Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 8.3A. Commercial Code — Negotiable Instruments
Part 1. General Provisions and Definitions

§ 8.3A-103. Definitions.

(a) In this title:

(1) "Acceptor" means a drawee who has accepted a draft.

(2) "Drawee" means a person ordered in a draft to make payment.

(3) "Drawer" means a person who signs or is identified in a draft as a person ordering payment.

(4) "Good faith" means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable commercial standards of fair dealing.

(5) "Maker" means a person who signs or is identified in a note as a person undertaking to pay.

(6) "Order" means a written instruction to pay money signed by the person giving the instruction. The instruction may be addressed to any person, including the person giving the instruction, or to one or more persons jointly or in the alternative but not in succession. An authorization to pay is not an order unless the person authorized to pay is also instructed to pay.

(7) "Ordinary care" in the case of a person engaged in business means observance of reasonable commercial standards, prevailing in the area in which the person is located, with respect to the business in which the person is engaged. In the case of a bank that takes an instrument for processing for collection or payment by automated means, reasonable commercial standards do not require the bank to examine the instrument if the failure to examine does not violate the bank's prescribed procedures and the bank's procedures do not vary unreasonably from general banking usage not disapproved by this title or Title 8.4.

(8) "Party" means a party to an instrument.

(9) "Promise" means a written undertaking to pay money signed by the person undertaking to pay. An acknowledgment of an obligation by the obligor is not a promise unless the obligor also undertakes to pay the obligation.

(10) "Prove" with respect to a fact means to meet the burden of establishing the fact (§ 8.1A-201(b)(8)).

(11) "Remitter" means a person who purchases an instrument from its issuer if the instrument is payable to an identified person other than the purchaser.

(b) Other definitions applying to this title and the sections in which they appear are:

"Acceptance,"§ 8.3A-409.

"Accommodated party,"§ 8.3A-419.

"Accommodation party,"§ 8.3A-419.

"Alteration,"§ 8.3A-407.

"Anomalous endorsement,"§ 8.3A-205.

"Blank endorsement,"§ 8.3A-205.

"Cashier's check,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Certificate of deposit,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Certified check,"§ 8.3A-409.

"Check,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Consideration,"§ 8.3A-303.

"Draft,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Holder in due course,"§ 8.3A-302.

"Incomplete instrument,"§ 8.3A-115.

"Endorsement,"§ 8.3A-204.

"Endorser,"§ 8.3A-204.

"Instrument,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Issue,"§ 8.3A-105.

"Issuer,"§ 8.3A-105.

"Negotiable instrument,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Negotiation,"§ 8.3A-201.

"Note,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Payable at a definite time,"§ 8.3A-108.

"Payable on demand,"§ 8.3A-108.

"Payable to bearer,"§ 8.3A-109.

"Payable to order,"§ 8.3A-109.

"Payment,"§ 8.3A-602.

"Person entitled to enforce,"§ 8.3A-301.

"Presentment,"§ 8.3A-501.

"Reacquisition,"§ 8.3A-207.

"Special endorsement,"§ 8.3A-205.

"Teller's check,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Transfer of instrument,"§ 8.3A-203.

"Traveler's check,"§ 8.3A-104.

"Value,"§ 8.3A-303.

(c) The following definitions in other titles apply to this title:

"Bank,"§ 8.4-105.

"Banking day,"§ 8.4-104.

"Clearing house,"§ 8.4-104.

"Collecting bank,"§ 8.4-105.

"Depositary bank,"§ 8.4-105.

"Documentary draft,"§ 8.4-104.

"Intermediary bank,"§ 8.4-105.

"Item,"§ 8.4-104.

"Payor bank,"§ 8.4-105.

"Suspends payments,"§ 8.4-104.

(d) In addition, Title 8.1A contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout this title.

Code 1950, § 6-544; 1964, c. 219, §§ 8.3-102, 8.3-118; 1992, c. 693; 2003, c. 353.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.