Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
Chapter 12. Virginia Limited Liability Company Act
5/8/2021

Article 9. Dissolution.

§ 13.1-1046. Dissolution; generally.

A limited liability company organized under this chapter is dissolved and its affairs shall be wound up upon the happening of the first to occur of the following events:

1. At the time or on the happening of any events specified in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement;

2. Upon the unanimous written consent of the members;

3. The entry of a decree of judicial dissolution under § 13.1-1047;

4. Automatic cancellation of its existence pursuant to § 13.1-1050.2; or

5. Involuntary cancellation of its existence pursuant to § 13.1-1050.3.

1991, c. 168; 1994, c. 348; 1995, c. 168; 1996, c. 265; 1997, c. 190; 1998, c. 432; 2000, c. 581; 2001, c. 548; 2008, cc. 108, 588, 770; 2009, c. 167.

§ 13.1-1047. Judicial dissolution.

A. On application by or for a member, the circuit court of the locality in which the registered office of the limited liability company is located may decree dissolution of a limited liability company if it is not reasonably practicable to carry on the business in conformity with the articles of organization and any operating agreement.

B. When the winding up of the affairs of the limited liability company has been completed, the court shall so advise the Commission, which shall enter an order of cancellation of the limited liability company's existence.

1991, c. 168; 2008, c. 108.

§ 13.1-1047.1. Waiver of cancellation.

Except in the case of an event of dissolution described in subdivision 4 or 5 of § 13.1-1046, at any time after the dissolution of a limited liability company and before the winding up of its business is completed, all of the members may waive the right to have the limited liability company's business wound up and its existence canceled. In that event:

1. The limited liability company resumes carrying on its business as if dissolution had never occurred, and any liability incurred by the limited liability company or a member after the dissolution and before the waiver is determined as if dissolution had never occurred; and

2. The rights of a third party arising out of conduct in reliance on the dissolution before the third party knew or received a notification of the waiver may not be adversely affected.

2012, c. 706.

§ 13.1-1048. Winding up.

A. The winding up of a limited liability company shall be completed when all debts, liabilities, and obligations of the limited liability company have been paid and discharged or reasonably adequate provision therefor has been made, and all of the remaining property and assets of the limited liability company have been distributed to the members.

B. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, upon the dissolution of a limited liability company, the members may wind up the limited liability company's affairs; however, the circuit court of the locality in which the registered office of the limited liability company is located, on cause shown, may wind up the limited liability company's affairs on application of any member, his legal representative, or assignee, and in connection therewith, may appoint one or more liquidating trustees.

C. Upon dissolution of a limited liability company and until the effective date of a certificate of cancellation issued pursuant to § 13.1-1050, the liquidating trustees, in the name and on behalf of the limited liability company, may (i) prosecute and defend suits, whether civil, criminal or administrative, (ii) wind up the limited liability company's business, (iii) dispose of and convey the limited liability company's property, (iv) discharge or make reasonable provision for the limited liability company's liabilities, and (v) distribute to the members any remaining assets of the limited liability company, all without affecting the liability of members and without imposing the liability of a general partner on a liquidating trustee.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 168; 2002, c. 288; 2004, c. 601; 2006, c. 748; 2008, c. 108.

§ 13.1-1049. Distribution of assets upon dissolution.

Upon the winding up of a limited liability company, the assets of the limited liability company shall be distributed as follows:

1. To creditors, including members who are creditors, to the extent permitted by law, in satisfaction of liabilities of the limited liability company other than for distributions to members under § 13.1-1031;

2. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, to members and former members in satisfaction of liabilities for distributions under § 13.1-1031; and

3. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, to members first for the return of their contributions and second with respect to their interests in the limited liability company, in the proportions in which the members share in distributions.

1991, c. 168; 1996, c. 265.

§ 13.1-1049.1. Known claims against dissolved limited liability company.

A. A dissolved limited liability company may dispose of the known claims against it by following the procedure described in this section.

B. The dissolved limited liability company shall deliver to each of its known claimants written notice of the dissolution at any time after its effective date. The written notice shall:

1. Provide a reasonable description of the claim that the claimant may be entitled to assert;

2. State whether the claim is admitted, or not admitted, and if admitted (i) the amount that is admitted, which may be as of a given date, and (ii) any interest obligation if fixed by an instrument of indebtedness;

3. Provide a mailing address where a claim may be sent;

4. State a deadline, which may not be fewer than 120 days from the effective date of the written notice, by which confirmation of the claim shall be delivered to the dissolved limited liability company; and

5. State that, except to the extent that any claim is admitted, the claim will be barred if written confirmation of the claim is not delivered by the deadline.

C. A claim against the dissolved limited liability company is barred to the extent that it is not admitted:

1. If the dissolved limited liability company delivered written notice to the claimant in accordance with subsection B and the claimant does not deliver written confirmation of the claim to the dissolved limited liability company by the deadline; or

2. If the dissolved limited liability company delivered written notice to the claimant that its claim is not admitted, in whole or in part, and the claimant does not commence a proceeding to enforce the claim within 90 days from the effective date of such notice.

