Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
Chapter 12. Virginia Limited Liability Company Act

Article 8. Derivative Actions.

§ 13.1-1042. Right of action; standing; condition precedent; stay of proceeding.

A. A member shall not commence or maintain a derivative proceeding unless the member fairly and adequately represents the interests of the limited liability company in enforcing the right of the limited liability company and is a proper plaintiff pursuant to § 13.1-1043.

B. No member may commence a derivative proceeding until:

1. A written demand has been made on the limited liability company to take suitable action; and

2. Ninety days have expired from the date delivery of the demand was made unless (i) the member has been notified before the expiration of 90 days that the demand has been rejected by the limited liability company or (ii) irreparable injury to the limited liability company would result by waiting until the end of the 90-day period.

C. If the limited liability company commences a review and evaluation of the allegations made in the demand or complaint, the court may stay any derivative proceeding for such period as the court deems appropriate.

1991, c. 168; 2011, c. 379.

§ 13.1-1043. Proper plaintiff.

In a derivative action, the plaintiff shall be a member at the time of bringing the action and (i) shall have been a member at the time of the transaction of which he or it complains or (ii) his or its status as a member shall have devolved upon him or it by operation of law or pursuant to the terms of the articles of organization or an operating agreement from a person who was a member at the time of the transaction.

1991, c. 168.

§ 13.1-1044. Pleading.

In derivative action, the complaint shall set forth with particularity the effort of the plaintiff to secure commencement of the action by a member or manager with the authority to do so or the reasons for not making the effort.

1991, c. 168.

§ 13.1-1045. Expenses.

If a derivative action is successful, in whole or in part, or if anything is received by the plaintiff as a result of a judgment, compromise or settlement of an action or claim, except as hereinafter provided, the court may award the plaintiff reasonable expenses, including reasonable attorney's fees, and shall direct the plaintiff to remit to the limited liability company the remainder of those proceeds received by him or it. On termination of the derivative action, the court may require the plaintiff to pay any defendant's reasonable expenses, including reasonable attorney's fees, incurred in defending the action if it finds that the action was commenced without reasonable cause or the plaintiff did not fairly and adequately represent the interests of the members and the limited liability company in enforcing the right of the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168.