Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 55.1. Property and Conveyances
Chapter 21. Virginia Real Estate Cooperative Act
9/26/2020

§ 55.1-2135. Transfer of special declarant rights.

A. No special declarant rights created or reserved under this chapter may be transferred except by an instrument evidencing the transfer recorded in every county or city in which any portion of the cooperative is located. The instrument is not effective unless executed by the transferee.

B. Upon transfer of any special declarant right, the liability of a transferor declarant is as follows:

1. A transferor is not relieved of any obligation or liability arising before the transfer and remains liable for warranty obligations imposed upon him by this chapter. Lack of privity does not deprive any proprietary lessee of standing to maintain an action to enforce any obligation of the transferor.

2. If a successor to any special declarant right is an affiliate of a declarant, the transferor is jointly and severally liable with the successor for any obligations or liabilities of the successor relating to the cooperative.

3. If a transferor retains any special declarant rights, but transfers other special declarant rights to a successor who is not an affiliate of the declarant, the transferor is liable for any obligations or liabilities imposed on a declarant by this chapter or by the declaration relating to the retained special declarant rights and arising after the transfer.

4. A transferor has no liability for any act or omission or any breach of a contractual or warranty obligation arising from the exercise of a special declarant right by a successor declarant who is not an affiliate of the transferor.

C. Unless otherwise provided in a security agreement, in case of foreclosure of a security agreement, tax sale, judicial sale, sale by a trustee under a security agreement or sale under receivership proceedings or the Bankruptcy Code as codified in Title 11 of the United States Code, of any cooperative interests owned by a declarant or of real estate in a cooperative subject to development rights:

1. A person acquiring all the cooperative interests or real estate being foreclosed or sold shall succeed, but only upon his request, to all special declarant rights related to that property held by that declarant or only to any rights reserved in the declaration pursuant to § 55.1-2125 and held by that declarant to maintain models, sales offices, and signs.

2. The judgment or instrument conveying title shall provide for transfer of only the special declarant rights requested.

D. Upon foreclosure, tax sale, judicial sale, sale by a trustee under a security agreement, or sale under receivership proceedings or the Bankruptcy Code as codified in Title 11 of the United States Code, of all cooperative interests or real estate in a cooperative owned by a declarant:

1. The declarant ceases to have any special declarant rights, and

2. The period of declarant control as provided in subsection D of § 55.1-2134 terminates unless the judgment or instrument conveying title provides for transfer of all special declarant rights held by that declarant to a successor declarant.

E. The liabilities and obligations of a person who succeeds to special declarant rights are as follows:

1. A successor to any special declarant right who is an affiliate of a declarant is subject to all obligations and liabilities imposed on the transferor by this chapter or by the declaration.

2. A successor to any special declarant right, other than a successor described in subdivision 3 or 4, who is not an affiliate of a declarant is subject to all obligations and liabilities imposed by this chapter or the declaration:

a. On a declarant that relate to his exercise or non-exercise of special declarant rights; or

b. On his transferor, other than:

(1) Misrepresentations by any previous declarant;

(2) Warranty obligations on improvements made by any previous declarant or made before the cooperative was created;

(3) Breach of any fiduciary obligation by any previous declarant or his appointees to the executive board; or

(4) Any liability or obligation imposed on the transferor as a result of the transferor's acts or omissions after the transfer.

3. A successor to only a right reserved in the declaration to maintain models, sales offices, and signs pursuant to § 55.1-2125, if he is not an affiliate of a declarant, may not exercise any other special declarant right and is not subject to any liability or obligation as a declarant, except the obligation to provide a current public offering statement, any liability arising as a result of providing a public offering statement, and obligations under Article 5 (§ 55.1-2173 et seq.).

4. A successor to all special declarant rights held by his transferor who is not an affiliate of that declarant and who succeeded to those rights pursuant to a deed or other instrument of conveyance in lieu of foreclosure or a judgment or instrument conveying title to cooperative interests or real estate subject to development rights under subsection C may declare his intention in a recorded instrument to hold those rights solely for transfer to another person. After declaring such an intention in a recorded instrument, until transferring all special declarant rights to any person acquiring title to any cooperative interest or real estate subject to development rights owned by the successor, or until recording an instrument permitting exercise of all those rights, that successor may not exercise any of those rights other than any right held by his transferor to control the executive board in accordance with the provisions of subsection D of § 55.1-2134 for the duration of any period of declarant control, and any attempted exercise of those rights is void. So long as a successor declarant may not exercise special declarant rights under this subsection, he is not subject to any liability or obligation as a declarant other than liability for his acts and omissions under subsection D of § 55.1-2134.

F. Nothing in this section subjects any successor to a special declarant right to any claims against or other obligations of a transferor declarant, other than claims and obligations arising under this chapter or the declaration.

1982, c. 277, § 55-461; 2019, c. 712.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.