D. For purposes of this section, "claim" does not include (i) a contingent liability or a claim based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution or (ii) a liability or claim the ultimate maturity of which is more than 60 days after the delivery of written notice to the claimant pursuant to subsection B.

E. If a liability exists but the full extent of any damages is or may not be ascertainable, and a proceeding to enforce the claim is commenced pursuant to subdivision C 2, the claimant may amend the pleadings after filing to include any damages that occurred or are alleged to have occurred after filing, and the court having jurisdiction of such claim may continue such proceeding during its pendency if it appears that further damages are or still may be occurring.

2004, c. 601; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1049.2. Other claims against dissolved limited liability company.

A. A dissolved limited liability company may also publish notice of its dissolution and request that persons with claims against the dissolved limited liability company present them in accordance with the notice.

B. The notice shall:

1. Be published one time in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the dissolved limited liability company's principal office, or, if none in the Commonwealth, its registered office, is or was last located;

2. Describe the information that must be included in a claim and provide a mailing address where the claim may be sent; and

3. State that a claim against the dissolved limited liability company will be barred unless a proceeding to enforce the claim is commenced prior to the earlier of the expiration of any applicable statute of limitations or three years after the date of publication of the notice.

C. If the dissolved limited liability company publishes a newspaper notice in accordance with subsection B, the claim of each of the following claimants is barred unless the claimant commences a proceeding to enforce the claim against the dissolved limited liability company prior to the earlier of the expiration of any applicable statute of limitations or three years after the publication date of the newspaper notice:

1. A claimant who was not given written notice under § 13.1-1049.1;

2. A claimant whose claim was timely sent to the dissolved limited liability company but not acted on; and

3. A claimant whose claim does not meet the definition of a claim in subsection D of § 13.1-1049.1.

D. A claim that is not barred by subsection C of § 13.1-1049.1 or subsection C of § 13.1-1049.2 may be enforced:

1. Against the dissolved limited liability company, to the extent of its undistributed assets; or

2. Except as provided in subsection D of § 13.1-1049.3, if the assets have been distributed in liquidation, against a member of the dissolved limited liability company to the extent of the member's pro rata share of the claim or the limited liability company assets distributed to the member in liquidation, whichever is less, but a member's total liability for all claims under this section may not exceed the total amount of assets distributed to the member.

2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1049.3. Court proceedings.

A. A dissolved limited liability company that has complied with the notice requirements of § 13.1-1049.2 may file an application with the circuit court of the city or county where the dissolved limited liability company's principal office, or, if none in the Commonwealth, its registered office, is or was last located for a determination of the amount and form of security to be provided for payment of claims that (i) are contingent or have not been made known to the dissolved limited liability company or that are based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution but that, based on the facts known to the dissolved limited liability company, are reasonably estimated to arise after the effective date of dissolution or (ii) are based on a liability the ultimate maturity of which is more than 60 days after delivery of written notice to the claimant pursuant to subsection B of § 13.1-1049.1. Provision need not be made for any claim that is or is reasonably anticipated to be barred under subsection C of § 13.1-1049.2.

B. Within 10 days after the filing of the application, notice of the proceeding shall be given by the dissolved limited liability company to each claimant holding a contingent claim whose contingent claim is shown on the records of the dissolved limited liability company.

C. The court may appoint a guardian ad litem to represent all claimants whose identities are unknown in any proceeding brought under this section. The reasonable fees and expenses of such guardian, including all reasonable expert witness fees, shall be paid by the dissolved limited liability company.

D. Provision by the dissolved limited liability company for security in the amount and the form ordered by the court under subsection A shall satisfy the dissolved limited liability company's obligations with respect to claims that do not meet the definition of a claim in subsection D of § 13.1-1049.1, and such claims may not be enforced against a member who received assets in liquidation.

2006, c. 912; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1050. Articles of cancellation.

A. When the affairs of a limited liability company have been wound up pursuant to § 13.1-1048, it shall file articles of cancellation with the Commission. The articles shall set forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company;

2. The identification number issued by the Commission to the limited liability company;

3. The effective date of its certificate of organization;

4. A statement that the limited liability company has completed the winding up of its affairs; and

5. Any other information the members determine to include therein, including the reason for filing the articles of cancellation.

B. If the Commission finds that the articles of cancellation comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall by order issue a certificate of cancellation, canceling the limited liability company's existence. Upon the effective date of such certificate, the existence of the limited liability company shall cease, except for the purpose of suits, other proceedings, and appropriate actions by members as provided in this chapter.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 748; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1050.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2008, c. 108, cl. 2, effective April 1, 2009.

§ 13.1-1050.2. Automatic cancellation of limited liability company existence.

A. Whether or not the notice described in subsection B of § 13.1-1064 is mailed, if any limited liability company fails to pay its annual registration fee on or before the last day of the third month immediately following its annual registration fee due date each year, the existence of the limited liability company shall be automatically canceled as of that day.

