Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
Chapter 12. Virginia Limited Liability Company Act
5/8/2021

Article 7. Rights of and Assignment by Members.

§ 13.1-1038. Nature of interest in limited liability company.

A membership interest in a limited liability company is personal property. The only transferable interest of a member in the limited liability company is the member's share of the profits and losses of the limited liability company and the member's right to receive distributions.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1038.1. Admission of members.

A. Subject to subsection B, a person may become a member in a limited liability company:

1. In the case of a person acquiring a membership interest directly from the limited liability company, upon compliance with an operating agreement or, if the operating agreement does not so provide, upon the consent of a majority of the managers of a manager-managed limited liability company or a majority vote of the members of a member-managed limited liability company;

2. In the case of an assignee of a membership interest, as provided in subsection A of § 13.1-1040;

3. In the case of a limited liability company that has no members as of the commencement of its existence under § 13.1-1004, as provided in any writing signed by both the initial member or members and the managers, if any are designated in the articles of organization, or, if no managers are so designated, the organizers;

4. In the case of a limited liability company the last remaining member of which has dissociated, (i) as provided in a writing executed by the successor in interest of that member, who may provide for the admission of the successor in interest or its nominee or designee to the limited liability company as a member, effective as of the occurrence of the event that caused the dissociation of the last remaining member, provided that the articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide that the successor in interest of the last remaining member shall be obligated to agree in writing to the admission of the successor in interest of that member or its nominee or designee to the limited liability company as a member, effective as of the occurrence of the event that caused the dissociation of the last remaining member, or (ii) in the manner provided for in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, effective as of the occurrence of the event that caused the dissociation of the last remaining member, pursuant to a provision of the articles of organization or an operating agreement that specifically provides for the admission of a member to the limited liability company after there is no longer a remaining member of the limited liability company;

5. In the case of a person being admitted as a member of a limited liability company pursuant to a merger approved in accordance with § 13.1-1071, as provided in the articles of merger or an operating agreement of the surviving limited liability company; and

6. In the case of a person being admitted as a member of a limited liability company pursuant to a conversion or domestication of a partnership, non-United States entity, foreign limited liability company, or corporation into a domestic limited liability company in accordance with Article 12.2 (§ 13.1-722.8 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of this title, or, effective on and after November 1, 2006, Article 14 (§ 13.1-1074 et seq.) of Chapter 12 of this title, as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement of the converted or domesticated limited liability company at the time of conversion or domestication.

B. The effective time of admission of a member to a limited liability company shall be the later of:

1. The date the limited liability company is formed; or

2. The time provided in an operating agreement, articles of merger or articles of organization, as applicable, or, if no such time is provided therein, then when the person's admission is reflected in the records of the limited liability company.

C. A person may be admitted to a limited liability company as a member of the limited liability company and may receive a membership interest in the limited liability company without making a contribution or being obligated to make a contribution to the limited liability company. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement:

1. A person may be admitted to a limited liability company as a member of the limited liability company without acquiring a membership interest in the limited liability company; and

2. A person may be admitted as the sole member of a limited liability company without making a contribution or being obligated to make a contribution to the limited liability company or without acquiring a membership interest in the limited liability company.

1993, c. 113; 1997, c. 190; 2000, c. 581; 2001, c. 548; 2005, c. 255; 2006, cc. 748, 912; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1039. Assignment of interest.

A. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a membership interest in a limited liability company is assignable in whole or in part. An assignment of an interest in a limited liability company does not of itself dissolve the limited liability company. Except as provided in subsection A of § 13.1-1040, an assignment does not entitle the assignee to participate in the management and affairs of the limited liability company or to become or to exercise any rights of a member. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, such an assignment entitles the assignee to receive, to the extent assigned, only any share of profits and losses and distributions to which the assignor would be entitled.

B. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a membership interest in a limited liability company may be evidenced by a certificate of interest issued by the limited liability company. The articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide for the assignment or transfer of any interest represented by such a certificate and make other provisions with respect to such certificates.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1998, c. 432; 2006, c. 912; 2013, c. 772.

§ 13.1-1040. Right of assignee to become member.

A. Except as otherwise provided in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, an assignee of an interest in a limited liability company may become a member only by the consent of a majority of the member-managers (other than the assignor member) of a manager-managed limited liability company of which one or more members is a manager, or by a majority vote of the members (other than the assignor member) of any other limited liability company.

