Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 24.2. Elections
Subtitle .
Chapter 3. Election Districts, Precincts, and Polling Places
3/1/2024

Chapter 3. Election Districts, Precincts, and Polling Places.

Article 1. Joint Reapportionment Committee [Repealed].

§ 24.2-300. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 1000.

Article 2. Congressional, Senatorial, and House of Delegates Districts.

§ 24.2-302. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, Sp. Sess. I, c. 7, cl. 2, effective July 19, 2001.

§ 24.2-302.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2012, c. 1, cl. 2, effective January 25, 2012.

§ 24.2-302.2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2023, c. 455, cl. 2.

§ 24.2-303. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, Sp. Sess. I, c. 2.

§ 24.2-303.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, Sp. Sess. I, c. 1, cl. 2, effective April 29, 2011.

§ 24.2-303.3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2023, c. 455, cl. 2.

§ 24.2-304. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, Sp. Sess. I, c. 1.

§ 24.2-304.01. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2011, Sp. Sess. I, c. 1, cl. 2, effective April 29, 2011.

§ 24.2-304.04. Standards and criteria for congressional and state legislative districts.

Every congressional and state legislative district shall be constituted so as to adhere to the following criteria:

1. Districts shall be so constituted as to give, as nearly as is practicable, representation in proportion to the population of the district. A deviation of no more than five percent shall be permitted for state legislative districts.

2. Districts shall be drawn in accordance with the requirements of the Constitution of the United States, including the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Constitution of Virginia; federal and state laws, including the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965, as amended; and relevant judicial decisions relating to racial and ethnic fairness.

3. No district shall be drawn that results in a denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen to vote on account of race or color or membership in a language minority group. No district shall be drawn that results in a denial or abridgement of the rights of any racial or language minority group to participate in the political process and to elect representatives of their choice. A violation of this subdivision is established if, on the basis of the totality of the circumstances, it is shown that districts were drawn in such a way that members of a racial or language minority group are dispersed into districts in which they constitute an ineffective minority of voters or are concentrated into districts where they constitute an excessive majority. The extent to which members of a racial or language minority group have been elected to office in the state or the political subdivision is one circumstance that may be considered. Nothing in this subdivision shall establish a right to have members of a racial or language minority group elected in numbers equal to their proportion in the population.

4. Districts shall be drawn to give racial and language minorities an equal opportunity to participate in the political process and shall not dilute or diminish their ability to elect candidates of choice either alone or in coalition with others.

5. Districts shall be drawn to preserve communities of interest. For purposes of this subdivision, a "community of interest" means a neighborhood or any geographically defined group of people living in an area who share similar social, cultural, and economic interests. A "community of interest" does not include a community based upon political affiliation or relationship with a political party, elected official, or candidate for office.

6. Districts shall be composed of contiguous territory, with no district contiguous only by connections by water running downstream or upriver, and political boundaries may be considered.

7. Districts shall be composed of compact territory and shall be drawn employing one or more standard numerical measures of individual and average district compactness, both statewide and district by district.

8. A map of districts shall not, when considered on a statewide basis, unduly favor or disfavor any political party.

9. The whole number of persons reported in the most recent federal decennial census by the United States Bureau of the Census shall be the basis for determining district populations, except that no person shall be deemed to have gained or lost a residence by reason of conviction and incarceration in a federal, state, or local correctional facility. Persons incarcerated in a federal, state, or local correctional facility shall be counted in the locality of their address at the time of incarceration, and the Division of Legislative Services shall adjust the census data pursuant to § 24.2-314 for this purpose.

2020, cc. 1229, 1265.

Article 2.1. Reapportionment of Local Election Districts.

§ 24.2-304.1. At-large and district elections; reapportionment and redistricting of districts or wards; limits.

A. Except as otherwise specifically limited by general law or special act, the governing body of each county, city, or town may provide by ordinance for the election of its members on any of the following bases: (i) at large from the county, city, or town; (ii) from single-member or multi-member districts or wards, or any combination thereof; or (iii) from any combination of at-large, single-member, and multi-member districts or wards. A change in the basis for electing the members of the governing body shall not constitute a change in the form of county government.

