the department may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A 5 b and c.

B. Domestic septage. If either the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 C 2 or the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 are met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, each container of domestic septage applied to the land shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-580. Recordkeeping.

A. Biosolids.

1. The person who prepares the biosolids in 9VAC25-31-510 B 1 or E shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the biosolids;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met.

2. The person who derives the material in 9VAC25-31-510 C 1 or in 9VAC25-31-510 F shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the material;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met.

3. If the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied; and

(3) A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied.

4. If the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3 and the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify under, penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(3) A description of how the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B are met; and

(4) When one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550, the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(3) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(4) When the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met; and

(5) The date bulk biosolids is applied to each site.

5. If the requirements in 9VAC25-31-540 A 2 a are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-31-710 A or B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-31-710 A or B are met; and

(4) When one of the vector attraction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information, retain the information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 5 b (1) through b (7) indefinitely, and retain the information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 5 b (8) through b (13) for five years:

(1) The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(2) The number of hectares in each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(3) The date bulk biosolids is applied to each site;

(4) The cumulative amount of each pollutant (i.e., kilograms) listed in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the bulk biosolids applied to each site, including the amount in 9VAC25-31-530 E 2 c;

(5) The amount of biosolids (i.e., metric tons) applied to each site;

(6) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-31-530 E 2 was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(7) A description of how the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-31-530 E 2 are met;

(8) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(9) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(10) The following certification statement when the bulk biosolids meets the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5 was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(11) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-31-710 B 5 are met for each site on which Class B bulk biosolids is applied;

(12) The following certification statement when the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 is met:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(13) If the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or B 10 are met, a description of how the requirements are met.

6. If the requirements in 9VAC25-31-540 A 4 b are met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, the person who prepares the biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 4 of 9VAC25-31-540 to be exceeded;

b. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 4 of 9VAC25-31-540 in the biosolids;

c. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practice in 9VAC25-31-550 E, the Class A pathogen requirement in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

d. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A are met; and

e. A description of how one of the vector attraction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met.

B. Domestic septage. When domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, the person who applies the domestic septage shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which domestic septage is applied;

2. The number of acres in each site on which domestic septage is applied;

3. The date domestic septage is applied to each site;

4. The nitrogen and phosphorus requirement for the crop or vegetation grown on each site during a 365-day period;

5. The rate, in gallons per acre per 365-day period, at which domestic septage is applied to each site;

6. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-31-710 C 1 or 2) and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert 9VAC25-31-720 B 9, 10, or 12) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

7. A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-31-710 C 1 or 2 are met; and

8. A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9, 10, or 12 are met.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-590. Reporting.

A. Class I sludge management facilities, POTWs with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, and POTWs that serve 10,000 people or more shall submit the following information to the department:

1. The information in 9VAC25-31-580 A, except the information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 3 b, 4 b and 5 b, for the appropriate requirements on February 19 of each year for the previous calendar year's activity; and

2. The information in 9VAC25-31-580 A 5 b (1) through (7) on February 19 of each year for the previous calendar year's activity when 90% or more of any of the cumulative pollutant loading rates in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-540 is reached at a land application site.

B. An activity report shall be submitted (electronically or postmarked) to the department by the 15th of each month for land application activity that occurred in the previous calendar month, unless another date is specified in the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-80 I 4. The report shall indicate those sites where land application activities took place during the previous month. If no land application occurs under a permit during the calendar month, a report shall be submitted stating that no land application occurred.

C. Records shall be maintained documenting the required treatment and quality characteristics and the maximum allowable land application loading rates established for biosolids use. In addition, operational monitoring results shall verify that required sludge treatment has achieved the specified levels of pathogen control and vector attraction reductions (9VAC25-31-710 and 9VAC25-31-720). Adequate records of biosolids composition, treatment classification, and biosolids application rates and methods of application for each site shall be maintained by the generator and owner.

