Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 13.1. Corporations
6/4/2020

Article 9. Directors and Officers.

§ 13.1-673. Requirement for and duties of board of directors.

A. Except as provided in an agreement authorized by § 13.1-671.1, each corporation shall have a board of directors.

B. All corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the authority of the board of directors, and the business and affairs of the corporation managed under the direction, and subject to the oversight, of the board of directors, subject to any limitation set forth in the articles of incorporation permitted by subdivision B 3 of § 13.1-619 or in an agreement authorized under § 13.1-671.1.

Code 1950, § 13.1-35; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 1990, c. 337; 2005, c. 765; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-674. Qualifications for directors or for nominees for director.

A. The articles of incorporation or bylaws may prescribe qualifications for directors or for nominees for director.

B. A requirement that is based on a past, current, or prospective action, or on an expression of an opinion, by a nominee or director that (i) relates to the discharge of a director's duties and (ii) could limit the ability of the nominee or director to discharge his duties as a director is not a permissible qualification for a nominee or director under this section. Permissible qualifications for a nominee or director under this section include the person's not being or having been subject to specified criminal, civil, or regulatory sanctions or not having been removed as a director by judicial action or for cause.

C. A director need not be a resident of the Commonwealth or a shareholder of the corporation unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws so prescribe.

D. A qualification for nomination for director that is prescribed before a person's nomination shall apply to the person at the time of his nomination. A qualification for nomination for director that is prescribed after a person's nomination shall not apply to that person with respect to such nomination.

E. A qualification for directors that is prescribed before a person's nomination for director may provide that it applies (i) only at the start of the director's term or (ii) during that person's term as director. A qualification for directors prescribed during a director's term shall not apply to that director prior to the end of that director's term.

Code 1950, § 13.1-35; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2012, c. 706; 2015, c. 611; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-675. Number and election of directors.

A. A board of directors shall consist of one or more individuals, with the number specified in or fixed in accordance with the articles of incorporation or bylaws. The number of directors may be increased or decreased from time to time by amendment of, or in the manner provided in, the articles of incorporation or bylaws.

B. The articles of incorporation or bylaws may establish a variable range for the size of the board of directors by fixing a minimum and maximum number of directors. If a variable range is established, the number of directors may be fixed or changed from time to time, within the minimum and maximum, by the shareholders or by the board of directors.

C. Directors are elected at the first annual shareholders' meeting and at each annual meeting thereafter unless elected by written consent in lieu of an annual meeting as permitted by § 13.1-657 or unless their terms are staggered under § 13.1-678.

D. No individual shall be named or elected as a director without his prior consent.

Code 1950, § 13.1-36; 1956, c. 428; 1968, c. 87; 1973, c. 50; 1974, c. 662; 1977, c. 123; 1982, c. 104; 1985, c. 522; 1991, c. 112; 2005, c. 765; 2006, c. 330; 2010, c. 782; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-676. Election of directors by certain classes or series of shares.

If the articles of incorporation authorize dividing the shares into classes or series, the articles of incorporation may also authorize the election of all or a specified number of directors by the holders of one or more authorized classes or series of shares. A class or series, or multiple classes or series, of shares entitled to elect one or more directors is a separate voting group for purposes of the election of directors.

Code 1950, § 13.1-37; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-677. Terms of directors generally.

A. The terms of the initial directors of a corporation expire at the first shareholders' meeting at which directors are elected, unless their terms are staggered pursuant to § 13.1-678, in which case the term shall expire at the applicable second or third annual shareholders' meeting.

B. The terms of all other directors expire at the next, or if the terms are staggered pursuant to § 13.1-678, at the applicable second or third annual shareholders' meeting following their election, except to the extent a shorter term is specified in the articles of incorporation in the event of a director nominee failing to receive a specified vote for election.

C. A decrease in the number of directors does not shorten an incumbent director's term.

D. The term of a director elected by the board of directors to fill a vacancy expires at the next shareholders' meeting at which directors are elected.

E. Except to the extent otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation, despite the expiration of a director's term, the director continues to serve until the director's successor is elected and qualifies or until there is a decrease in the number of directors.

F. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, the terms of the directors of a corporation registered under the federal Investment Company Act of 1940 shall expire according to, and otherwise be governed by, the provisions of the federal Investment Company Act of 1940.

