Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 45.2. Mines, Minerals, and Energy
Chapter 4. Presumptions Regarding Ownership
9/25/2021

§ 45.2-400. (Effective October 1, 2021) Presumption that no coal, minerals, ore, or oil exists in certain lands.

A. Subject to the provisions of subsection B, in any case in which either (i) a claim to coal, minerals, ore, oil, or subsurface substances in, on, or under lands in the Commonwealth or (ii) the right to enter such land for the purpose of exploring, mining, boring, and sinking shafts for such coal, minerals, ore, oil, or subsurface substances is derived or reserved by any writing made 35 years or more prior to the institution of the action pursuant to § 45.2-401, it shall be prima facie presumed that no coal, minerals, ore, oil, or subsurface substances exist in, on, or under such lands, except lands lying west of the Blue Ridge Mountains.

B. The provisions of subsection A shall apply only if (i) for a period of 35 years or more, such right to explore or mine has not been exercised, the person having such claim or right has never been charged with taxes thereon, all the taxes on the land have been charged to and paid by the person holding the land subject to such right to explore or mine, and no deed of bargain and sale of such claim or reservation in such mineral rights in the lands embraced in such claim has been recorded in the clerk's office of the county wherein the lands are located or (ii) the right to explore and mine has been exercised, the coal, minerals, ore, oil, or subsurface substances in or on the land have been exhausted, and the right of mining or boring has been abandoned for a period of 35 years or more.

1924, p. 719; 1930, p. 721; Michie Code 1942, § 6239a; 1944, p. 48; Code 1950, § 55-154; 1956, c. 642; 1964, c. 377; 1968, c. 319; 1970, c. 350; 1972, c. 306; 1973, c. 123; 1974, c. 238; 1977, c. 309; 1980, c. 310; 1981, c. 518; 1984, c. 452; 2019, c. 712, § 45.1-161.311:9; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 387.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.