D. The generator and owner shall maintain the records for a minimum period of five years. Sites receiving frequent applications of biosolids that meet or exceed maximum cumulative constituent loadings and dedicated disposal sites should be properly referenced for future land transactions (Sludge Disposal Site Dedication Form).

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

Article 3
Surface Disposal

9VAC25-31-600. Applicability.

Article 3
Surface Disposal

A. This article applies to any person who prepares sewage sludge that is placed on a surface disposal site, to the owner/operator of a surface disposal site, to sewage sludge placed on a surface disposal site, and to a surface disposal site.

B. This article does not apply to sewage sludge stored on the land or to the land on which sewage sludge is stored. It also does not apply to sewage sludge that remains on the land for longer than two years when the person who prepares the sewage sludge demonstrates that the land on which the sewage sludge remains is not an active sewage sludge unit. The demonstration shall include the following information, which shall be retained by the person who prepares the sewage sludge for the period that the sewage sludge remains on the land:

1. The name and address of the person who prepares the sewage sludge;

2. The name and address of the person who either owns the land or leases the land;

3. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of the land;

4. An explanation of why sewage sludge needs to remain on the land for longer than two years prior to final use or disposal; and

5. The approximate time period when the sewage sludge will be used or disposed.

C. This article does not apply to sewage sludge treated on the land or to the land on which sewage sludge is treated.

Statutory Authority

§§ 62.1-44.15, 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.17, 62.1-44.18, and 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996.

9VAC25-31-610. [Reserved]. (Reserved)

9VAC25-31-620. General requirements.

A. No person shall place sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit unless the requirements in this article are met.

B. An active sewage sludge unit located within 60 meters of a fault that has displacement in Holocene time; located in an unstable area; or located in a wetland, except as provided in a permit issued pursuant to the law and § 402 or 404 of the CWA, shall close by March 22, 1994, unless, in the case of an active sewage sludge unit located within 60 meters of a fault that has displacement in Holocene time, otherwise specified by the department.

C. The owner/operator of an active sewage sludge unit shall submit a written closure and post closure plan to the department 180 days prior to the date that the active sewage sludge unit closes. The plan shall describe how the sewage sludge unit will be closed and, at a minimum, shall include:

1. A discussion of how the leachate collection system will be operated and maintained for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes if the sewage sludge unit has a liner and leachate collection system;

2. A description of the system used to monitor for methane gas in the air in any structures within the surface disposal site and in the air at the property line of the surface disposal site, as required in 9VAC25-31-640 J 2; and

3. A discussion of how public access to the surface disposal site will be restricted for three years after the last sewage sludge unit in the surface disposal site closes.

D. The owner of a surface disposal site shall provide written notification to the subsequent owner of the site that sewage sludge was placed on the land.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-630. Pollutant limits (other than domestic septage).

A. Active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system.

1. Except as provided in subdivision A 2 and subsection B of this section, the concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of this section in sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1.
POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS--ACTIVE SEWAGE SLUDGE UNIT WITHOUT A LINER AND LEACHATE COLLECTION

Pollutant Concentration

Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram*)

Arsenic

73

Chromium

600

Nickel

420

*Dry weight basis

2. Except as provided in subsection B of this section, the concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of this section in sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit whose boundary is less than 150 meters from the property line of the surface disposal site shall not exceed the concentration determined using the following procedure.

a. The actual distance from the active sewage sludge unit boundary to the property line of the surface disposal site shall be determined.

b. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 2 of this section in the sewage sludge shall not exceed the concentration in Table 2 of this section that corresponds to the actual distance in subdivision 2 a of this subsection.

