Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 10.1. Conservation
10/29/2020

Article 2. Solid Waste Management.

§ 10.1-1408. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, cc. 696, 891.

§ 10.1-1408.1. Permit required; open dumps prohibited.

A. No person shall operate any sanitary landfill or other facility for the disposal, treatment or storage of nonhazardous solid waste without a permit from the Director.

B. No application for (i) a new solid waste management facility permit or (ii) application for a permit amendment or variance allowing a category 2 landfill, as defined in this section, to expand or increase in capacity shall be complete unless it contains the following:

1. Certification from the governing body of the county, city or town in which the facility is to be located that the location and operation of the facility are consistent with all applicable ordinances. The governing body shall inform the applicant and the Department of the facility's compliance or noncompliance not more than 120 days from receipt of a request from the applicant. No such certification shall be required for the application for the renewal of a permit or transfer of a permit as authorized by regulations of the Board;

2. A disclosure statement, except that the Director, upon request and in his sole discretion, and when in his judgment other information is sufficient and available, may waive the requirement for a disclosure statement for a captive industrial landfill when such a statement would not serve the purposes of this chapter;

3. If the applicant proposes to locate the facility on property not governed by any county, city or town zoning ordinance, certification from the governing body that it has held a public hearing, in accordance with the applicable provisions of § 15.2-2204, to receive public comment on the proposed facility. Such certification shall be provided to the applicant and the Department within 120 days from receipt of a request from the applicant;

4. If the applicant proposes to operate a new sanitary landfill or transfer station, a statement, including a description of the steps taken by the applicant to seek the comments of the residents of the area where the sanitary landfill or transfer station is proposed to be located, regarding the siting and operation of the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station. The public comment steps shall be taken prior to filing with the Department the notice of intent to apply for a permit for the sanitary landfill or transfer station as required by the Department's solid waste management regulations. The public comment steps shall include publication of a public notice once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation serving the locality where the sanitary landfill or transfer station is proposed to be located and holding at least one public meeting within the locality to identify issues of concern, to facilitate communication and to establish a dialogue between the applicant and persons who may be affected by the issuance of a permit for the sanitary landfill or transfer station. The public notice shall include a statement of the applicant's intent to apply for a permit to operate the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station, the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station site location, the date, time and location of the public meeting the applicant will hold and the name, address and telephone number of a person employed by the applicant, who can be contacted by interested persons to answer questions or receive comments on the siting and operation of the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station. The first publication of the public notice shall be at least fourteen days prior to the public meeting date.

The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to applicants for a permit to operate a new captive industrial landfill or a new construction-demolition-debris landfill;

5. If the applicant is a local government or public authority that proposes to operate a new municipal sanitary landfill or transfer station, a statement, including a description of the steps taken by the applicant to seek the comments of the residents of the area where the sanitary landfill or transfer station is proposed to be located, regarding the siting and operation of the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station. The public comment steps shall be taken prior to filing with the Department the notice of intent to apply for a permit for the sanitary landfill or transfer station as required by the Department's solid waste management regulations. The public comment steps shall include the formation of a citizens' advisory group to assist the locality or public authority with the selection of a proposed site for the sanitary landfill or transfer station, publication of a public notice once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation serving the locality where the sanitary landfill or transfer station is proposed to be located, and holding at least one public meeting within the locality to identify issues of concern, to facilitate communication and to establish a dialogue between the applicant and persons who may be affected by the issuance of a permit for the sanitary landfill or transfer station. The public notice shall include a statement of the applicant's intent to apply for a permit to operate the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station, the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station site location, the date, time and location of the public meeting the applicant will hold and the name, address and telephone number of a person employed by the applicant, who can be contacted by interested persons to answer questions or receive comments on the siting and operation of the proposed sanitary landfill or transfer station. The first publication of the public notice shall be at least fourteen days prior to the public meeting date. For local governments that have zoning ordinances, such public comment steps as required under §§ 15.2-2204 and 15.2-2285 shall satisfy the public comment requirements for public hearings and public notice as required under this section. Any applicant which is a local government or public authority that proposes to operate a new transfer station on land where a municipal sanitary landfill is already located shall be exempt from the public comment requirements for public hearing and public notice otherwise required under this section;

6. If the application is for a new municipal solid waste landfill or for an expansion of an existing municipal solid waste landfill, a statement, signed by the applicant, guaranteeing that sufficient disposal capacity will be available in the facility to enable localities within the Commonwealth to comply with solid waste management plans developed pursuant to § 10.1-1411, and certifying that such localities will be allowed to contract for and to reserve disposal capacity in the facility. This provision shall not apply to permit applications from one or more political subdivisions for new landfills or expanded landfills that will only accept municipal solid waste generated within those political subdivisions' jurisdiction or municipal solid waste generated within other political subdivisions pursuant to an interjurisdictional agreement;

7. If the application is for a new municipal solid waste landfill or for an expansion of an existing municipal solid waste landfill, certification from the governing body of the locality in which the facility would be located that a host agreement has been reached between the applicant and the governing body unless the governing body or a public service authority of which the governing body is a member would be the owner and operator of the landfill. The agreement shall, at a minimum, have provisions covering (i) the amount of financial compensation the applicant will provide the host locality, (ii) daily travel routes and traffic volumes, (iii) the daily disposal limit, and (iv) the anticipated service area of the facility. The host agreement shall contain a provision that the applicant will pay the full cost of at least one full-time employee of the locality whose responsibility it will be to monitor and inspect waste transportation and disposal practices in the locality. The host agreement shall also provide that the applicant shall, when requested by the host locality, split air and water samples so that the host locality may independently test the sample, with all associated costs paid for by the applicant. All such sampling results shall be provided to the Department. For purposes of this subdivision, "host agreement" means any lease, contract, agreement or land use permit entered into or issued by the locality in which the landfill is situated which includes terms or conditions governing the operation of the landfill;

