Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances [Effective October 1, 2019]
Chapter 19. Virginia Condominium Act
10/16/2019

§ 55.1-1937. (Effective October 1, 2019) Termination of condominium.

A. If there is no unit owner other than the declarant, the declarant may unilaterally terminate the condominium. An instrument terminating a condominium signed by the declarant is effective upon recordation of such instrument. But this section shall not be construed to nullify, limit, or otherwise affect the validity or enforceability of any agreement renouncing or to renounce, in whole or in part, the right hereby conferred.

B. Except in the case of a taking of all the units by eminent domain, if any of the units in the condominium is restricted exclusively to residential use and there is any unit owner other than the declarant, the condominium may be terminated only by the agreement of unit owners of units to which four-fifths of the votes in the unit owners' association appertain, or such larger majority as the condominium instruments may specify. If none of the units in the condominium is restricted exclusively to residential use, the condominium instruments may specify a majority smaller than the minimum specified in this subsection.

C. Agreement of the required majority of unit owners to termination of the condominium shall be evidenced by their execution of a termination agreement, or ratifications of such agreement, and such agreement is effective when a copy of the termination agreement is recorded together with a certification, signed by the principal officer of the unit owners' association or by such other officer as the condominium instruments may specify, that the requisite majority of the unit owners signed the termination agreement or ratifications. Unless the termination agreement otherwise provides, prior to recordation of the termination agreement, a unit owner's prior agreement to terminate the condominium may be revoked only with the approval of unit owners of units to which a majority of the votes in the unit owners' association appertain. The termination agreement shall specify a date after which the termination agreement is void if the termination agreement is not recorded. For the purposes of this section, an instrument terminating a condominium and any ratification of such instrument shall be deemed a condominium instrument subject to the provisions of § 55.1-1911.

D. In the case of a condominium that contains only units having horizontal boundaries described in the condominium instruments, a termination agreement may provide that all of the common elements and units of the condominium shall be sold following termination. If, pursuant to the termination agreement, any property in the condominium is sold following termination, the termination agreement shall set forth the minimum terms of the sale.

E. In the case of a condominium that contains any units not having horizontal boundaries described in the condominium instruments, a termination agreement may provide for sale of the common elements. The termination agreement may not require that the units be sold following termination, unless the condominium instruments as originally recorded provide otherwise or all the unit owners consent to the sale. In the case of a master condominium that contains a unit that is a part of another condominium, a termination agreement for the master condominium shall not terminate the other condominium.

F. On behalf of the unit owners, the unit owners' association may contract for the disposition of property in the condominium, but the contract shall not be binding on the unit owners until approved pursuant to subsections B and C. If the termination agreement requires that any property in the condominium be sold following termination, title to the property, upon termination, shall vest in the unit owners' association as trustee for the holders of all interest in the units. Thereafter, the unit owners' association shall have powers necessary and appropriate to effect the sale. Until the termination has been concluded and the proceeds have been distributed, the unit owners' association shall continue in existence with all the powers the unit owners' association had before termination. Proceeds of the sale shall be distributed to unit owners and lien holders as their interests may appear, in proportion to the respective interests of the unit owners as provided in subsection I. Unless otherwise specified in the termination agreement, for as long as the unit owners' association holds title to the property, each unit owner or his successor in interest shall have an exclusive right to occupancy of the portion of the property that formerly constituted his unit. During the period of occupancy by the unit owner or his successor in interest, each unit owner or his successor in interest shall remain liable for any assessment or other obligation imposed on the unit owner by this chapter or the condominium instruments.

G. If the property that constitutes the condominium is not sold following termination, title to the common elements and, in the case of a condominium containing only units that have horizontal boundaries described in the condominium instruments, title to all the property in the condominium shall vest in the unit owners, upon termination, as tenants in common in proportion to the unit owners' respective interests as provided in subsection I. Any liens on the units shall shift accordingly. While the tenancy in common exists, each unit owner or his successor in interest shall have the exclusive right to occupancy of the portion of the property that formerly constituted the unit owner's unit.

H. Following termination of the condominium, the proceeds of any sale of property, together with the assets of the unit owners' association, shall be held by the unit owners' association as trustee for unit owners or lien holders on the units as their interests may appear. Following termination, any creditor of the unit owners' association who holds a lien on the unit that was recorded before termination may enforce the lien in the same manner as any lien holder. Any other creditor of the unit owners' association shall be treated as if he had perfected a lien on the units immediately before termination.

I. Unless the condominium instruments as originally recorded or as amended by 100 percent of the unit owners provide otherwise, the respective interests of unit owners referred to in subsections F, G, and H shall be as follows:

1. Except as provided in subdivision 2, the respective interests of the unit owners shall be the fair market values of their units, limited common elements, and common element interests immediately before the termination, as determined by one or more independent appraisers selected by the unit owners' association. The decision of the independent appraisers shall be distributed to the unit owners and become final unless disapproved within 30 days after distribution by unit owners of units to which one quarter of the votes in the unit owners' association appertain. The proportion of any unit owner's interest to the interest of all unit owners is determined by dividing the fair market value of that unit owner's unit and common element interest by the total fair market values of all the units and their common element interests.

2. If any unit or limited common element is destroyed to the extent that an appraisal of the fair market value of such unit or limited common element before destruction cannot be made, the interests of all unit owners are the unit owners' respective common element interests immediately before the termination.

J. Except as provided in subsection K, foreclosure or enforcement of a lien or encumbrance against the entire condominium shall not alone terminate the condominium, and foreclosure or enforcement of a lien or encumbrance against a portion of the condominium, other than withdrawable land, shall not withdraw that portion from the condominium. Foreclosure or enforcement of a lien or encumbrance against withdrawable land shall not alone withdraw the land from the condominium, but the person who takes title to the withdrawable land shall have the right to require from the unit owners' association, upon request, an amendment that excludes the land from the condominium.

K. If a lien or encumbrance against a portion of the property that comprises the condominium has priority over the condominium instruments and the lien or encumbrance has not been partially released, upon foreclosure, the parties foreclosing the lien or encumbrance may record an instrument that excludes the property subject to the lien or encumbrance from the condominium.

L. The foreclosure of any mortgage, deed of trust, or other lien shall not be deemed, ex proprio vigore, to terminate the condominium.

1993, c. 667, § 55-79.72:1; 2019, c. 712.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.