Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.01. Civil Remedies and Procedure
Chapter 20. Attachments and Bail in Civil Cases

§ 8.01-534. Grounds of action for pretrial levy or seizure of attachment.

A. It shall be sufficient ground for an action for pretrial levy or seizure or an attachment that the principal defendant or one of the principal defendants:

1. Is a foreign corporation, or is not a resident of this Commonwealth, and has estate or has debts owing to such defendant within the county or city in which the attachment is, or that such defendant being a nonresident of this Commonwealth, is entitled to the benefit of any lien, legal or equitable, on property, real or personal, within the county or city in which the attachment is. The word "estate," as herein used, includes all rights or interests of a pecuniary nature which can be protected, enforced, or proceeded against in courts of law or equity;

2. Is removing or is about to remove himself out of this Commonwealth with intent to change his domicile;

3. Intends to remove, or is removing, or has removed the specific property sued for, or his own estate, or the proceeds of the sale of his property, or a material part of such estate or proceeds, out of this Commonwealth so that there will probably not be therein effects of such debtor sufficient to satisfy the claim when judgment is obtained therefor should only the ordinary process of law be used to obtain the judgment;

4. Is converting, is about to convert or has converted his property of whatever kind, or some part thereof, into money, securities or evidences of debt with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud his creditors;

5. Has assigned or disposed of or is about to assign or dispose of his estate, or some part thereof, with intent to hinder, delay or defraud his creditors;

6. Has absconded or is about to abscond or has concealed or is about to conceal himself or his property to the injury of his creditors, or is a fugitive from justice;

7. Has conducted, financed, managed, supervised, directed, sold, or owned a gambling device that is located in an unregulated location pursuant to § 18.2-331.1;

8. Has violated any provision of law related to charitable gaming pursuant to Article 1.1:1 (§ 18.2-340.15 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of Title 18.2.

The intent mentioned in subdivisions 4 and 5 may be stated either in the alternative or conjunctive.

B. It shall be sufficient ground for an action for pretrial levy or seizure or an attachment if the specific personal property sought to be levied or seized:

1. Will be sold, removed, secreted or otherwise disposed of by the defendant, in violation of an obligation to the plaintiff, so as not to be forthcoming to answer the final judgment of the court respecting the same; or

2. Will be destroyed, or materially damaged or injured if permitted to remain in the possession of the principal defendant or one of the principal defendants or other person or persons claiming under them.

C. In an action for rent, it also shall be a sufficient ground if there is an immediate danger that the property subject to the landlord's lien for rent will be destroyed or concealed.

Code 1950, § 8-520; 1954, c. 333; 1977, c. 617; 1993, c. 841; 2022, c. 553.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.