TABLE 2--POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS
ACTIVE SEWAGE SLUDGE UNIT WITHOUT A LINER AND LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM THAT HAS A UNIT BOUNDARY TO PROPERTY LINE DISTANCE LESS THAN 150 METERS

Unit boundary to property line

Pollutant concentration*

Distance
(meters)

Arsenic
(mg/kg)

Chromium
(mg/kg)

Nickel
(mg/kg)

0 to less than 25

30

200

210

25 to less than 50

34

220

240

50 to less than 75

39

260

270

75 to less than 100

46

300

320

100 to less than 125

53

360

390

125 to less than 150

62

450

420

*Dry weight basis

B. Active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system - site-specific limits.

1. At the time of permit application, the owner/operator of a surface disposal site may request site-specific pollutant limits in accordance with subdivision B 2 of this section for an active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system when the existing values for site parameters specified by the department are different from the values for those parameters used to develop the pollutant limits in Table 1 of this section and when the department determines that site-specific pollutant limits are appropriate for the active sewage sludge unit.

2. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of this section in sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system shall not exceed either the concentration for the pollutant determined during a site-specific assessment, as specified by the department, or the existing concentration of the pollutant in the sewage sludge, whichever is lower.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-640. Management practices.

A. Sewage sludge shall not be placed on an active sewage sludge unit if it is likely to adversely affect a threatened or endangered species listed in 9VAC25-260-320 or § 4 of the Endangered Species Act (16 USC § 1533 et seq.) or its designated critical habitat.

B. An active sewage sludge unit shall not restrict the flow of a base flood.

C. When a surface disposal site is located in a seismic impact zone, an active sewage sludge unit shall be designed to withstand the maximum recorded horizontal ground level acceleration.

D. An active sewage sludge unit shall be located 60 meters or more from a fault that has displacement in Holocene time, unless otherwise specified by the department.

E. An active sewage sludge unit shall not be located in an unstable area.

F. An active sewage sludge unit shall not be located in a wetland, except as provided in a permit issued by the department.

G. 1. Run-off from an active sewage sludge unit shall be collected and shall be disposed in accordance with this chapter and any other applicable requirements.

2. The run-off collection system for an active sewage sludge unit shall have the capacity to handle run-off from a 24-hour, 25-year storm event.

H. The leachate collection system for an active sewage sludge unit that has a liner and leachate collection system shall be operated and maintained during the period the sewage sludge unit is active and for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes.

I. Leachate from an active sewage sludge unit that has a liner and leachate collection system shall be collected and shall be disposed in accordance with the applicable requirements during the period the sewage sludge unit is active and for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes.

J. When a cover is placed on an active sewage sludge unit, the concentration of methane gas in air in any structure within the surface disposal site shall not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit for methane gas during the period that the sewage sludge unit is active and the concentration of methane gas in air at the property line of the surface disposal site shall not exceed the lower explosive limit for methane gas during the period that the sewage sludge unit is active.

When a final cover is placed on a sewage sludge unit at closure, the concentration of methane gas in air in any structure within the surface disposal site shall not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit for methane gas for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes and the concentration of methane gas in air at the property line of the surface disposal site shall not exceed the lower explosive limit for methane gas for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes, unless otherwise specified by the department.

K. A food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop shall not be grown on an active sewage sludge unit unless the owner/operator of the surface disposal site demonstrates to the department that through management practices, public health and the environment are protected from any reasonably anticipated adverse effects of pollutants in sewage sludge when crops are grown.

L. Animals shall not be grazed on an active sewage sludge unit unless the owner/operator of the surface disposal site demonstrates to the department that through management practices, public health and the environment are protected from any reasonably anticipated adverse effects of pollutants in sewage sludge when animals are grazed.

M. Public access to a surface disposal site shall be restricted for the period that the surface disposal site contains an active sewage sludge unit and for three years after the last active sewage sludge unit in the surface disposal site closes.

N. Sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall not contaminate an aquifer. Results of a groundwater monitoring program developed by a qualified groundwater scientist or a certification by a qualified groundwater scientist shall be used to demonstrate that sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit does not contaminate an aquifer.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-650. Operational standards - pathogens and vector attraction reduction.