B. An assignee who has become a member has, to the extent assigned, the rights and powers, and is subject to the restrictions and liabilities, of a member under the articles of organization, any operating agreement and this chapter. An assignee who becomes a member also is liable for any obligations of his assignor to make contributions and return distributions as provided in Articles 5 (§ 13.1-1022 et seq.) and 6 (§ 13.1-1029 et seq.) of this chapter. However, an assignee who becomes a member is not obligated for liabilities of the assignor unknown to him at the time he or it became a member.

C. If an assignee of an interest in a limited liability company becomes a member, the assignor is not released from his liability under §§ 13.1-1027 and 13.1-1036 to the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 1994, c. 348; 1995, c. 168; 1997, c. 190.

§ 13.1-1040.1. Events causing member's dissociation.

Except as otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a member is dissociated from a limited liability company upon the occurrence of any of the following events:

1. To the extent resignation of a member is provided for in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the limited liability company's having notice of the member's express will to resign as a member on a later date specified by the member in the notice or, if no later date is specified, the date of notice;

2. An event agreed to in the articles of organization or an operating agreement as causing the member's dissociation;

3. The member's expulsion pursuant to the articles of organization or an operating agreement;

4. The member's expulsion by the unanimous vote of the other members if:

a. It is unlawful to carry on the business of the limited liability company with that member; or

b. There has been an assignment or transfer of all or substantially all of that member's membership interest, other than a transfer for security purposes or a court order charging the member's interest;

5. On application by the limited liability company or another member, the member's expulsion by judicial determination because:

a. The member engaged in wrongful conduct that adversely and materially affected the business of the limited liability company;

b. The member willfully or persistently committed a material breach of the articles of organization or an operating agreement; or

c. The member engaged in conduct relating to the business of the limited liability company which makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the business with the member;

6. The member's:

a. Becoming a debtor in bankruptcy;

b. Executing an assignment for the benefit of creditors;

c. Seeking, consenting to, or acquiescing in the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of that member or of all or substantially all of that member's property; or

d. Failing, within ninety days after the appointment, to have vacated or stayed the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of the member or of all or substantially all of the member's property obtained without the member's consent or acquiescence, or failing within ninety days after the expiration of a stay to have the appointment vacated;

7. In the case of a member who is an individual:

a. The member's death;

b. The appointment of a guardian, committee or conservator for the member; or

c. A judicial determination that the member has otherwise become incapable of performing the member's duties under the articles of organization or an operating agreement;

8. In the case of a member that is a trust or is acting as a member by virtue of being a trustee of a trust, distribution of the trust's entire transferable interest in the limited liability company, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor trustee;

9. In the case of a member that is an estate or is acting as a member by virtue of being a personal representative of an estate, distribution of the estate's entire transferable interest in the limited liability company, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor personal representative;

10. Termination of a member who is not an individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, trust, or estate;

11. The expiration of ninety days after the limited liability company notifies a corporate member that it will be expelled because it has filed articles of dissolution or the equivalent, its existence has been terminated or its charter has been revoked, or its right to conduct business has been suspended by the jurisdiction of its incorporation, if there is no revocation of the certificate of dissolution or no reinstatement of its existence, its charter or its right to conduct business; or

12. A partnership or limited liability company that is a member has been dissolved and its business is being wound up.

1998, c. 432; 2002, c. 288; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1040.2. Effect of a member's dissociation.

A. Except as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the dissociation of a member shall not affect the membership interest held by the dissociated member or the former member's successor in interest. The former member or successor in interest shall continue to hold a membership interest and shall have the same rights that an assignee of the membership interest would have under subsection A of § 13.1-1039.

B. Except as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the dissociation of a member shall not cause the limited liability company to be dissolved or its affairs to be wound up, and, upon the occurrence of any such event, the limited liability company shall be continued without dissolution.

2000, c. 581; 2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1041. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 601.

§ 13.1-1041.1. Member's transferable interest subject to charging order.

A. On application by a judgment creditor of a member or of a member's assignee, a court having jurisdiction may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor to satisfy the judgment. To the extent so charged, the judgment creditor has only the right to receive any distribution or distributions to which the judgment debtor would otherwise have been entitled in respect of the interest.

B. A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the limited liability company.

C. This chapter does not deprive a member or a member's assignee of a right under exemption laws with respect to the judgment debtor's interest in the limited liability company.

D. The entry of a charging order is the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a member or of a member's assignee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the limited liability company.

E. No creditor of a member or of a member's assignee shall have any right to obtain possession of, or otherwise exercise legal or equitable remedies with respect to, the property of the limited liability company.

2004, c. 601; 2006, c. 912.