Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
Chapter 14. Virginia Business Trust Act
12/7/2021

§ 13.1-1219. Governing instrument.

A. A governing instrument of a business trust may:

1. Provide that a person shall become a beneficial owner and shall become bound by the governing instrument if such person, or a representative authorized by such person, orally, in writing, or by other action such as payment for a beneficial interest, complies with the conditions for becoming a beneficial owner set forth in the governing instrument or any other writing and acquires a beneficial interest;

2. Consist of one or more agreements, instruments, or other writings and may include or incorporate a declaration of trust or bylaws containing provisions relating to the business of the business trust, the conduct of its affairs, and its rights or powers or the rights or powers of its trustees, beneficial owners, agents, or employees; and

3. Contain any provision that is not inconsistent with law or with the information contained in the articles of trust.

B. A governing instrument may contain any provision relating to the management of the business and affairs of the business trust, and the rights, duties, and obligations of the trustees, beneficial owners, and other persons, that is not contrary to any provision or requirement of this chapter or the articles of trust and without limitation:

1. May provide for classes, groups, or series of trustees or beneficial owners, or classes, groups, or series of beneficial interests, having such relative rights, powers, and duties as the governing instrument may provide; and may make provision for the future creation in the manner provided in the governing instrument of additional classes, groups or series of trustees, beneficial owners, or beneficial interests, having the relative rights, powers, and duties as may from time to time be established, including rights, powers, and duties senior or subordinate to existing classes, groups, or series of trustees, beneficial owners, or beneficial interests;

2. May establish or provide for the establishment of designated series of trustees, beneficial owners, or beneficial interests having separate rights, powers, or duties with respect to specified property or obligations of the business trust or profits and losses associated with specified property or obligations and, to the extent provided in the governing instrument, any series may have a separate business purpose or investment objective;

3. May provide for the taking of any action, including the amendment of the articles of trust or governing instrument, the accomplishment of a merger or consolidation, the appointment of one or more trustees, the sale, lease, exchange, transfer, pledge, or other disposition of all or any part of the assets of the business trust or the assets of any series, or the dissolution of the business trust; or may provide for the taking of any action to create, under the provisions of the governing instrument, a class, group, or series of beneficial interests that was not previously outstanding, in any such case without the vote or approval of any particular trustee or beneficial owner, or class, group, or series of trustees or beneficial owners;

4. May grant to or withhold from all or certain trustees or beneficial owners, or a specified class, group, or series of trustees or beneficial owners, the right to vote, separately or with any or all other classes, groups, or series of trustees or beneficial owners, on any matter, such voting being on a per capita, number, financial interest, class, group, series, or any other basis;

5. May, if and to the extent that voting rights are granted under the governing instrument, set forth provisions relating to notice of the time, place, or purpose of any meeting at which any matter is to be voted on, method of giving such notice, waiver of any such notice, action by consent without a meeting, the establishment of record dates, quorum requirements, voting in person, by proxy or in any other manner, or any other matter with respect to the exercise of the right to vote;

6. May provide for the present or future creation of more than one business trust, including the creation of a future business trust to which all or any part of the assets, liabilities, profits, or losses of any existing business trust will be transferred, and for the conversion of beneficial interests in an existing business trust or series, into beneficial interests in the separate business trust or series;

7. May provide for the appointment, election, or engagement, either as agents or independent contractors of the business trust or as delegates of the trustees, of officers, employees, managers, or other persons who may manage the business and affairs of the business trust and may have the titles and the relative rights, powers, and duties as the governing instrument shall provide; and

8. May provide for restrictions on transfer of beneficial interests to maintain the business trust's status when it is dependent on the number or identity of its beneficial owners, to preserve exemptions under federal or state securities laws or for any other purpose.

2002, c. 621.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.