Code 1950, § 13.1-36; 1956, c. 428; 1968, c. 87; 1973, c. 50; 1974, c. 662; 1977, c. 123; 1982, c. 104; 1985, c. 522; 1990, c. 228; 2005, c. 765; 2007, c. 165; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-678. Staggered terms for directors.

The articles of incorporation may provide for staggering the terms of directors by dividing the total number of directors into two or three groups, with each group containing one-half or one-third of the total, as near as may be practicable. In that event, the terms of directors in the first group expire at the first annual shareholders' meeting after their election, the terms of the second group expire at the second annual shareholders' meeting after their election, and the terms of the third group, if any, expire at the third annual shareholders' meeting after their election. At each annual shareholders' meeting held thereafter, directors shall be elected for a term of two years or three years, as the case may be, to succeed those whose terms expire.

Code 1950, § 13.1-37; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-679. Resignation of directors.

A. A director may resign at any time by delivering a written notice of resignation to the board of directors or its chairman, or to the secretary of the corporation.

B. A resignation is effective as provided in subdivision 9 of § 13.1-610 unless the resignation provides for a delayed effectiveness including effectiveness determined upon a future event or events. If a resignation provides for a delayed effectiveness, the board of directors may fill the pending vacancy before the effectiveness of the resignation if the board of directors provides that the successor does not take office until the effectiveness of the resignation. A resignation that is conditioned upon failing to receive a specified vote for election as a director may provide that it is irrevocable.

C. Any person whose name is of record in the office of the clerk of the Commission as a director of a corporation, and who has resigned or whose name is incorrectly of record, may file a statement to that effect with the Commission.

D. Upon the resignation of a director, the corporation may file an amended annual report with the Commission indicating the resignation of the director and the successor in office, if any.

1985, c. 522; 1991, c. 124; 2005, c. 765; 2007, c. 165; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-680. Removal of directors by shareholders.

A. The shareholders may remove one or more directors with or without cause, unless the articles of incorporation provide that directors may be removed only for cause.

B. If a director is elected by a voting group of shareholders, only the shareholders of that voting group may participate in the vote to remove the director.

C. If cumulative voting in the election of directors is authorized by the articles of incorporation, a director may not be removed if, in the case of a shareholders' meeting, the number of votes sufficient to elect him under cumulative voting is voted against his removal and, if action is taken by less than unanimous consent, voting shares entitled to the number of votes sufficient to elect the director under cumulative voting do not consent to the removal. If cumulative voting in the election of directors is not authorized by the articles of incorporation, unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws require a greater vote, a director may be removed if the number of votes cast to remove the director constitutes a majority of the votes entitled to be cast at an election of directors of the voting group or voting groups by which the director was elected.

D. A director may be removed by the shareholders at a shareholders' meeting if the meeting is called for the purpose of removing the director. The meeting notice shall state that the purpose, or one of the purposes of the meeting, is removal of the director.

E. Upon the removal of a director, the corporation may file an amended annual report with the Commission indicating the removal of the director and the successor in office, if any.

Code 1950, §§ 13-205, 13.1-42; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 1991, c. 124; 2005, c. 765; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-681. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2010, c. 782, cl. 2.

§ 13.1-681.1. Removal of directors by judicial proceeding.

A. The circuit court in the county or city in which the principal office of the corporation is located, or, if none in the Commonwealth, in the county or city in which its registered office is located, may remove a director from office, and may bar the director from reelection for a period prescribed by the court, in a proceeding commenced by or in the right of the corporation if the court finds that (i) the director engaged in fraudulent conduct with respect to the corporation or its shareholders, grossly abused the position of director, or intentionally inflicted harm on the corporation and (ii) considering the director's course of conduct and the inadequacy of other available remedies, removal would be in the best interest of the corporation.

B. A shareholder proceeding on behalf of the corporation under subsection A shall comply with all of the requirements of Article 8.1 (§ 13.1-672.1 et seq.) except for those set forth in subdivisions A 1 and 2 of § 13.1-672.1.

2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-682. Vacancy on board of directors.

A. Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, if a vacancy occurs on the board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors:

1. The shareholders may fill the vacancy;

2. The board of directors may fill the vacancy; or

3. If the directors remaining in office are less than a quorum of the board of directors, they may fill the vacancy by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors remaining in office.

B. Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, if the vacant office was held by a director elected by a voting group of shareholders, only the shareholders of that voting group are entitled to vote to fill the vacancy if it is filled by the shareholders and only the remaining directors elected by that voting group, even if less than a quorum of the board of directors, are entitled to fill the vacancy if it is filled by the remaining directors.