8. If the application is for a locality-owned and locality-operated new municipal solid waste landfill or for an expansion of an existing such municipal solid waste landfill, information on the anticipated (i) daily travel routes and traffic volumes, (ii) daily disposal limit, and (iii) service area of the facility; and

9. If the application is for a new solid waste management facility permit or for modification of a permit to allow an existing solid waste management facility to expand or increase its capacity, the application shall include certification from the governing body for the locality in which the facility is or will be located that: (i) the proposed new facility or the expansion or increase in capacity of the existing facility is consistent with the applicable local or regional solid waste management plan developed and approved pursuant to § 10.1-1411; or (ii) the local government or solid waste management planning unit has initiated the process to revise the solid waste management plan to include the new or expanded facility. Inclusion of such certification shall be sufficient to allow processing of the permit application, up to but not including publication of the draft permit or permit amendment for public comment, but shall not bind the Director in making the determination required by subdivision D 1.

C. Notwithstanding any other provision of law:

1. Every holder of a permit issued under this article who has not earlier filed a disclosure statement shall, prior to July 1, 1991, file a disclosure statement with the Director.

2. Every applicant for a permit under this article shall file a disclosure statement with the Director, together with the permit application or prior to September 1, 1990, whichever comes later. No permit application shall be deemed incomplete for lack of a disclosure statement prior to September 1, 1990.

3. Every applicant shall update its disclosure statement quarterly to indicate any change of condition that renders any portion of the disclosure statement materially incomplete or inaccurate.

4. The Director, upon request and in his sole discretion, and when in his judgment other information is sufficient and available, may waive the requirements of this subsection for a captive industrial waste landfill when such requirements would not serve the purposes of this chapter.

D. 1. Except as provided in subdivision D 2, no permit for a new solid waste management facility nor any amendment to a permit allowing facility expansion or an increase in capacity shall be issued until the Director has determined, after an investigation and analysis of the potential human health, environmental, transportation infrastructure, and transportation safety impacts and needs and an evaluation of comments by the host local government, other local governments and interested persons, that (i) the proposed facility, expansion, or increase protects present and future human health and safety and the environment; (ii) there is a need for the additional capacity; (iii) sufficient infrastructure will exist to safely handle the waste flow; (iv) the increase is consistent with locality-imposed or state-imposed daily disposal limits; (v) the public interest will be served by the proposed facility's operation or the expansion or increase in capacity of a facility; and (vi) the proposed solid waste management facility, facility expansion, or additional capacity is consistent with regional and local solid waste management plans developed pursuant to § 10.1-1411. The Department shall hold a public hearing within the said county, city or town prior to the issuance of any such permit for the management of nonhazardous solid waste. Subdivision D 2, in lieu of this subdivision, shall apply to nonhazardous industrial solid waste management facilities owned or operated by the generator of the waste managed at the facility, and that accept only waste generated by the facility owner or operator. The Board shall have the authority to promulgate regulations to implement this subdivision.

2. No new permit for a nonhazardous industrial solid waste management facility that is owned or operated by the generator of the waste managed at the facility, and that accepts only waste generated by the facility owner or operator, shall be issued until the Director has determined, after investigation and evaluation of comments by the local government, that the proposed facility poses no substantial present or potential danger to human health or the environment. The Department shall hold a public hearing within the county, city or town where the facility is to be located prior to the issuance of any such permit for the management of nonhazardous industrial solid waste.

E. The permit shall contain such conditions or requirements as are necessary to comply with the requirements of this Code and the regulations of the Board and to protect present and future human health and the environment. To the extent allowed by federal law, any person holding a permit that is intending to upgrade the permitted solid waste management facility by installing technology, control equipment, or other apparatus that the permittee demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Director will result in improved energy efficiency, protect waters of the state, including both surface and ground water, and protect air quality shall not be required to obtain a modified or amended permit.

The Director may include in any permit such recordkeeping, testing and reporting requirements as are necessary to ensure that the local governing body of the county, city or town where the waste management facility is located is kept timely informed regarding the general nature and quantity of waste being disposed of at the facility. Such recordkeeping, testing and reporting requirements shall require disclosure of proprietary information only as is necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter. At least once every ten years, the Director shall review and issue written findings on the environmental compliance history of each permittee, material changes, if any, in key personnel, and technical limitations, standards, or regulations on which the original permit was based. The time period for review of each category of permits shall be established by Board regulation. If, upon such review, the Director finds that repeated material or substantial violations of the permittee or material changes in the permittee's key personnel would make continued operation of the facility not in the best interests of human health or the environment, the Director shall amend or revoke the permit, in accordance herewith. Whenever such review is undertaken, the Director may amend the permit to include additional limitations, standards, or conditions when the technical limitations, standards, or regulations on which the original permit was based have been changed by statute or amended by regulation or when any of the conditions in subsection B of § 10.1-1409 exist. The Director may deny, revoke, or suspend any permit for any of the grounds listed under subsection A of § 10.1-1409.

F. There shall exist no right to operate a landfill or other facility for the disposal, treatment or storage of nonhazardous solid waste or hazardous waste within the Commonwealth. Permits for solid waste management facilities shall not be transferable except as authorized in regulations promulgated by the Board. The issuance of a permit shall not convey or establish any property rights or any exclusive privilege, nor shall it authorize any injury to private property or any invasion of personal rights or any infringement of federal, state, or local law or regulation.