B. If the members are elected from districts or wards and other than entirely at large from the locality, the districts or wards shall be composed of contiguous and compact territory and shall be so constituted as to give, as nearly as is practicable, representation in proportion to the population of the district or ward. In 1971 and every 10 years thereafter, the governing body of each such locality shall reapportion the representation among the districts or wards, including, if the governing body deems it appropriate, increasing or diminishing the number of such districts or wards, in order to give, as nearly as is practicable, representation on the basis of population.

C. For the purposes of redistricting and reapportioning representation in 2021 and every 10 years thereafter, the governing body of a county, city, or town shall use the most recent decennial population figures for such county, city, or town from the United States Bureau of the Census, as adjusted by the Division of Legislative Services pursuant to § 24.2-314. The census data for these redistricting and apportionment purposes will not include any population figure that is not allocated to specific census blocks within the Commonwealth, even though that population may have been included in the apportionment population figures of the Commonwealth for the purpose of allocating United States House of Representatives seats among the states.

D. Notwithstanding any other provision of general law or special act, the governing body of a county, city, or town shall not reapportion the representation in the governing body at any time other than that required following the decennial census, except as (i) provided by law upon a change in the boundaries of the county, city, or town that results in an increase or decrease in the population of the county, city, or town of more than one percent, (ii) the result of a court order, (iii) the result of a change in the form of government, or (iv) the result of an increase or decrease in the number of districts or wards other than at-large districts or wards. The foregoing provisions notwithstanding, the governing body subsequent to the decennial redistricting may adjust district or ward boundaries in order that the boundaries might coincide with state legislative or congressional district boundaries; however, no adjustment shall affect more than five percent of the population of a ward or district or 250 persons, whichever is lesser. If districts created by a reapportionment enacted subsequent to a decennial reapportionment are invalid under the provisions of this subsection, the immediately preexisting districts shall remain in force and effect until validly reapportioned in accordance with law.

1995, c. 249; 2000, c. 884; 2001, Sp. Sess. I, c. 6; 2002, c. 127; 2012, c. 357; 2013, c. 483; 2020, cc. 1229, 1265.

§ 24.2-304.2. Governing body authorized to expend funds for reapportionment.

The governing body of each county, city, or town is authorized to expend funds and employ persons as it may deem necessary to carry out the responsibilities relating to reapportionment provided by law.

1995, c. 249.

Article 2. Congressional, Senatorial, and House of Delegates Districts.

§ 24.2-304.03. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2023, c. 455, cl. 2.

Article 2.1. Reapportionment of Local Election Districts.

§ 24.2-304.3. Recording reapportionment ordinance; notice requirements.

A copy of the ordinance reapportioning representation in the governing body of a county, city, or town, including a description of the boundaries and a map showing the boundaries of the districts or wards, shall be recorded in the official minutes of the governing body.

The clerk of the county, city, or town shall send a certified copy of the ordinance, including a description of the boundaries and a Geographic Information System (GIS) map showing the boundaries of the districts or wards, to the local electoral board, the Secretary of the Commonwealth, the Department of Elections, and the Division of Legislative Services. Any county, city, or town that does not have GIS capabilities may request the Department of Elections to create on its behalf a GIS map showing the boundaries of the districts or wards as set out in the ordinance, and the Department of Elections shall create such a map.

1995, c. 249; 2019, cc. 777, 778.

§ 24.2-304.4. Mandamus action for failure to reapportion districts or wards.

Whenever the governing body of any county, city or town fails to perform the duty of reapportioning the representation on the governing body among the districts or wards of the county, city, or town, or fails to change the boundaries of districts or wards, as prescribed by law, mandamus shall lie in favor of any citizen of such county, city, or town, to compel the performance of such duty.