C. A vacancy that will occur at a specific later date, by reason of a resignation effective at a later date under subsection B of § 13.1-679 or otherwise, may be filled before the vacancy occurs but the new director may not take office until the vacancy occurs.

D. The corporation may file an amended annual report with the Commission indicating the filling of a vacancy.

Code 1950, § 13.1-38; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 1991, c. 124; 2007, c. 165; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-683. Compensation of directors.

Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, the board of directors may fix the compensation of directors.

Code 1950, § 13.1-35; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522.

§ 13.1-684. Meetings of the board of directors.

A. The board of directors may hold regular or special meetings in or out of this Commonwealth.

B. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, the board of directors may permit any or all directors to participate in a regular or special meeting by, or conduct the meeting through the use of, any means of communication by which all directors participating may simultaneously hear each other during the meeting. A director participating in a meeting by this means is deemed to be present in person at the meeting.

Code 1950, § 13.1-41; 1956, c. 428; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522.

§ 13.1-685. Action without meeting of board of directors.

A. Except to the extent that the articles of incorporation or bylaws require that action by the board of directors be taken at a meeting, action required or permitted by this chapter to be taken by the board of directors may be taken without a meeting if each director signs a consent describing the action to be taken and delivers it to the corporation's secretary.

B. Action taken under this section is effective as the act of the board of directors when the last director signs the consent unless the consent specifies a different effective date, in which event the action taken is effective as of the date specified therein, provided that if such date precedes the date when the last director signs the consent states the date of execution by each director.

C. A director's consent may be withdrawn by a revocation signed by the director and delivered to the corporation's secretary before delivery to the corporation's secretary of unrevoked written consents signed by all the directors.

D. Any person, whether or not then a director, may provide that a consent to action as a director shall be effective at a future time, including the time when an event occurs, but such future time shall not be more than 60 days after such provision is made. Any such consent shall be deemed to have been made for purposes of this section at the future time so specified for the consent to be effective, provided that (i) the person is a director at such future time and (ii) the person did not revoke the consent prior to such future time. Any such consent may be revoked, in the manner provided in subsection C, prior to its becoming effective.

E. For purposes of this section, a written consent or revocation and the signing thereof may be accomplished by one or more electronic transmissions.

F. A consent signed under this section has the effect of action taken at a meeting of the board of directors and may be described as such in any document.

Code 1950, § 13.1-41.1; 1964, c. 419; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2005, c. 765; 2015, c. 611; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-686. Notice of board of directors' meetings.

A. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without notice of the date, time, place or purpose of the meeting.

B. Special meetings of the board of directors shall be held upon such notice as is prescribed in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, or when not inconsistent with the articles of incorporation or bylaws, by resolution of the board of directors. The notice need not describe the purpose of the special meeting unless required by the articles of incorporation or bylaws.

Code 1950, § 13.1-41; 1956, c. 428; 1975, c. 500; 1985, c. 522; 2002, c. 285; 2005, c. 765; 2010, c. 782.

§ 13.1-687. Waiver of notice by director.

A. A director may waive any notice required by this chapter, the articles of incorporation, or bylaws before or after the date and time stated in the notice, and such waiver shall be equivalent to the giving of such notice. Except as provided in subsection B, the waiver shall be in writing, signed by the director entitled to the notice, and delivered to the corporation's secretary for filing by the corporation with the minutes of the meeting or corporate records.

B. A director's attendance at or participation in a meeting waives any required notice to the director of the meeting unless the director at the beginning of the meeting or promptly upon the director's arrival objects to holding the meeting or transacting business at the meeting and does not after objecting vote for or assent to action taken at the meeting.

Code 1950, § 13.1-27; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-688. Quorum and voting by directors.

A. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws require a greater or lesser number for the transaction of all business or any particular business, or unless otherwise specifically provided in this chapter, a quorum of the board of directors consists of:

1. A majority of the fixed number of directors if the corporation has a fixed board size; or

2. A majority of the number of directors prescribed, or if no number is prescribed the number in office immediately before the meeting begins, if the corporation has a variable-range size board.

B. The articles of incorporation or bylaws may authorize a quorum of a board of directors to consist of no fewer than one-third of the specified or fixed number of directors determined under subsection A.

C. If a quorum is present when a vote is taken, the affirmative vote of a majority of directors present is the act of the board of directors unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws require the vote of a greater number of directors or unless otherwise expressly provided in this chapter.

