Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
Chapter 12. Virginia Limited Liability Company Act
5/8/2021

Article 2. Formation.

§ 13.1-1008. Purposes.

Every limited liability company formed under this chapter has the purpose of engaging in any lawful business, purpose, or activity, whether or not such business, purpose, or activity is carried on for profit, except as otherwise provided by the law of this Commonwealth, unless a more limited purpose is set forth in the articles of organization.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 2002, c. 288; 2004, c. 601.

§ 13.1-1009. Powers.

Unless the articles of organization provide otherwise, every limited liability company has perpetual duration and succession in its name and has the same powers as an individual to do all things necessary or convenient to carry out its business and affairs, including, without limitation, power:

1. To sue and be sued, complain and defend in its name;

2. To purchase, receive, lease or otherwise acquire, and own, hold, improve, use and otherwise deal with, real or personal property, or any legal or equitable interest in property, wherever located;

3. To sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, lease, exchange, and otherwise dispose of all or any part of its property;

4. To purchase, receive, subscribe for, or otherwise acquire, own, hold, vote, use, sell, mortgage, lend, pledge, or otherwise dispose of, and deal in and with shares or other interests in, or obligations of, any other person;

5. To make contracts and guaranties, incur liabilities, borrow money, issue its notes, bonds, and other obligations, and secure any of its obligations by mortgage or pledge of any of its property, franchises or income;

6. To lend money, invest and reinvest its funds, and receive and hold real and personal property as security for repayment;

7. To conduct its business, locate offices, and exercise the powers granted by this chapter within or without this Commonwealth;

8. To elect and appoint managers, employees and agents of the limited liability company, define their duties, fix their compensation, and lend them money and credit;

9. To pay pensions and establish pension plans, pension trusts, profit sharing plans, and benefit and incentive plans for all or any of the current or former managers, members, employees, and agents of the limited liability company or any of its subsidiaries;

10. To make donations to the public welfare or for religious, charitable, scientific, literary or educational purposes;

11. To make payments or donations, or do any other act, not inconsistent with this section or any other applicable law, that furthers the business and affairs of the limited liability company;

12. To pay compensation, or to pay additional compensation to any or all managers, members, and employees on account of services previously rendered to the limited liability company, whether or not an agreement to pay such compensation was made before such services were rendered;

13. To insure for its benefit the life of any of its managers, members, or employees, to insure the life of any member for the purpose of acquiring at his death the interest owned by such member and to continue such insurance after the relationship terminates;

14. To cease its activities, wind up its affairs, and proceed to cancel its existence;

15. To enter into partnership agreements, joint ventures, or other associations of any kind with any person or persons;

16. Subject to such standards and restrictions, if any, as are set forth in its articles of organization or an operating agreement, to indemnify and hold harmless any member or manager or other person from and against any and all claims and demands whatsoever, and to pay for or reimburse any member or manager or other person for reasonable expenses incurred by such a person who is a party to a proceeding in advance of final disposition of the proceeding;

17. To transact any lawful business that a corporation, partnership, or other business entity may conduct under the laws of the Commonwealth subject, however, to any and all laws and restrictions that govern or limit the conduct of such activity by such corporation, partnership or other business entity; and

18. To have and exercise all powers necessary or convenient to effect any or all of the purposes for which the limited liability company is organized.

1991, c. 168; 2004, c. 601; 2006, c. 912; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1010. Organizers.

One or more persons may act as organizers of a limited liability company by signing and delivering articles of organization to the Commission for filing. An organizer need not be a member of the limited liability company after formation has occurred.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 748; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1010.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 288, cl. 2, effective July 1, 2016.

§ 13.1-1011. Articles of organization.

A. The articles of organization shall set forth:

1. A name for the limited liability company that satisfies the requirements of § 13.1-1012;

2. The post office address, including the street and number, if any, of the limited liability company's initial registered office, the name of the city or county in which it is located, the name of its initial registered agent at that office, and that the agent is either (i) an individual who is a resident of Virginia and one of the following: a member or manager of the limited liability company, a member or manager of a limited liability company that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, an officer or director of a corporation that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, a general partner of a general or limited partnership that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, a trustee of a trust that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, or a member of the Virginia State Bar or (ii) a domestic or foreign stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company or registered limited liability partnership authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth; and

3. The post office address, including the street and number, if any, of the principal office of the limited liability company, which may be the same as the registered office, but need not be within the Commonwealth.

B. The articles of organization may set forth any other matter that under this chapter is permitted to be set forth in an operating agreement of a limited liability company.

C. The articles of organization need not set forth any of the powers enumerated in this chapter.

D. If the Commission finds that the articles of organization comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of organization.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1993, c. 113; 1997, c. 190; 2000, c. 162; 2001, cc. 517, 541; 2004, c. 314; 2006, c. 748; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1011.1. Articles of correction.

A. A limited liability company may correct its articles of organization at any time to correct a name or address specified in the articles of organization that was inadvertently or improperly set forth.