A. Pathogens-sewage sludge (other than domestic septage). The Class A pathogens requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A or one of the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B 2 through B 4 shall be met when sewage sludge is placed on an active sewage sludge unit, unless the vector attraction reduction requirement in 9VAC25-31-720 B 11 is met.

B. Vector attraction reduction - sewage sludge (other than domestic septage). One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 11 shall be met when sewage sludge is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

C. Vector attraction reduction - domestic septage. One of the vector attraction reduction requirement in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 through B 12 shall be met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

Statutory Authority

§§ 62.1-44.15, 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.17, 62.1-44.18, and 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996.

9VAC25-31-660. Frequency of monitoring.

A. Sewage sludge (other than domestic septage).

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants in Tables 1 and 2 of 9VAC25-31-630; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and in 9VAC25-31-710 B 2; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 4, B 7 and B 8 for sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1

FREQUENCY OF MONITORING--SURFACE DISPOSAL

Amount of sewage sludge*

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency

Greater than zero but less than 290

once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

once per quarter (four times per year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

once per month (12 times per year)

*Amount of sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit (dry weight basis).

2. After the sewage sludge has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the department may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A 5 b and c.

B. Domestic septage. If the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 are met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit, each container of domestic septage shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

C. Air. Air in structures within a surface disposal site and at the property line of the surface disposal site shall be monitored continuously for methane gas during the period that the surface disposal site contains an active sewage sludge unit on which the sewage sludge is covered and for three years after a sewage sludge unit closes when a final cover is placed on the sewage sludge.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-670. Recordkeeping.

A. When sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit:

1. The person who prepares the sewage sludge shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-630 in the sewage sludge when the pollutant concentrations in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-630 are met;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert 9VAC25-31-710 A, B 2, B 3, or B 4 when one of those requirements is met) and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 when one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, B 2, B 3, or B 4 are met when one of those requirements is met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8 is met when one of those requirements is met.

2. The owner/operator of the surface disposal site shall develop the following information and shall retain that information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-630 in the sewage sludge when the pollutant concentrations in Table 2 of 9VAC25-31-630 are met or when site-specific pollutant limits in 9VAC25-31-630 B are met;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-640 and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 through B 11, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-640 are met; and

d. A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 through B 11 are met, if one of those requirements is met.

B. When domestic septage is placed on a surface disposal site.

1. If the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 are met, the person who places the domestic septage on the surface disposal site shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment"; and

b. A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 are met.

2. The owner/operator of the surface disposal site shall develop the following information and shall retain that information for five years:

a. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-31-640 and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 through B 11 when one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine or imprisonment.";

b. A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-31-640 are met; and

c. A description how the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 through B 11 are met, if one of those requirements is met.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 (10) of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000.

9VAC25-31-680. Reporting.

Class I sludge management facilities, POTWs with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, and POTWs that serve 10,000 people or more shall submit the information in 9VAC25-31-670 A to the department on February 19 of each year for the previous year's activity.

Statutory Authority

§§ 62.1-44.15, 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.17, 62.1-44.18, and 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996.

Article 4
Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction

9VAC25-31-690. Scope.

Article 4
Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction

A. This article contains the requirements for biosolids to be classified either Class A or Class B with respect to pathogens.

B. This article contains the site restrictions for land on which a Class B biosolids is applied.

C. This article contains the pathogen requirements for domestic septage applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

D. This article contains alternative vector attraction reduction requirements for biosolids that is applied to the land or sewage sludge that is placed on a surface disposal site.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-31-700. [Reserved]. (Reserved)

9VAC25-31-710. Pathogens.

A. Biosolids - Class A.

1. The requirement in subdivision 2 of this subsection and the requirements in either subdivision 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of this subsection shall be met for a biosolids to be classified Class A with respect to pathogens.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in subdivisions 3 through 8 of this subsection shall be met either prior to meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720, except the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 6 through B 8, are met.