D. A director who is present at a meeting of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors when corporate action is taken is deemed to have assented to the action taken unless:

1. The director objects at the beginning of the meeting, or promptly upon the director's arrival, to holding it or transacting specified business at the meeting;

2. The director's dissent or abstention from the action taken is entered in the minutes of the meeting; or

3. The director delivers written notice of the director's dissent or abstention to the presiding officer of the meeting before its adjournment or to the secretary of the corporation or meeting immediately after adjournment of the meeting. The right of dissent or abstention is not available to a director who votes in favor of the action taken.

E. Except as may be provided in an agreement authorized by § 13.1-671.1, a director shall not vote by proxy.

F. Whenever this chapter requires the board of directors to take any action or to recommend or approve any proposed corporate act, such action, recommendation, or approval shall not be required if the proposed action or corporate act is adopted by the unanimous consent of shareholders.

Code 1950, §§ 13-206, 13-207, 13.1-39, 13.1-44; 1956, c. 428; 1966, c. 131; 1985, c. 522; 1992, c. 471; 2005, c. 765; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-689. Committees.

A. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, a board of directors may establish one or more committees of the board of directors to perform functions of the board of directors and appoint two or more directors of the board of directors to serve on each committee. While non-board members may also be appointed to a committee, they may not vote on any matter for which the committee is performing a function of the board of directors. Each committee member serves at the pleasure of the board of directors.

B. Unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws provide otherwise, the establishment of a committee and appointment of members to it shall be approved by the greater number of (i) a majority of all the directors in office when the action is taken or (ii) the number of directors required by the articles of incorporation or bylaws to take action under § 13.1-688.

C. Sections 13.1-684 through 13.1-688, which govern meetings, action without meetings, notice and waiver of notice, and quorum and voting requirements of the board of directors, apply to committees and their members as well.

D. To the extent specified by the board of directors or in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, each committee may exercise the authority of the board of directors under § 13.1-673, except that a committee may not:

1. Approve or propose to shareholders action that this chapter requires to be approved by shareholders;

2. Fill vacancies on the board of directors or, subject to subsection E, on any committee;

3. Amend the articles of incorporation pursuant to § 13.1-706;

4. Adopt, amend, or repeal the bylaws;

5. Approve a plan of merger not requiring shareholder approval;

6. Authorize or approve a distribution, except according to a formula or method, or within limits, prescribed by the board of directors; or

7. Authorize or approve the issuance or sale or contract for sale of shares, or determine the designation and rights, preferences, and limitations of a class or series of shares, except that the board of directors may (i) authorize a committee to do so subject to such limits, if any, as may be prescribed by the board of directors, and (ii) authorize a senior executive officer of the corporation to do so subject to such limits, if any, as may be prescribed by the board of directors or by subsection C of § 13.1-646.

E. The board of directors may appoint one or more directors as alternate members of any committee to replace any absent or disqualified member during the member's absence or disqualification. Unless the articles of incorporation or the bylaws or the resolutions of the board of directors establishing the committee provide otherwise, in the event of the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee and there are no alternate members appointed by the board of directors, the member or members of the committee present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting may by unanimous action appoint another director to act in place of the absent or disqualified member during that member's absence or disqualification.

Code 1950, § 13.1-40; 1956, c. 428; 1975, c. 500; 1980, c. 341; 1985, c. 522; 2005, c. 765; 2010, c. 782; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-690. General standards of conduct for director.

A. A director shall discharge his duties as a director, including his duties as a member of a committee, in accordance with his good faith business judgment of the best interests of the corporation.

B. Unless a director has knowledge or information concerning the matter in question that makes reliance unwarranted, the director is entitled to rely on information, opinions, reports, or statements, including financial statements and other financial data, if prepared or presented by:

1. One or more officers or employees of the corporation whom the director believes, in good faith, to be reliable and competent in the matters presented;

2. Legal counsel, public accountants, or other persons as to matters the director believes, in good faith, are within the person's professional or expert competence; or

3. A committee of the board of directors of which he is not a member if the director believes, in good faith, that the committee merits confidence.

C. A director is not liable for any action taken as a director, or any failure to take any action, if he performed the duties of his office in compliance with this section.

D. A person alleging a violation of this section has the burden of proving the violation.

Code 1950, §§ 13-206, 13-207, 13.1-44; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-690.1. Director of open-end management investment company deemed disinterested.