G. No person shall dispose of solid waste in an open dump or dispose of or manage solid waste in an unpermitted facility, including by disposing, causing to be disposed, or arranging for the disposal of solid waste upon a property for which the Director has not issued a permit and that is not otherwise exempt from permitting requirements.

H. No person shall own, operate or allow to be operated on his property an open dump.

I. No person shall allow waste to be disposed of on his property without a permit. Any person who removes trees, brush, or other vegetation from land used for agricultural or forestal purposes shall not be required to obtain a permit if such material is deposited or placed on the same or other property of the same landowner from which such materials were cleared. The Board shall by regulation provide for other reasonable exemptions from permitting requirements for the disposal of trees, brush and other vegetation when such materials are removed for agricultural or forestal purposes.

When promulgating any regulation pursuant to this section, the Board shall consider the character of the land affected, the density of population, and the volume of waste to be disposed, as well as other relevant factors.

J. No permit shall be required pursuant to this section for recycling or for temporary storage incidental to recycling. As used in this subsection, "recycling" means any process whereby material which would otherwise be solid waste is used or reused, or prepared for use or reuse, as an ingredient in an industrial process to make a product, or as an effective substitute for a commercial product.

K. The Board shall provide for reasonable exemptions from the permitting requirements, both procedural and substantive, in order to encourage the development of yard waste composting facilities. To accomplish this, the Board is authorized to exempt such facilities from regulations governing the treatment of waste and to establish an expedited approval process. Agricultural operations receiving only yard waste for composting shall be exempt from permitting requirements provided that (i) the composting area is located not less than 300 feet from a property boundary, is located not less than 1,000 feet from an occupied dwelling not located on the same property as the composting area, and is not located within an area designated as a flood plain as defined in § 10.1-600; (ii) the agricultural operation has at least one acre of ground suitable to receive yard waste for each 150 cubic yards of finished compost generated; (iii) the total time for the composting process and storage of material that is being composted or has been composted shall not exceed eighteen months prior to its field application or sale as a horticultural or agricultural product; and (iv) the owner or operator of the agricultural operation notifies the Director in writing of his intent to operate a yard waste composting facility and the amount of land available for the receipt of yard waste. In addition to the requirements set forth in clauses (i) through (iv) of the preceding sentence, the owner and operator of any agricultural operation that receives more than 6,000 cubic yards of yard waste generated from property not within the control of the owner or the operator in any twelve-month period shall be exempt from permitting requirements provided (i) the owner and operator submit to the Director an annual report describing the volume and types of yard waste received by such operation for composting and (ii) the operator shall certify that the yard waste composting facility complies with local ordinances. The Director shall establish a procedure for the filing of the notices, annual reports and certificates required by this subsection and shall prescribe the forms for the annual reports and certificates. Nothing contained in this article shall prohibit the sale of composted yard waste for horticultural or agricultural use, provided that any composted yard waste sold as a commercial fertilizer with claims of specific nutrient values, promoting plant growth, or of conditioning soil shall be sold in accordance with Chapter 36 (§ 3.2-3600 et seq.) of Title 3.2. As used in this subsection, "agricultural operation" shall have the same meaning ascribed to it in § 3.2-300.

The operation of a composting facility as provided in this subsection shall not relieve the owner or operator of such a facility from liability for any violation of this chapter.

L. The Board shall provide for reasonable exemptions from the permitting requirements, both procedural and substantive, in order to encourage the development of facilities for the decomposition of vegetative waste. To accomplish this, the Board shall approve an expedited approval process. As used in this subsection, the decomposition of vegetative waste means a natural aerobic or anaerobic process, active or passive, which results in the decay and chemical breakdown of the vegetative waste. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit a city or county from exercising its existing authority to regulate such facilities by requiring, among other things, permits and proof of financial security.

M. In receiving and processing applications for permits required by this section, the Director shall assign top priority to applications which (i) agree to accept nonhazardous recycling residues and (ii) pledge to charge tipping fees for disposal of nonhazardous recycling residues which do not exceed those charged for nonhazardous municipal solid waste. Applications meeting these requirements shall be acted upon no later than six months after they are deemed complete.

N. Every solid waste management facility shall be operated in compliance with the regulations promulgated by the Board pursuant to this chapter. To the extent consistent with federal law, those facilities which were permitted prior to March 15, 1993, and upon which solid waste has been disposed of prior to October 9, 1993, may continue to receive solid waste until they have reached their vertical design capacity, provided that the facility is in compliance with the requirements for liners and leachate control in effect at the time of permit issuance, and further provided that on or before October 9, 1993, the owner or operator of the solid waste management facility submits to the Director:

1. An acknowledgement that the owner or operator is familiar with state and federal law and regulations pertaining to solid waste management facilities operating after October 9, 1993, including postclosure care, corrective action and financial responsibility requirements;

2. A statement signed by a registered professional engineer that he has reviewed the regulations established by the Department for solid waste management facilities, including the open dump criteria contained therein; that he has inspected the facility and examined the monitoring data compiled for the facility in accordance with applicable regulations; and that, on the basis of his inspection and review, he has concluded that: (i) the facility is not an open dump, (ii) the facility does not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health and the environment, and (iii) the leachate or residues from the facility do not pose a threat of contamination or pollution of the air, surface water or ground water in a manner constituting an open dump or resulting in a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment; and

3. A statement signed by the owner or operator (i) that the facility complies with applicable financial assurance regulations and (ii) estimating when the facility will reach its vertical design capacity.