Whenever the governing body of any county, city or town changes the boundaries, or increases or diminishes the number of districts or wards, or reapportions the representation in the governing body as prescribed by law, the action shall not be subject to judicial review, unless it is alleged that the representation is not proportional to the population of the district or ward. If such allegation is made in a bill of complaint filed in the circuit court for the county, city or town, the court shall determine whether the action of the governing body complies with the constitutional requirements for redistricting and reapportionment. Appeals from the court's decision shall be as in any other suit.

1995, c. 249.

Article 2. Congressional, Senatorial, and House of Delegates Districts.

§ 24.2-304.05. Legal boundaries of congressional and state legislative districts.

A. There shall be 11 Virginia members of the United States House of Representatives elected from 11 congressional districts, and each district is entitled to one representative. The district numbers and boundaries of the 11 congressional districts shall be those designated in the block equivalency file and resulting shapefile that is the electronic version of the districts established pursuant to Article II, § 6-A of the Constitution of Virginia and Chapter 62 (§ 30-391 et seq.) of Title 30.

B. There shall be 40 members of the Senate of Virginia elected from 40 senate districts, and each district is entitled to representation by one senator. The district numbers and boundaries of the 40 senate districts shall be those designated in the block equivalency file and resulting shapefile that is the electronic version of the districts established pursuant to Article II, § 6-A of the Constitution of Virginia and Chapter 62 (§ 30-391 et seq.) of Title 30.

C. There shall be 100 members of the House of Delegates elected from 100 House of Delegates districts and each district is entitled to representation by one delegate. The district numbers and boundaries of the 100 House of Delegates districts shall be those designated in the block equivalency file and resulting shapefile that is the electronic version of the districts established pursuant to Article II, § 6-A of the Constitution of Virginia and Chapter 62 (§ 30-391 et seq.) of Title 30.

D. The block equivalency files and shapefiles for a congressional, senate, or House of Delegates district shall be controlling in any legal determination of the boundary of such district.

2023, c. 455.

Article 2.1. Reapportionment of Local Election Districts.

§ 24.2-304.5. Notification of certain civil actions.

Any county, city, or town made a defendant in any civil action challenging the legality of its election district boundaries shall immediately notify the Attorney General of the pending civil action for review pursuant to § 2.2-508.

1995, c. 249.

§ 24.2-304.6. Effect of reapportionment on appointments and terms of local officers, school board and planning commission members.

County, city, or town officers, including members of the school board or planning commission, in office on the effective date of a reapportionment or redistricting ordinance, shall complete their terms of office, regardless of loss of residency in a particular district due to reapportionment or redistricting.

1995, c. 249.

Article 3. Requirements for Election Districts, Precincts, and Polling Places.

§ 24.2-305. Composition of election districts and precincts.

A. Each election district and precinct shall be composed of compact and contiguous territory and shall have clearly defined and clearly observable boundaries.

B. A "clearly observable boundary" shall include (i) any named road or street, (ii) any road or highway which is a part of the federal, primary, or secondary state highway system, (iii) any river, stream, or drainage feature shown as a polygon boundary on the TIGER/line files of the United States Bureau of the Census, or (iv) any other natural or constructed or erected permanent physical feature which is shown on an official map issued by the Virginia Department of Transportation, on a United States Geological Survey topographical map, or as a polygon boundary on the TIGER/line files of the United States Bureau of the Census. No property line or subdivision boundary shall be deemed to be a clearly observable boundary unless it is marked by a permanent physical feature that is shown on an official map issued by the Virginia Department of Transportation, on a United States Geological Survey topographical map, or as a polygon boundary on the TIGER/line files of the United States Bureau of the Census.

1986, c. 593, § 24.1-40.7; 1990, c. 500; 1992, c. 425; 1993, c. 641; 2001, c. 614.

§ 24.2-306. Changes not to be enacted within 60 days of general election; notice requirements.

A. No change in any local election district, precinct, or polling place shall be enacted within 60 days next preceding any general election. Notice shall be published prior to enactment in a newspaper having general circulation in the election district or precinct once a week for two successive weeks. The published notice shall state where descriptions and maps of proposed boundary and polling place changes may be inspected.