B. For a correction to the articles of organization of a limited liability company to be adopted, the correction shall be adopted by a majority vote of the managers, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any managers and no managers have been appointed, the correction may be adopted by a majority vote of the members entitled to vote thereon, unless the articles of organization require a greater vote, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any managers or members and no members have been admitted, a correction may be adopted by a majority vote of the organizers of the limited liability company.

C. To correct its articles of organization, a limited liability company shall file with the Commission articles of correction setting forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company;

2. The text of each correction;

3. A statement of the nature of the error necessitating each correction; and

4. A statement of the manner in which the correction was adopted.

If the Commission finds that the articles of correction comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of correction.

1998, c. 432; 2003, c. 379; 2006, c. 748.

§ 13.1-1012. (Effective until July 1, 2021) Name.

A. A limited liability company name shall contain the words "limited company" or "limited liability company" or their abbreviations "L.C.," "LC," "L.L.C.," or "LLC."

B. A limited liability company name shall not contain:

1. Any word, abbreviation, or combination of characters that states or implies the limited liability company is a corporation or a limited partnership; or

2. Any word or phrase the use of which is prohibited by law for such company.

C. Except as authorized by subsection D, a limited liability company name shall be distinguishable upon the records of the Commission from:

1. The name of a domestic limited liability company or a foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

2. A limited liability company name reserved under § 13.1-1013;

3. The designated name adopted by a foreign limited liability company because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

4. The name of any corporation, whether issuing shares or not issuing shares, existing under the laws of the Commonwealth or authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth;

5. A corporate name reserved or registered under § 13.1-631, 13.1-632, 13.1-830 or 13.1-831;

6. The designated name adopted by a foreign corporation, whether issuing shares or not issuing shares, because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

7. The name of a domestic business trust or a foreign business trust registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

8. A business trust name reserved under § 13.1-1215;

9. The designated name adopted by a foreign business trust because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

10. The name of a domestic limited partnership or a foreign limited partnership registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

11. A limited partnership name reserved under § 50-73.3; and

12. The designated name adopted by a foreign limited partnership because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth.

D. A domestic limited liability company may apply to the Commission for authorization to use a name that is not distinguishable upon its records from one or more of the names described in subsection C. The Commission shall authorize use of the name applied for if the other entity consents to the use in writing and submits an undertaking in form satisfactory to the Commission to change its name to a name that is distinguishable upon the records of the Commission from the name of the applying limited liability company.

E. The use of assumed names or fictitious names, as provided for in Chapter 5 (§ 59.1-69 et seq.) of Title 59.1, is not affected by this chapter.

F. The Commission, in determining whether a limited liability company name is distinguishable upon its records from the name of any of the business entities listed in subsection C, shall not consider any word, phrase, abbreviation, or designation required or permitted under this section and § 13.1-544.1, subsection A of § 13.1-630, § 13.1-1104, subsection A of § 50-73.2, and subdivision A 2 of § 50-73.78 to be contained in the name of a business entity formed or organized under the laws of the Commonwealth or authorized or registered to transact business in the Commonwealth.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1995, c. 168; 2003, cc. 340, 592; 2005, c. 379; 2012, c. 63.

§ 13.1-1012. (Effective July 1, 2021) Name.

A. A limited liability company name shall contain the words "limited company" or "limited liability company" or their abbreviations "L.C.," "LC," "L.L.C.," or "LLC."

B. A limited liability company name shall not contain:

1. Any word, abbreviation, or combination of characters that states or implies the limited liability company is a corporation, a limited partnership, or a protected series of a series limited liability company; or

2. Any word or phrase the use of which is prohibited by law for such company.

C. Except as authorized by subsection D, a limited liability company name shall be distinguishable upon the records of the Commission from:

1. The name of a domestic limited liability company or a foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

2. A limited liability company name reserved under § 13.1-1013;

3. The designated name adopted by a foreign limited liability company because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

4. The name of any corporation, whether issuing shares or not issuing shares, existing under the laws of the Commonwealth or authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth;

5. A corporate name reserved or registered under § 13.1-631, 13.1-632, 13.1-830 or 13.1-831;

6. The designated name adopted by a foreign corporation, whether issuing shares or not issuing shares, because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

7. The name of a domestic business trust or a foreign business trust registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

8. A business trust name reserved under § 13.1-1215;

9. The designated name adopted by a foreign business trust because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

10. The name of a domestic limited partnership or a foreign limited partnership registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

11. A limited partnership name reserved under § 50-73.3; and

12. The designated name adopted by a foreign limited partnership because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth.

D. A domestic limited liability company may apply to the Commission for authorization to use a name that is not distinguishable upon its records from one or more of the names described in subsection C. The Commission shall authorize use of the name applied for if the other entity consents to the use in writing and submits an undertaking in form satisfactory to the Commission to change its name to a name that is distinguishable upon the records of the Commission from the name of the applying limited liability company.

E. The use of assumed names or fictitious names, as provided for in Chapter 5 (§ 59.1-69 et seq.) of Title 59.1, is not affected by this chapter.