The facility may not be enlarged prematurely to avoid compliance with state or federal regulations when such enlargement is not consistent with past operating practices, the permit or modified operating practices to ensure good management.

Facilities which are authorized by this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall be as follows:

Category 1: Nonhazardous industrial waste facilities that are located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in the facility;

Category 2: Nonhazardous industrial waste facilities other than those that are located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in the facility, provided that the facility accepts only industrial waste streams which the facility has lawfully accepted prior to July 1, 1995, or other nonhazardous industrial waste as approved by the Department on a case-by-case basis; and

Category 3: Facilities that accept only construction-demolition-debris waste as defined in the Board's regulations.

The Director may prohibit or restrict the disposal of waste in facilities described in this subsection which contains hazardous constituents as defined in applicable regulations which, in the opinion of the Director, would pose a substantial risk to health or the environment. Facilities described in category 3 may expand laterally beyond the waste disposal boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, provided that there is first installed, in such expanded areas, liners and leachate control systems meeting the applicable performance requirements of the Board's regulations, or a demonstration is made to the satisfaction of the Director that such facilities satisfy the applicable variance criteria in the Board's regulations.

Owners or operators of facilities which are authorized under this subsection to accept waste for disposal beyond the waste boundaries existing on October 9, 1993, shall ensure that such expanded disposal areas maintain setback distances applicable to such facilities under the Board's current regulations and local ordinances. Prior to the expansion of any facility described in category 2 or 3, the owner or operator shall provide the Director with written notice of the proposed expansion at least sixty days prior to commencement of construction. The notice shall include recent groundwater monitoring data sufficient to determine that the facility does not pose a threat of contamination of groundwater in a manner constituting an open dump or creating a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment. The Director shall evaluate the data included with the notification and may advise the owner or operator of any additional requirements that may be necessary to ensure compliance with applicable laws and prevent a substantial present or potential hazard to health or the environment.

Facilities, or portions thereof, which have reached their vertical design capacity shall be closed in compliance with regulations promulgated by the Board.

Nothing in this subsection shall alter any requirement for groundwater monitoring, financial responsibility, operator certification, closure, postclosure care, operation, maintenance or corrective action imposed under state or federal law or regulation, or impair the powers of the Director pursuant to § 10.1-1409.

O. Portions of a permitted solid waste management facility used solely for the storage of household hazardous waste may store household hazardous waste for a period not to exceed one year, provided that such wastes are properly contained and are segregated to prevent mixing of incompatible wastes.

P. Any permit for a new municipal solid waste landfill, and any permit amendment authorizing expansion of an existing municipal solid waste landfill, shall incorporate conditions to require that capacity in the landfill will be available to localities within the Commonwealth that choose to contract for and reserve such capacity for disposal of such localities' solid waste in accordance with solid waste management plans developed by such localities pursuant to § 10.1-1411. This provision shall not apply to permit applications from one or more political subdivisions for new landfills or expanded landfills that will only accept municipal solid waste generated within the political subdivision or subdivisions' jurisdiction or municipal solid waste generated within other political subdivisions pursuant to an interjurisdictional agreement.

Q. No application for coverage under a permit-by-rule or for modification of coverage under a permit-by-rule shall be complete unless it contains certification from the governing body of the locality in which the facility is to be located that the facility is consistent with the solid waste management plan developed and approved in accordance with § 10.1-1411.

1988, cc. 696, 891; 1989, c. 623; 1990, cc. 360, 781, 919; 1992, c. 286; 1993, cc. 214, 469, 476, 496; 1994, c. 614; 1995, c. 442; 1996, c. 236; 1997, c. 875; 1999, cc. 580, 584, 611, 613, 947; 2000, cc. 420, 422; 2006, c. 62; 2007, c. 23; 2012, c. 581; 2020, c. 621.

§ 10.1-1408.2. Certification and on-site presence of facility operator.

A. On and after January 1, 1993, no person shall be employed as a waste management facility operator, nor shall any person represent himself as a waste management facility operator, unless such person has been licensed by the Board for Waste Management Facility Operators.

B. On and after January 1, 1993, all solid waste management facilities shall operate under the direct supervision of a waste management facility operator licensed by the Board for Waste Management Facility Operators.

1991, cc. 551, 737; 1997, c. 885.

§ 10.1-1408.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2007, c. 23, cl. 2.

§ 10.1-1408.4. Landfill siting review.

A. Before granting a permit which approves site suitability for a new municipal solid waste landfill, the Director shall determine, in writing, that the site on which the landfill is to be constructed is suitable for the construction and operation of such a landfill. In making his determination, the Director shall consider and address, in addition to such others as he deems appropriate, the following factors:

1. Based on a written, site-specific report prepared by the Virginia Department of Transportation, the adequacy of transportation facilities that will be available to serve the landfill, including the impact of the landfill on local traffic volume, road congestion, and highway safety;

2. The potential impact of the proposed landfill on parks and recreational areas, public water supplies, marine resources, wetlands, historic sites, fish and wildlife, water quality, and tourism; and

3. The geologic suitability of the proposed site, including proximity to areas of seismic activity and karst topography.

The applicant shall provide such information on these factors as the Director may request.