A director of a corporation that is an open-end management investment company, as defined by the federal Investment Company Act of 1940, who with respect to the corporation is not an interested person, as defined by the federal Investment Company Act of 1940, shall be deemed to be disinterested when making any determination or taking any action as a director of the corporation.

2006, c. 330; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-691. Director conflict of interests.

A. A conflict of interests transaction is a transaction with the corporation in which a director of the corporation has an interest that precludes the director from being a disinterested director. A conflict of interests transaction is not voidable by the corporation solely because of the director's interest in the transaction if any one of the following is true:

1. The material facts of the transaction and the director's interest were disclosed or known to the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors and the board of directors or committee authorized, approved, or ratified the transaction;

2. The material facts of the transaction and the director's interest were disclosed to the shareholders entitled to vote and they authorized, approved, or ratified the transaction; or

3. The transaction was fair to the corporation.

B. For purposes of subdivision A 1, a conflict of interests transaction is authorized, approved, or ratified if it receives the affirmative vote of a majority of the disinterested directors on the board of directors, or on the committee. A transaction shall not be authorized, approved, or ratified under this section by a single director. If a majority of the disinterested directors vote to authorize, approve or ratify the transaction, a quorum is present for the purpose of taking action under this section. The presence of, or a vote cast by, a director who is not disinterested does not affect the validity of any action taken under subdivision A 1 if the transaction is otherwise authorized, approved or ratified as provided in that subsection.

C. For purposes of subdivision A 2, a conflict of interests transaction is authorized, approved, or ratified if it receives the vote of a majority of the shares entitled to be counted under this subsection. Shares owned by or voted under the control of a director who is not disinterested may not be counted in a vote of shareholders to determine whether to authorize, approve, or ratify a conflict of interests transaction under subdivision A 2. The vote of those shares, however, shall be counted in determining whether the transaction is approved under other sections of this chapter. A majority of the shares, whether or not present, that are entitled to be counted in a vote on the transaction under this subsection constitutes a quorum for the purpose of taking action under this section.

Code 1950, § 13.1-39.1; 1975, c. 500; 1980, c. 341; 1985, c. 522; 2005, c. 765.

§ 13.1-691.1. Business opportunities.

A. A director's taking advantage, directly or indirectly, of a business opportunity may not be the subject of equitable relief, or give rise to an award of damages or other sanctions against the director, in a proceeding by or in the right of the corporation on the ground that such opportunity should have first been offered to the corporation, if before becoming legally obligated respecting the opportunity the director brings it to the attention of the corporation and:

1. Directors' action disclaiming the corporation's interest in the opportunity is taken in compliance with the procedures set forth in subdivision A 1 of § 13.1-691, as if the decision being made concerned a director's conflict of interests transaction; or

2. Shareholders' action disclaiming the corporation's interest in the opportunity is taken in compliance with the procedures set forth in subdivision A 2 of § 13.1-691, as if the decision being made concerned a director's conflict of interests transaction.

B. In any proceeding seeking equitable relief or other remedies, based upon an alleged improper taking advantage of a business opportunity by a director, the fact that the director did not employ one of the procedures described in subsection A before taking advantage of the opportunity shall not create an inference that the opportunity should have been first presented to the corporation or alter the burden of proof otherwise applicable to establish that the director breached a duty to the corporation in the circumstances.

2005, c. 765.

§ 13.1-692. Liability for unlawful distributions.

A. A director who votes for or assents to a distribution in excess of what may be authorized and made pursuant to this chapter or the articles of incorporation is personally liable to the corporation and its creditors for the amount of the distribution that exceeds what could have been distributed without violating this chapter or the articles of incorporation if the party asserting liability establishes that when taking the action the director did not comply with § 13.1-690.

B. A director held liable for an unlawful distribution under subsection A is entitled to:

1. Contribution from every other director who could be held liable under subsection A for the unlawful distribution; and

2. Recoupment from the shareholders who received the unlawful distribution in proportion to the amounts of such unlawful distribution received by them respectively.

C. No suit shall be brought against any director for any liability imposed by subsection A except within two years after the right of action shall accrue.

D. Contribution or recoupment under subsection B is barred unless it is commenced within one year after the liability of the claimant has been finally adjudicated under subsection A.

Code 1950, §§ 13-206, 13-207, 13.1-44; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 2005, c. 765; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-692.1. Limitation on liability of officers and directors; exception.