F. The Commission, in determining whether a limited liability company name is distinguishable upon its records from the name of any of the business entities listed in subsection C, shall not consider any word, phrase, abbreviation, or designation required or permitted under this section and § 13.1-544.1, subsection A of § 13.1-630, § 13.1-1104, subsection A of § 50-73.2, and subdivision A 2 of § 50-73.78 to be contained in the name of a business entity formed or organized under the laws of the Commonwealth or authorized or registered to transact business in the Commonwealth.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1995, c. 168; 2003, cc. 340, 592; 2005, c. 379; 2012, c. 63; 2019, c. 636.

§ 13.1-1013. Reserved name.

A. A person may apply to the Commission to reserve the exclusive use of a limited liability company name, including a designated name for a foreign limited liability company. The limited liability company name applied for need not comply with subsection A of § 13.1-1012. If the Commission finds that the limited liability company name applied for is distinguishable upon the records of the Commission, it shall reserve the name for the applicant's exclusive use for a 120-day period.

B. The owner of a reserved limited liability company name may renew the reservation for successive periods of 120 days each by filing with the Commission, during the 45-day period preceding the date of expiration of the reservation, a renewal application.

C. The owner of a reserved limited liability company name may transfer the reservation to another person by delivering to the Commission a notice of the transfer, signed by the applicant for whom the name was reserved, and specifying the name and address of the transferee.

D. A reserved limited liability company name may be used by its owner in connection with (i) the formation or an amendment to change the name of a domestic stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company, business trust, or limited partnership; (ii) an application for a certificate of authority or registration to transact business in the Commonwealth as a foreign stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company, business trust, or limited partnership; or (iii) an amended application for such authority or registration, provided that the proposed name complies with the provisions of § 13.1-630, 13.1-762, 13.1-829, 13.1-924, 13.1-1012, 13.1-1054, 13.1-1214, 13.1-1244, 50-73.2, or 50-73.56, as the case may be.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 505; 2015, c. 444.

§ 13.1-1014. Amendment of articles of organization.

A. A limited liability company may amend its articles of organization at any time to add or change a provision that is required or permitted in the articles, or to delete a provision not required in the articles. An amendment to the articles of organization may delete the name and address of the registered agent or registered office, or the address of the principal office, if a statement of change described in § 13.1-1016 or 13.1-1018.1, as the case may be, is on file with the Commission.

B. For an amendment to the articles of organization of a limited liability company to be adopted, the amendment shall be approved by that number or percentage of members required to amend an operating agreement, unless the articles of organization or a written operating agreement otherwise provide, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any members and no members have been admitted, an amendment may be adopted by a majority of the persons named as a manager in the articles of organization or, if there are no members or managers, by a majority of the organizers of the limited liability company.

C. To amend its articles of organization, a limited liability company shall file with the Commission articles of amendment setting forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company;

2. The text of each amendment adopted;

3. The date of each amendment's adoption; and

4. A statement that the amendment was adopted by a vote of the members, by the managers or by the organizers in accordance with this chapter, as the case may be.

If the Commission finds that the articles of amendment comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of amendment.

D. An amendment to articles of organization does not affect a cause of action existing against or in favor of the limited liability company, a proceeding to which the limited liability company is a party, or the existing rights of persons other than members of the limited liability company. An amendment changing a limited liability company's name does not abate a proceeding brought by or against the limited liability company in its former name.

E. A member of a limited liability company does not have a vested property right resulting from any provision of the articles of organization.

1991, c. 168; 1997, c. 190; 2001, c. 548; 2005, c. 255; 2006, cc. 748, 912; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1014.1. Restatement of articles of organization.

A. A limited liability company may restate its articles of organization at any time.

B. The restatement may include one or more amendments to the articles of organization, including an amendment to delete the name and address of the registered agent or registered office, or the address of the principal office, if a statement of change described in § 13.1-1016 or 13.1-1018.1, as the case may be, is on file with the Commission.

C. For a restatement of the articles of organization of a limited liability company to be adopted, the restatement shall be approved by that number or percentage of members required to amend an operating agreement, unless the articles of organization or a written operating agreement otherwise provide, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any members and no members have been admitted, a restatement may be adopted by a majority of the persons named as a manager in the articles of organization or, if there are no members or managers, by a majority of the organizers of the limited liability company.

D. A limited liability company restating its articles of organization shall file with the Commission articles of restatement setting forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company immediately prior to restatement;

2. Whether the restatement contains an amendment to the articles of organization;

3. The text of the restated articles of organization or amended and restated articles of organization;

4. The date of adoption of the articles of restatement; and

5. A statement that the restatement was adopted by a vote of the members, by the managers or by the organizers in accordance with this chapter, as the case may be.

E. If the Commission finds that the articles of restatement comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of restatement. When the certificate of restatement is effective, the restated articles of organization or amended and restated articles of organization supersede the original articles of organization and all amendments to the original articles of organization.

F. The Commission may certify restated articles of organization or amended and restated articles of organization as the articles of organization currently in effect.

2005, c. 255; 2006, cc. 748, 912; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.