B. In addition to such other types of locations as may be determined by the Board, no new municipal solid waste landfill shall be constructed:

1. In a 100-year flood plain;

2. In any tidal wetland or nontidal wetland contiguous to any surface water body, except in accordance with § 10.1-1408.5;

3. Within three miles upgradient of any existing surface or groundwater public water supply intake or reservoir. However, a new municipal solid waste landfill may be constructed within a closer distance but no closer than one mile from any existing surface or groundwater public water supply intake or reservoir if: (i) the proposed landfill would meet all of the other requirements of this chapter and subtitle D of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, including alternative liner systems approved in accordance with that Act; (ii) the permit requires that groundwater protection standards be established and approved by the Director prior to the receipt of waste; (iii) the permit requires installation of at least two synthetic liners under the waste disposal areas and requires leachate collection systems to be installed above and below the uppermost liner; (iv) the permit requires all groundwater monitoring wells located within the facility's boundary and between the landfill and any water supply intake to be sampled quarterly and the results reported to the Department within 15 days of the owner or operator receiving the laboratory analysis; and (v) the proposed landfill meets any other conditions deemed necessary by the Director, in consultation with the Commissioner of Health, to protect against groundwater and surface water contamination. In the Counties of Mecklenburg and Halifax, a new municipal solid waste landfill may be exempt from the provisions of this subdivision and may be constructed within a shorter distance from an existing surface or groundwater public water supply intake or reservoir if the Director determines that such distance would not be detrimental to human health and the environment;

4. In any area vulnerable to flooding resulting from dam failures;

5. Over a sinkhole or less than 100 feet above a solution cavern associated with karst topography;

6. In any park or recreational area, wildlife management area or area designated by any federal or state agency as the critical habitat of any endangered species; or

7. Over an active fault.

C. There shall be no additional exemptions granted from this section unless (i) the proponent has submitted to the Department an assessment of the potential impact to public water supplies, the need for the exemption, and the alternatives considered and (ii) the Department has made the information available for public review for at least 60 days prior to the first day of the next Regular Session of the General Assembly.

1999, cc. 584, 613, 947; 2001, c. 767; 2003, c. 834; 2005, c. 920.

§ 10.1-1408.5. Special provisions regarding wetlands.

A. The Director shall not issue any solid waste permit for a new municipal solid waste landfill or the expansion of a municipal solid waste landfill that would be sited in a wetland, provided that this subsection shall not apply to subsection B or the (i) expansion of an existing municipal solid waste landfill located in the City of Danville or the City of Suffolk when the owner or operator of the landfill is an authority created pursuant to § 15.2-5102 that has applied for a permit under § 404 of the federal Clean Water Act prior to January 1, 1989, and the owner or operator has received a permit under § 404 of the federal Clean Water Act and the Virginia Water Resources and Wetlands Protection Program, Article 2.2 (§ 62.1-44.15:20 et seq.) of Chapter 3.1 of Title 62.1, or (ii) construction of a new municipal solid waste landfill in Mecklenburg County and provided that the municipal solid waste landfills covered under clauses (i) and (ii) have complied with all other applicable federal and state environmental laws and regulations. It is expressly understood that while the provisions of this section provide an exemption to the general siting prohibition contained herein; it is not the intent in so doing to express an opinion on whether or not the project should receive the necessary environmental and regulatory permits to proceed. For the purposes of this section, the term "expansion of a municipal solid waste landfill" shall include the siting and construction of new cells or the expansion of existing cells at the same location.

B. The Director may issue a solid waste permit for the expansion of a municipal solid waste landfill located in a wetland only if the following conditions are met: (i) the proposed landfill site is at least 100 feet from any surface water body and at least one mile from any tidal wetland; (ii) the Director determines, based upon the existing condition of the wetland system, including, but not limited to, sedimentation, toxicity, acidification, nitrification, vegetation, and proximity to existing permitted waste disposal areas, roads or other structures, that the construction or restoration of a wetland system in another location in accordance with a Virginia Water Protection Permit approved by the State Water Control Board would provide higher quality wetlands; and (iii) the permit requires a minimum two-to-one wetlands mitigation ratio. This subsection shall not apply to the exemptions provided in clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection A.

C. Ground water monitoring shall be conducted at least quarterly by the owner or operator of any existing solid waste management landfill, accepting municipal solid waste, that was constructed on a wetland, has a potential hydrologic connection to such a wetland in the event of an escape of liquids from the facility, or is within a mile of such a wetland, unless the Director determines that less frequent monitoring is necessary. This provision shall not limit the authority of the Board or the Director to require that monitoring be conducted more frequently than quarterly. If the landfill is one that accepts only ash, ground water monitoring shall be conducted semiannually, unless more frequent monitoring is required by the Board or the Director. All results shall be reported to the Department.

D. This section shall not apply to landfills which impact less than two acres of nontidal wetlands.

E. For purposes of this section, "wetland" means any tidal wetland or nontidal wetland contiguous to any tidal wetland or surface water body.

F. There shall be no additional exemptions granted from this section unless (i) the proponent has submitted to the Department an assessment of the potential impact to wetlands, the need for the exemption, and the alternatives considered and (ii) the Department has made the information available for public review for at least 60 days prior to the first day of the next Regular Session of the General Assembly.

1999, c. 876; 2001, c. 767; 2005, c. 920; 2007, cc. 659, 813.

§ 10.1-1409. Revocation or amendment of permits.