B. If any limited liability company whose registered agent has filed with the Commission a statement of resignation pursuant to § 13.1-1017 fails to file a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016 within 31 days after the date on which the statement of resignation was filed, the Commission shall mail notice to the limited liability company of the impending cancellation of its existence. If the limited liability company fails to file the statement of change on or before the last day of the second month immediately following the month in which the impending cancellation notice was mailed, the existence of the limited liability company shall be automatically canceled as of that day.

C. The properties and affairs of a limited liability company whose existence has been canceled pursuant to this section shall pass automatically to its managers, or if the limited liability company is managed by its members, then to its members, or if the limited liability company has no managers or members, then to the holders of its interests, in each such case as trustees in liquidation. The trustees shall then proceed to (i) collect the assets of the limited liability company; (ii) sell, convey, and dispose of such of its properties as are not to be distributed in kind to its members; (iii) pay, satisfy, and discharge its liabilities and obligations; and (iv) do all other acts required to liquidate its business and affairs. After paying or adequately providing for the payment of all its obligations, the trustees shall distribute the remainder of its assets, either in cash or in kind, among its members or interest holders according to their respective rights and interests.

D. No member, manager or other agent of a limited liability company shall have any personal obligation for any liabilities of the limited liability company, whether such liabilities arise in contract, tort, or otherwise, solely by reason of the cancellation of the limited liability company's existence pursuant to this section.

2008, c. 108; 2010, c. 703; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1050.3. Involuntary cancellation of limited liability company existence.

A. The existence of a limited liability company may be canceled involuntarily by order of the Commission when it finds that the limited liability company has:

1. Continued to exceed or abuse the authority conferred upon it by law;

2. Failed to maintain a registered office or a registered agent in the Commonwealth as required by law;

3. Failed to file any document required by this chapter to be filed with the Commission; or

4. Been convicted for a violation of 8 U.S.C. § 1324a (f), as amended, for actions of its members or managers constituting a pattern or practice of employing unauthorized aliens in the Commonwealth.

B. Before entering any such order, the Commission shall issue a rule against the limited liability company giving it an opportunity to be heard and show cause why such an order should not be entered. The Commission may issue the rule on its own motion or on motion of the Attorney General.

C. The properties and affairs of a limited liability company whose existence has been canceled pursuant to this section shall pass automatically to its managers, or if the limited liability company is managed by its members, then to its members, or if the limited liability company has no managers or members, then to the holders of its interests, in each such case as trustees in liquidation. The trustees shall then proceed to (i) collect the assets of the limited liability company; (ii) sell, convey, and dispose of such of its properties as are not to be distributed in kind to its members; (iii) pay, satisfy, and discharge its liabilities and obligations; and (iv) do all other acts required to liquidate its business and affairs. After paying or adequately providing for the payment of all its obligations, the trustees shall distribute the remainder of its assets, either in cash or in kind, among its members or interest holders according to their respective rights and interests.

D. Any limited liability company convicted of the offense listed in subdivision A 4 shall immediately report such conviction to the Commission and file with the Commission an authenticated copy of the judgment or record of conviction. A limited liability company whose existence is canceled pursuant to subdivision A 4 shall not be eligible for reinstatement for a period of not less than one year.

2008, c. 108; 2009, c. 167.

§ 13.1-1050.4. Reinstatement of a limited liability company that has ceased to exist.

A. A limited liability company that has ceased to exist may apply to the Commission for reinstatement within five years thereafter, unless the cancellation was by order of the Commission (i) entered pursuant to subdivision A 1 of § 13.1-1050.3 or (ii) entered pursuant to § 13.1-1047 and the circuit court's decree directing dissolution contains no provision for reinstatement of the existence of the limited liability company.

B. To have its existence reinstated, a limited liability company shall provide the Commission with the following:

1. An application for reinstatement, which may be in the form of a letter, that includes the identification number issued by the Commission to the limited liability company;

2. A reinstatement fee of $100;

3. All annual registration fees and penalties that were due before the limited liability company ceased to exist and that would have been assessed or imposed to the date of reinstatement if the limited liability company's existence had not been canceled;

4. If the name of the limited liability company does not comply with the provisions of § 13.1-1012 at the time of reinstatement, articles of amendment to the articles of organization to change the limited liability company's name to a name that satisfies the provisions of § 13.1-1012, with the fee required by this chapter for the filing of articles of amendment; and

5. If the limited liability company's registered agent has filed a statement of resignation and a new registered agent has not been appointed, a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016.

C. If the limited liability company complies with the provisions of this section, the Commission shall enter an order of reinstatement of existence. Upon entry of the order, the existence of the limited liability company shall be deemed to have continued from the date of the cancellation as if cancellation had never occurred, and any liability incurred by the limited liability company or a member, manager, or other agent after the cancellation and before the reinstatement is determined as if cancellation of the limited liability company's existence had never occurred.

2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1050.5. Survival of remedy after cancellation of existence.

The cancellation of existence of a limited liability company shall not take away or impair any remedy available to or against the limited liability company or its members or managers for any right or claim existing, or any liability incurred, before the cancellation. Any action or proceeding by or against the limited liability company may be prosecuted or defended by the limited liability company in its name. The members or managers shall have power to take limited liability company action or other action as shall be appropriate to protect any remedy, right, or claim.

2016, c. 288.