B. Notice of any adopted change in any election district, town, precinct, or polling place other than in the location of the office of the general registrar shall be mailed to all registered voters whose election district, town, precinct, or polling place is changed at least 15 days prior to the next general, special, or primary election in which the voters will be voting in the changed election district, town, precinct, or polling place. Notice of a change in the location of the office of the general registrar shall be given by posting on the official website of the county or city, by posting at not less than 10 public places, or by publication once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city within not more than 21 days in advance of the change or within seven days following the change.

C. Each county, city, and town shall comply with the applicable requirements of law, including §§ 24.2-304.3 and 30-395, and send copies of enacted changes, including a Geographic Information System (GIS) map showing the new boundaries of the districts or precincts, to the local electoral board, the Department, and the Division of Legislative Services. Any county, city, or town that does not have GIS capabilities may request the Department of Elections to create on its behalf a GIS map showing the boundaries of the new districts or precincts, and the Department of Elections shall create such a map.

Code 1950, §§ 24-49 through 24-51; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-39; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 249; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 1000; 2012, cc. 328, 486; 2019, cc. 777, 778; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, c. 56; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533; 2022, Sp. Sess. I, c. 1.

§ 24.2-307. Requirements for county and city precincts.

The governing body of each county and city shall establish by ordinance as many precincts as it deems necessary. Each governing body is authorized to increase or decrease the number of precincts and alter precinct boundaries subject to the requirements of this chapter.

At the time any precinct is established, it shall have no more than 5,000 registered voters. The general registrar shall notify the governing body whenever the number of voters who voted in a precinct in an election for President of the United States exceeds 4,000. Within six months of receiving the notice, the governing body shall proceed to revise the precinct boundaries, and any newly established or redrawn precinct shall have no more than 5,000 registered voters.

At the time any precinct is established, each precinct in a county shall have no fewer than 100 registered voters and each precinct in a city shall have no fewer than 500 registered voters.

Each precinct shall be wholly contained within a single congressional district, Senate district, House of Delegates district, and election district used for the election of one or more members of the governing body or school board for the county or city. In each year ending in one, the governing body of each county and city shall establish the precinct boundaries to be consistent with any congressional district, Senate district, House of Delegates district, and local election district that was adopted by the appropriate authority by June 15 of that year. If congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts have not been adopted by the appropriate authority by June 15 of a year ending in one, the governing body may use the congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts as such districts existed on June 15 of that year as the basis for establishing the precinct boundaries to be used for the elections to be held in November of that year. Such governing body shall establish precinct boundaries to be consistent with any subsequent changes to the congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts. If a governing body is unable to establish a precinct with the minimum number of registered voters without splitting the precinct between two or more congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts, it shall apply to the State Board for a waiver to administer a split precinct. The State Board may grant the waiver or direct the governing body to establish a precinct with fewer than the minimum number of registered voters as permitted by § 24.2-309. A governing body granted a waiver to administer a split precinct or directed to establish a precinct with fewer than the minimum number of registered voters may use such a precinct for any election held that year.

The governing body shall establish by ordinance one polling place for each precinct.

Code 1950, §§ 24-45, 24-46; 1954, c. 375; 1956, c. 378; 1962, cc. 185, 536; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-36, 24.1-37; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1976, c. 616; 1977, c. 30; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1992, c. 445; 1993, c. 641; 1999, c. 515; 2020, c. 1268.

§ 24.2-308. Requirements for town precincts.

There shall be one precinct for each town unless the council by ordinance establishes more than one precinct.

Each town precinct shall be wholly contained within any election district used for the election of one or more council or school board members.

The council shall establish by ordinance one polling place for each precinct.

Code 1950, § 24-171; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-92; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1992, c. 445; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-309. Establishment of precinct with less than minimum number of voters; conduct of elections where all voters do not have same choice of candidates.

A precinct may be established with fewer than the minimum number of registered voters required by this article if a larger precinct cannot be established in which all persons are voting at any general election for the same candidates for the governing body and school board of the county or city, House of Delegates, state Senate, and United States House of Representatives. The governing body may select a polling place within one mile of the boundaries of that precinct if a suitable polling place is not available within that precinct.