A. Any permit issued by the Director pursuant to this article may be revoked, amended or suspended on any of the following grounds or on such other grounds as may be provided by the regulations of the Board:

1. The permit holder has violated any regulation or order of the Board, any condition of a permit, any provision of this chapter, or any order of a court, where such violation results in a release of harmful substances into the environment or poses a threat of release of harmful substances into the environment or presents a hazard to human health, or the violation is representative of a pattern of serious or repeated violations which, in the opinion of the Director, demonstrate the permittee's disregard for or inability to comply with applicable laws, regulations or requirements;

2. The sanitary landfill or other facility used for disposal, storage or treatment of solid waste is maintained or operated in such a manner as to pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment;

3. The sanitary landfill, or other facility used for the disposal, storage or treatment of solid waste, because of its location, construction or lack of protective construction or measures to prevent pollution, poses a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment;

4. Leachate or residues from the sanitary landfill or other facility used for the disposal, storage or treatment of solid waste pose a substantial threat of contamination or pollution of the air, surface waters or ground water;

5. The person to whom the permit was issued abandons or ceases to operate the facility, or sells, leases or transfers the facility without properly transferring the permit in accordance with the regulations of the Board;

6. As a result of changes in key personnel, the Director finds that the requirements necessary for issuance of a permit are no longer satisfied;

7. The applicant has knowingly or willfully misrepresented or failed to disclose a material fact in applying for a permit or in his disclosure statement, or in any other report or certification required under this law or under the regulations of the Board, or has knowingly or willfully failed to notify the Director of any material change to the information in its disclosure statement; or

8. Any key personnel has been convicted of any of the following crimes punishable as felonies under the laws of the Commonwealth or the equivalent thereof under the laws of any other jurisdiction: murder; kidnapping; gambling; robbery; bribery; extortion; criminal usury; arson; burglary; theft and related crimes; forgery and fraudulent practices; fraud in the offering, sale, or purchase of securities; alteration of motor vehicle identification numbers; unlawful manufacture, purchase, use or transfer of firearms; unlawful possession or use of destructive devices or explosives; violation of the Drug Control Act, Chapter 34 (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.) of Title 54.1; racketeering; violation of antitrust laws; or has been adjudged by an administrative agency or a court of competent jurisdiction to have violated the environmental protection laws of the United States, the Commonwealth or any other state and the Director determines that such conviction or adjudication is sufficiently probative of the applicant's inability or unwillingness to operate the facility in a lawful manner, as to warrant denial, revocation, amendment or suspension of the permit.

In making such determination, the Director shall consider:

(a) The nature and details of the acts attributed to key personnel;

(b) The degree of culpability of the applicant, if any;

(c) The applicant's policy or history of discipline of key personnel for such activities;

(d) Whether the applicant has substantially complied with all rules, regulations, permits, orders and statutes applicable to the applicant's activities in Virginia;

(e) Whether the applicant has implemented formal management controls to minimize and prevent the occurrence of such violations; and

(f) Mitigation based upon demonstration of good behavior by the applicant including, without limitation, prompt payment of damages, cooperation with investigations, termination of employment or other relationship with key personnel or other persons responsible for the violations or other demonstrations of good behavior by the applicant that the Director finds relevant to its decision.

B. The Director may amend or attach conditions to a permit when:

1. There is a significant change in the manner and scope of operation which may require new or additional permit conditions or safeguards to protect the public health and environment;

2. There is found to be a possibility of pollution causing significant adverse effects on the air, land, surface water or ground water;

3. Investigation has shown the need for additional equipment, construction, procedures and testing to ensure the protection of the public health and the environment from significant adverse effects; or

4. The amendment is necessary to meet changes in applicable regulatory requirements.

C. If the Director finds that solid wastes are no longer being stored, treated or disposed at a facility in accordance with Board regulations, he may revoke the permit issued for such facility. As a condition to granting or continuing in effect a permit, he may also require the permittee to provide perpetual care and surveillance of the facility.

D. If the Director summarily suspends a permit pursuant to subdivision 18 of § 10.1-1402, the Director shall hold a conference pursuant to § 2.2-4019 within forty-eight hours to consider whether to continue the suspension pending a hearing to amend or revoke the permit, or to issue any other appropriate order. Notice of the hearing shall be delivered at the conference or sent at the time the permit is suspended. Any person whose permit is suspended by the Director shall cease activity for which the permit was issued until the permit is reinstated by the Director or by a court.

1986, c. 492, § 10-272; 1988, cc. 569, 891; 1990, c. 919.

§ 10.1-1410. Financial responsibility for abandoned facilities; penalties.

A. The Board shall promulgate regulations which ensure that if a facility for the disposal, transfer, or treatment of solid waste is abandoned, the costs associated with protecting the public health and safety from the consequences of such abandonment may be recovered from the person abandoning the facility. A facility that receives solid waste from a ship, barge or other vessel and is regulated under § 10.1-1454.1 shall be considered a transfer facility for the purposes of this subsection.

B. The regulations may include provisions for bonding, the creation of a trust fund to be maintained within the Department, self-insurance, other forms of commercial insurance, or such other mechanism as the Department may deem appropriate. Regulations governing the amount thereof shall take into consideration the potential for contamination and injury by the solid waste, the cost of disposal of the solid waste and the cost of restoring the facility to a safe condition. Any bonding requirements shall include a provision authorizing the use of personal bonds or other similar surety deemed sufficient to provide the protections specified in subsection A upon a finding by the Director that commercial insurance or surety bond cannot be obtained in the voluntary market due to circumstances beyond the control of the permit holder. Any commercial insurance or surety obtained in the voluntary market shall be written by an insurer licensed pursuant to Chapter 10 (§ 38.2-1000 et seq.) of Title 38.2.

C. No state governmental agency shall be required to comply with such regulations.

D. Forfeiture of any financial obligation imposed pursuant to this section shall not relieve any holder of a permit issued pursuant to the provisions of this article of any other legal obligations for the consequences of abandonment of any facility.