A. In any proceeding brought by or in the right of a corporation or brought by or on behalf of shareholders of the corporation, the damages assessed against an officer or director arising out of a single transaction, occurrence or course of conduct shall not exceed the lesser of:

1. The monetary amount, including the elimination of liability, specified in the articles of incorporation or, if approved by the shareholders, in the bylaws as a limitation on or elimination of the liability of the officer or director; or

2. The greater of (i) $100,000 or (ii) the amount of cash compensation received by the officer or director from the corporation during the 12 months immediately preceding the act or omission for which liability was imposed.

B. The liability of an officer or director shall not be limited as provided in this section if the officer or director engaged in willful misconduct or a knowing violation of the criminal law or of any federal or state securities law, including, without limitation, any claim of unlawful insider trading or manipulation of the market for any security.

1987, cc. 59, 257; 1988, c. 561; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-693. Required officers.

A. Except as provided in an agreement authorized by § 13.1-671.1, a corporation shall have such officers with such titles and duties as shall be described in the bylaws or in a resolution of the board of directors that is in accordance with the bylaws and as may be necessary to enable it to execute documents that comply with subsection F of § 13.1-604.

B. Officers shall be elected by the board of directors, except that an officer may appoint one or more officers or assistant officers if authorized by the bylaws or the board of directors.

C. The secretary of the corporation shall have the responsibility for preparing the minutes of the directors' and shareholders' meetings and for maintaining and authenticating the records of the corporation required to be kept under subsection E of § 13.1-770.

D. The same individual may simultaneously hold more than one office in a corporation.

E. Election or appointment of an officer does not of itself create any contract rights in the officer or the corporation.

Code 1950, § 13.1-45; 1956, c. 428; 1972, c. 606; 1975, c. 500; 1982, c. 372; 1985, c. 522; 1994, c. 189; 2005, c. 765; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-694. Duties of officers.

A. Each officer has the authority and shall perform the duties set forth in the bylaws or, to the extent consistent with the bylaws, the duties prescribed by the board of directors or by direction of an officer authorized by the board of directors to prescribe the duties of other officers.

B. In discharging his duties, an officer who does not have knowledge that makes reliance unwarranted is entitled to rely on:

1. The performance of properly delegated responsibilities by one or more employees of the corporation whom the officer believes in good faith to be reliable and competent in performing the responsibilities delegated; or

2. Information, opinions, reports or statements, including financial statements and other financial data, prepared or presented by one or more employees of the corporation whom the officer believes in good faith to be reliable and competent in the matters presented or by legal counsel, public accountants, or other persons retained by the corporation as to matters involving skills or expertise the officer believes in good faith are matters (i) within the particular person's professional or expert competence or (ii) as to which the particular person merits confidence.

Code 1950, § 13.1-45; 1956, c. 428; 1972, c. 606; 1975, c. 500; 1982, c. 372; 1985, c. 522; 2019, c. 734.

§ 13.1-695. Resignation and removal of officers.

A. An officer may resign at any time by delivering a written notice to the board of directors, its chairman, the appointing officer, if any, or the corporation's secretary. A resignation is effective as provided in subdivision 9 of § 13.1-610 unless the notice provides for a delayed effectiveness. If effectiveness of a resignation is stated to be delayed and the board of directors or the appointing officer, if any, accepts the delay, the board of directors or the appointing officer, if any, may fill the pending vacancy before the delayed effectiveness but the new officer may not take office until the vacancy occurs.

B. An officer may be removed at any time with or without cause by (i) the board of directors; (ii) the appointing officer, if any, unless the bylaws or the board of directors provides otherwise; or (iii) any other officer, if authorized by the bylaws or the board of directors. An officer's removal does not affect such officer's contract rights, if any, with the corporation. An officer's resignation does not affect the corporation's contract rights, if any, with the officer.

C. Any person who has resigned as an officer of a corporation, or whose name is of record in the office of the clerk of the Commission as an officer of a corporation, may file a statement to that effect with the Commission.

D. Upon the resignation or removal of an officer, the corporation may file an amended annual report with the Commission indicating the resignation or removal of the officer and the successor in office, if any.

E. As used in this section "appointing officer" means the officer, including any successor to that officer, who, in accordance with subsection B of § 13.1-693, appointed the officer who is resigning or being removed.

Code 1950, § 13.1-46; 1956, c. 428; 1985, c. 522; 1990, c. 282; 1991, cc. 124, 146; 2005, c. 765; 2019, c. 734.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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