The State Board shall make regulations setting procedures by which elections may be conducted in precincts in which all voters do not have the same choice of candidates at a general election.

1971, Ex. Sess., c. 264, § 24.1-40; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-309.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, c. 614.

§ 24.2-309.2. Election precincts; prohibiting precinct changes for specified period of time.

No county, city, or town shall create, divide, abolish, or consolidate any precincts, or otherwise change the boundaries of any precinct, effective during the period from February 1, 2019, to May 15, 2021, except as (i) provided by law upon a change in the boundaries of the county, city, or town, (ii) the result of a court order, (iii) the result of a change in the form of government, or (iv) the result of an increase or decrease in the number of local election districts other than at-large districts. Any ordinance required to comply with the requirements of § 24.2-307 shall be adopted on or before February 1, 2019.

If a change in the boundaries of a precinct is required pursuant to clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv), the county, city, or town shall comply with the applicable requirements of law, including §§ 24.2-304.3 and 30-395, and send copies of the ordered or enacted changes to the State Board of Elections and the Division of Legislative Services.

This section shall not prohibit any county, city, or town from adopting an ordinance revising precinct boundaries after January 1, 2021. However, no revisions in precinct boundaries shall be implemented in the conduct of elections prior to May 15, 2021.

2008, c. 112; 2018, cc. 778, 779; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, c. 56; 2022, Sp. Sess. I, c. 1.

§ 24.2-310. Requirements for polling places.

A. The polling place for each precinct shall be located within the county or city and either within the precinct or within one mile of the precinct boundary, unless a waiver has been granted pursuant to subsection G. The polling place for a county precinct may be located within a city (i) if the city is wholly contained within the county election district served by the precinct or (ii) if the city is wholly contained within the county and the polling place is located on property owned by the county. The polling place for a town precinct may be located within one mile of the precinct and town boundary. For town elections held in November, the town shall use the polling places established by the county for its elections.

B. The governing body of each county, city, and town shall provide funds to enable the general registrar to provide adequate facilities at each polling place for the conduct of elections. Each polling place shall be located in a public building whenever practicable. If more than one polling place is located in the same building, each polling place shall be located in a separate room or separate and defined space.

C. Polling places shall be accessible to qualified voters as required by the provisions of the Virginians with Disabilities Act (§ 51.5-1 et seq.), the Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act (52 U.S.C. § 20101 et seq.), and the Americans with Disabilities Act relating to public services (42 U.S.C. § 12131 et seq.). The State Board shall provide instructions to the local electoral boards and general registrars to assist the localities in complying with the requirements of the Acts.

D. If an emergency makes a polling place unusable or inaccessible, the electoral board or the general registrar shall provide an alternative polling place and give notice of the change in polling place, including to all candidates, or such candidate's campaign, appearing on the ballot to be voted at the alternative polling place, subject to the prior approval of the State Board. The general registrar shall provide notice to the voters appropriate to the circumstances of the emergency. For the purposes of this subsection, an "emergency" means a rare and unforeseen combination of circumstances, or the resulting state, that calls for immediate action.

E. It shall be permissible to distribute campaign materials on the election day on the property on which a polling place is located and outside of the building containing the room where the election is conducted except as specifically prohibited by law including, without limitation, the prohibitions of § 24.2-604 and the establishment of the "Prohibited Area" within 40 feet of any entrance to the polling place. However, and notwithstanding the provisions of clause (i) of subsection A of § 24.2-604, and upon the approval of the local electoral board, campaign materials may be distributed outside the polling place and inside the structure where the election is conducted, provided that the "Prohibited Area" (i) includes the area within the structure that is beyond 40 feet of any entrance to the polling place and the area within the structure that is within 40 feet of any entrance to the room where the election is conducted and (ii) is maintained and enforced as provided in § 24.2-604. The local electoral board may approve campaigning activities inside the building where the election is conducted when an entrance to the building is from an adjoining building, or if establishing the 40-foot prohibited area outside the polling place would hinder or delay a qualified voter from entering or leaving the building.