E. Any funds forfeited prior to July 1, 1995, pursuant to this section and the regulations of the Board shall be paid over to the county, city or town in which the abandoned facility is located. The county, city or town in which the facility is located shall expend forfeited funds as necessary to restore and maintain the facility in a safe condition.

F. Any funds forfeited on or after July 1, 1995, pursuant to this section and the regulations of the Board shall be paid over to the Director. The Director shall then expend forfeited funds as necessary solely to restore and maintain the facility in a safe condition. Nothing in this section shall require the Director to expend funds from any other source to carry out the activities contemplated under this subsection.

G. Any person who knowingly and willfully abandons a solid waste management facility without proper closure or without providing adequate financial assurance instruments for such closure shall, if such failure to close results in a significant harm or an imminent and substantial threat of significant harm to human health or the environment, be liable to the Commonwealth and any political subdivision for the costs incurred in abating, controlling, preventing, removing, or containing such harm or threat.

Any person who knowingly and willfully abandons a solid waste management facility without proper closure or without providing adequate financial assurance instruments for such closure shall, if such failure to close results in a significant harm or an imminent and substantial threat of significant harm to human health or the environment, be guilty of a Class 4 felony.

1986, c. 492, § 10-273; 1987, cc. 258, 291; 1988, c. 891; 1991, c. 702; 1993, c. 837; 1995, c. 739; 2000, cc. 137, 138.

§ 10.1-1410.1. Sanitary landfill final closure plans; notification requirements.

When any owner or operator of a sanitary landfill submits by certified mail a final closure plan in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and the regulations adopted thereunder, the Department shall within ninety days of its receipt of such plan, notify by certified mail the owner or operator of the Department's decision to approve or disapprove the final closure plan. The ninety-day period shall begin on the day the Department receives the plan by certified mail.

1988, cc. 332, 891.

§ 10.1-1410.2. Landfill postclosure monitoring, maintenance and plans.

A. The owner and operator of any solid waste landfill permitted under this chapter shall be responsible for ensuring that such landfill is properly closed in accordance with the Board's regulations and that the landfill is maintained and monitored after closure so as to protect human health and the environment. Maintenance and monitoring of solid waste landfills after closure shall be in accordance with the Board's regulations. At all times during the operational life of a solid waste landfill, the owner and operator shall provide to the Director satisfactory evidence of financial assurance consistent with all federal and state laws and regulations to ensure that the landfill will be:

1. Closed in accordance with the Board's regulations and the closure plan approved for the landfill; and

2. Monitored and maintained after closure, for such period of time as provided in the Board's regulations or for such additional period as the Director shall determine is necessary, in accordance with a postclosure plan approved by the Director.

B. Not less than 180 days prior to the completion of the postclosure monitoring and maintenance period as prescribed by the Board's regulations or by the Director, the owner or operator shall submit to the Director a certificate, signed by a professional engineer licensed in the Commonwealth, that postclosure monitoring and maintenance have been completed in accordance with the postclosure plan. The certificate shall be accompanied by an evaluation, prepared by a professional engineer licensed in the Commonwealth and signed by the owner or operator, assessing and evaluating the landfill's potential for harm to human health and the environment in the event that postclosure monitoring and maintenance are discontinued. If the Director determines that continued postclosure monitoring or maintenance is necessary to prevent harm to human health or the environment, he shall extend the postclosure period for such additional time as the Director deems necessary to protect human health and the environment and shall direct the owner or operator to submit a revised postclosure plan and to continue postclosure monitoring and maintenance in accordance therewith. Requirements for financial assurance as set forth in subsection A shall apply throughout such extended postclosure period.

1999, cc. 584, 613, 947.

§ 10.1-1410.3. Operating burn pits at closed landfills.

The Department shall develop policies and procedures to allow for the infrequent burning of vegetative waste at permitted landfills that have ceased accepting waste but have not been released from postclosure care requirements. The policies and procedures developed shall include measures to ensure protection of public health and the environment, including (i) limits to the amount of vegetative waste that may be burned, (ii) the types of materials that may be burned, (iii) the frequency of the burning, (iv) the length of time the burning occurs, and (v) an evaluation of other alternatives for managing the vegetative waste. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a city or locality from exercising its authority to regulate such facilities by requiring among other things, permits or approvals.

2006, c. 19.

§ 10.1-1411. Regional and local solid waste management plans.

A. The Board is authorized to promulgate regulations specifying requirements for local and regional solid waste management plans.

To implement regional plans, the Governor may designate regional boundaries. The governing bodies of the counties, cities and towns within any region so designated shall be responsible for the development and implementation of a comprehensive regional solid waste management plan in cooperation with any planning district commission or commissions in the region. Where a county, city or town is not part of a regional plan, it shall develop and implement a local solid waste management plan in accordance with the Board's regulations. For purposes of this section, each region or locality so designated shall constitute a solid waste planning unit.

B. The Board's regulations shall include all aspects of solid waste management including waste reduction, recycling and reuse, storage, treatment, and disposal and shall require that consideration be given to the handling of all types of nonhazardous solid waste generated in the region or locality. In promulgating such regulations, the Board shall consider urban concentrations, geographic conditions, markets, transportation conditions, and other appropriate factors and shall provide for reasonable variances and exemptions thereto, as well as variances or exemptions from the minimum recycling rates specified herein when market conditions beyond the control of a county, city, town, or region make such mandatory rates unreasonable.