3. Class A - Alternative 1.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. The temperature of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be maintained at a specific value for a period of time.

(1) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 20 minutes or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1), except when small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid.

EQUATION (1)

D = 131,700,000/100.1400t

D = time in days

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

(2) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher and small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 15 seconds or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1).

(3) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0% and the time period is at least 15 seconds, but less than 30 minutes, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1).

(4) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0%; the temperature of the sewage sludge is 50°C or higher; and the time period is 30 minutes or longer, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2).

EQUATION (2)

D = 50,070,000/100.1400t

D = time in days

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

4. Class A - Alternative 2.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. (1) The pH of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be raised to above 12 and shall remain above 12 for 72 hours.

(2) The temperature of the sewage sludge shall be above 52°C for 12 hours or longer during the period that the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12.

(3) At the end of the 72-hour period during which the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12, the sewage sludge shall be air dried to achieve a percent solids in the sewage sludge greater than 50%.

5. Class A - Alternative 3.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. (1) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains enteric viruses.

(2) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(3) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the enteric virus density requirement are documented.

(4) After the enteric virus reduction in subdivision 5 b (3) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 b (3) of this subsection.

c. (1) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains viable helminth ova.

(2) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(3) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the viable helminth ova density requirement are documented.

(4) After the viable helminth ova reduction in subdivision 5 c (3) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 c (3) of this subsection.

6. Class A - Alternative 4.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. The density of enteric viruses in the biosolids shall be less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F, unless otherwise specified by the department.

c. The density of viable helminth ova in the biosolids shall be less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F unless otherwise specified by the department.

7. Class A - Alternative 5.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to further reduce pathogens described in subsection E of this section.

8. Class A - Alternative 6.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to further reduce pathogens, as determined by the department.

B. Biosolids - Class B.

1. The requirements in either subdivision 3, 4, or 5 of this subsection shall be met for a biosolids to be classified Class B with respect to pathogens.

2. The site restrictions in subdivision 6 of this subsection shall be met when biosolids that meets the Class B pathogen requirements in subdivision 3, 4, or 5 of this subsection is applied to the land.

3. Class B - Alternative 1.

a. Seven representative samples of the biosolids that is used or disposed shall be collected.

b. The geometric mean of the density of fecal coliform in the samples collected in subdivision 3 a of this subsection shall be less than either 2,000,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) or 2,000,000 Colony Forming Units per gram of total solids (dry weight basis).

4. Class B - Alternative 2. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to significantly reduce pathogens described in subsection D of this section.

5. Class B - Alternative 3. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to significantly reduce pathogens, as determined by the department.

6. Site restrictions.

a. Food crops with harvested parts that touch the biosolids/soil mixture and are totally above the land surface shall not be harvested for 14 months after application of biosolids.

b. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 20 months after application of biosolids when the biosolids remains on the land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil.

c. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 38 months after application of biosolids when the biosolids remains on the land surface for less than four months prior to incorporation into the soil.

d. Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops shall not be harvested for 30 days after application of biosolids.

e. Animals shall not be grazed on the land for 30 days after application of biosolids.

f. Turf grown on land where biosolids is applied shall not be harvested for one year after application of the biosolids when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn, unless otherwise specified by the department.

g. Public access to land with a high potential for public exposure shall be restricted for one year after application of biosolids.

h. Public access to land with a low potential for public exposure shall be restricted for 30 days after application of biosolids.

C. Domestic septage: The site restrictions in subdivision B 6 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

D. Processes to significantly reduce pathogens (PSRP).

1. Aerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 40 days at 20°C and 60 days at 15°C.

2. Air drying. Sewage sludge is dried on sand beds or on paved or unpaved basins. The sewage sludge dries for a minimum of three months. During two of the three months, the ambient average daily temperature is above 0°C.

3. Anaerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is treated in the absence of air for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 15 days at 35°C to 55°C and 60 days at 20°C.

4. Composting. Using either the within-vessel, static aerated pile, or windrow composting methods, the temperature of the sewage sludge is raised to 40°C or higher and remains at 40°C or higher for five days. For four hours during the five days, the temperature in the compost pile exceeds 55°C.

5. Lime stabilization. Sufficient lime is added to the sewage sludge to raise the pH of the sewage sludge to 12 after two hours of contact.

E. Processes to further reduce pathogens (PFRP).

1. Composting. Using either the within-vessel composting method or the static aerated pile composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for three days. Using the windrow composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for 15 days or longer. During the period when the compost is maintained at 55°C or higher, there shall be a minimum of five turnings of the windrow.

2. Heat drying. Sewage sludge is dried by direct or indirect contact with hot gases to reduce the moisture content of the sewage sludge to 10.0% or lower. Either the temperature of the sewage sludge particles exceeds 80°C or the wet bulb temperature of the gas in contact with the sewage sludge as the sewage sludge leaves the dryer exceeds 80°C.

3. Heat treatment. Liquid sewage sludge is heated to a temperature of 180°C or higher for 30 minutes.

4. Thermophilic aerobic digestion. Liquid sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions and the mean cell residence time of the sewage sludge is 10 days at 55°C to 60°C.

5. Beta ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with beta rays from an accelerator at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

6. Gamma ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with gamma rays from certain isotopes, such as Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137, at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

7. Pasteurization. The temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 70°C or higher for 30 minutes or longer.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

9VAC25-31-720. Vector attraction reduction.

A. Vector attraction reduction requirements:

1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 10 of this section shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

4. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 11 of this section shall be met when sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

5. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivision B 9, B 10, or B 12 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 9 through B 12 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

B. Vector attraction reduction options:

1. The mass of volatile solids in the sewage sludge shall be reduced by a minimum of 38%, calculated according to the method in 9VAC25-31-490 B 8.

2. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this subsection cannot be met for an anaerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge anaerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 40 additional days at a temperature between 30°C and 37°C. When at the end of the 40 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 17%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

3. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this section cannot be met for an aerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge that has a percent solids of 2.0% or less aerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 30 additional days at 20°C. When at the end of the 30 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 15%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

4. The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for sewage sludge treated in an aerobic process shall be equal to or less than 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) at a temperature of 20°C.

5. Sewage sludge shall be treated in an aerobic process for 14 days or longer. During that time, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 40°C and the average temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 45°C.

6. The pH of sewage sludge shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for two hours and then at 11.5 or higher for an additional 22 hours.

7. The percent solids of sewage sludge that does not contain unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 75% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

8. The percent solids of sewage sludge that contains unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 90% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

9. Sewage sludge injection requirements:

a. Sewage sludge shall be injected below the surface of the land.

b. No significant amount of the sewage sludge shall be present on the land surface within one hour after the sewage sludge is injected.

c. When the sewage sludge that is injected below the surface of the land is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be injected below the land surface within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

10. Sewage sludge incorporation requirements:

a. Sewage sludge applied to the land surface or placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be incorporated into the soil within six hours after application to or placement on the land, unless otherwise specified by the department.

b. When sewage sludge that is incorporated into the soil is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be applied to or placed on the land within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

11. Sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be covered with soil or other material at the end of each operating day.

12. The pH of domestic septage shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 16, Issue 25, eff. September 27, 2000; Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 39, Issue 4, eff. November 9, 2022.

Website addresses provided in the Virginia Administrative Code to documents incorporated by reference are for the reader's convenience only, may not necessarily be active or current, and should not be relied upon. To ensure the information incorporated by reference is accurate, the reader is encouraged to use the source document described in the regulation.

As a service to the public, the Virginia Administrative Code is provided online by the Virginia General Assembly. We are unable to answer legal questions or respond to requests for legal advice, including application of law to specific fact. To understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.