C. The Board's regulations shall permit the following credits, provided that the aggregate of all such credits permitted shall not exceed five percentage points of the annual municipal solid waste recycling rate achieved for each solid waste planning unit:

1. A credit of one ton for each ton of recycling residue generated in Virginia and deposited in a landfill permitted under subsection M of § 10.1-1408.1;

2. A credit of two percentage points of the minimum recycling rate mandated for the solid waste planning unit for a source reduction program that is implemented with the solid waste planning unit. The existence and operation of such a program shall be certified by the solid waste planning unit;

3. A credit of one ton for each ton of any solid waste material that is reused; and

4. A credit of one ton for each ton of any nonmunicipal solid waste material that is recycled.

D. Each solid waste planning unit shall maintain a minimum recycling rate for municipal solid waste generated within the solid waste planning unit pursuant to the following schedule:

1. Except as provided in subdivision 2, each solid waste planning unit shall maintain a minimum 25 percent recycling rate; or

2. Each solid waste planning unit shall maintain a minimum 15 percent recycling rate if it has (i) a population density rate of less than 100 persons per square mile according to the most recent United States Census, or (ii) a not seasonally adjusted civilian unemployment rate for the immediately preceding calendar year that is at least 50 percent greater than the state average as reported by the Virginia Employment Commission for such year.

After July 1, 2007, no permit for a new sanitary landfill, incinerator, or waste-to-energy facility, or for an expansion, increase in capacity, or increase in the intake rate of an existing sanitary landfill, incinerator, or waste-to-energy facility shall be issued until the solid waste planning unit within which the facility is located has a solid waste management plan approved by the Board in accordance with the regulations, except as provided in this subsection. Failure to attain a mandated municipal solid waste recycling rate shall not be the sole cause for the denial of any permit or permit amendment, except as provided herein for sanitary landfills, incinerators, or waste-to-energy facilities, provided that all components of the solid waste management plan for the planning unit are in compliance with the regulations. The provisions of this subsection shall not be applicable to permits or permit amendments required for the operation or regulatory compliance of any existing facility, regardless of type, nor shall it be cause for the delay of any technical or administrative review of pending amendments thereto.

E. Each solid waste planning unit or locality with a population of greater than 100,000 persons according to the most recent United States census shall prepare and submit a recycling survey report to the Department of Environmental Quality annually. Each solid waste planning unit or locality with a population of 100,000 or less according to the most recent United States census shall prepare and submit a recycling survey report to the Department of Environmental Quality once every four years. Recycling survey reports submitted once every four years shall only be required to include information for the most recent single year. The first reports submitted pursuant to this section shall be submitted by April 30, 2013, for the reporting year ending December 31, 2012.

F. If a county levies a consumer utility tax and the ordinance provides that revenues derived from such source, to the extent necessary, be used for solid waste disposal, the county may charge a town or its residents, establishments and institutions an amount not to exceed their pro rata cost, based upon population for such solid waste management if the town levies a consumer utility tax. This shall not prohibit a county from charging for disposal of industrial or commercial waste on a county-wide basis, including that originating within the corporate limits of towns.

1986, c. 492, § 10-274; 1987, c. 249; 1988, c. 891; 1989, c. 440; 1990, cc. 574, 781; 1991, c. 237; 1995, c. 216; 1997, c. 495; 2006, cc. 7, 40; 2012, c. 834.

§ 10.1-1412. Contracts by counties, cities and towns.

Any county, city or town may enter into contracts for the supply of solid waste to resource recovery facilities.

1986, c. 492, § 10-275; 1988, c. 891.

§ 10.1-1413. State aid to localities for solid waste disposal.

A. To assist localities in the collection, transportation, disposal and management of solid waste in accordance with federal and state laws, regulations and procedures, each county, city and town may receive for each fiscal year from the general fund of the state treasury sums appropriated for such purposes. The Director shall distribute such grants on a quarterly basis, in advance, in accordance with Board regulations, to those counties, cities and towns which submit applications therefor.

B. Any county, city or town applying for and receiving such funds shall utilize the funds only for the collection, transportation, disposal or management of solid waste. The Director shall cause the use and expenditure of such funds to be audited and all funds not used for the specific purposes stated herein shall be refunded to the general fund.

C. All funds granted under the provisions of this section shall be conditioned upon and subject to the satisfactory compliance by the county, city or town with applicable federal and state legislation and regulations. The Director may conduct periodic inspections to ensure satisfactory compliance.

1986, c. 492, § 10-276; 1988, c. 891.

§ 10.1-1413.1. Waste information and assessment program.

A. The Department shall report by June 30 of each year the amount of solid waste, by weight or volume, disposed of in the Commonwealth during the preceding calendar year. The report shall identify solid waste by the following categories: (i) municipal solid waste; (ii) construction and demolition debris; (iii) incinerator ash; (iv) sludge other than sludge that is land applied in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3; and (v) tires. For each such category the report shall include an estimate of the amount that was generated outside of the Commonwealth and the jurisdictions where such waste originated, if known. The report shall also estimate the amount of solid waste managed or disposed of by each of the following methods: (i) recycling; (ii) composting; (iii) landfilling; and (iv) incineration.

B. All permitted facilities that treat, store or dispose of solid waste shall provide the Department not more than annually, upon request, with such information in their possession as is reasonably necessary to prepare the report required by this section. At the option of the facility owner, the data collected may include an accounting of the facility's economic benefits to the locality where the facility is located including the value of disposal and recycling facilities provided to the locality at no cost or reduced cost, direct employment associated with the facility, and other economic benefits resulting from the facility during the preceding calendar year. No facility shall be required pursuant to this section to provide information that is a trade secret as defined in § 59.1-336.

C. This section shall not apply to captive waste management facilities.

1997, c. 512.

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