F. Any local government, local electoral board, or the State Board may make monetary grants to any non-governmental entity furnishing facilities under the provisions of § 24.2-307 or 24.2-308 for use as a polling place. Such grants shall be made for the sole purpose of meeting the accessibility requirements of this section. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to obligate any local government, local electoral board, or the State Board to appropriate funds to any non-governmental entity.

G. The general registrar or the governing body of the locality may request from the Department of Elections a waiver to establish a polling place that does not meet the location requirements of subsection A in the event that there is no suitable building that could be used within the precinct or within one mile of the precinct boundary. The Department shall grant such a waiver and may impose any conditions on the waiver that it deems necessary or appropriate to ensure accessibility and security of the polling place and compliance with any other requirements of state or federal law.

Code 1950, §§ 24-45, 24-46, 24-171, 24-179 through 24-181; 1954, c. 375; 1956, c. 378; 1962, cc. 185, 536; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-36, 24.1-37, 24.1-92, 24.1-97; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1976, c. 616; 1977, c. 30; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1984, c. 217; 1985, c. 197; 1986, c. 558; 1992, c. 445; 1993, cc. 546, 641; 1994, c. 307; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 25; 2005, c. 340; 2008, cc. 113, 394; 2010, cc. 639, 707; 2012, cc. 488, 759; 2016, cc. 18, 492; 2022, c. 5.

§ 24.2-310.1. Polling places; additional requirement.

The requirement stated in this section shall be in addition to requirements stated in §§ 24.2-307, 24.2-308, and 24.2-310, including the requirement that polling places be located in public buildings whenever practical. No polling place shall be located in a building which serves primarily as the headquarters, office, or assembly building for any private organization, other than an organization of a civic, educational, religious, charitable, historical, patriotic, cultural, or similar nature, unless the State Board has approved the use of the building because no other building meeting the accessibility requirements of this title is available.

1993, c. 904, § 24.1-37.1; 1993, c. 641.

Article 4. Effective Dates of Redistricting Measures.

§ 24.2-311. Effective date of decennial redistricting measures; elections following decennial redistricting.

A. Legislation enacted to accomplish the decennial redistricting of congressional and General Assembly districts required by Article II, Section 6 of the Constitution of Virginia shall take effect immediately. Members of Congress and the General Assembly in office on the effective date of the decennial redistricting legislation shall complete their terms of office. The elections for their successors shall be held at the November general election next preceding the expiration of the terms of office of the incumbent members and shall be conducted on the basis of the districts set out in the legislation to accomplish the decennial redistricting. However, (i) if the decennial redistricting of congressional districts has not been enacted and approved for implementation pursuant to § 5 of the United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 before January 1 of the year of the election for statewide office, the previously enacted congressional districts shall remain in effect for the purpose of meeting the petition signature requirements set out in §§ 24.2-506, 24.2-521, 24.2-543, and 24.2-545 and (ii) any reference on a petition to the usual primary date of the third Tuesday in June shall not be cause to invalidate the petition even though the date of the primary may be altered by law.

B. Ordinances adopted by local governing bodies to accomplish the decennial redistricting of districts for county, city, and town governing bodies required by Article VII, Section 5 of the Constitution of Virginia shall take effect immediately. Members of county, city, and town governing bodies in office on the effective date of a decennial redistricting measure shall complete their terms of office. The elections for their successors shall be held at the general election next preceding the expiration of the terms of office of the incumbent members and shall be conducted on the basis of the districts set out in the measures to accomplish the decennial redistricting.

C. If a vacancy in any such office occurs after the effective date of a decennial redistricting measure and a special election is required by law to fill the vacancy, the vacancy shall be filled from the district in the decennial redistricting measure which most closely approximates the district in which the vacancy occurred.

D. If a decennial redistricting measure adopted by a local governing body adds one or more districts and also increases the size of the governing body, an election for the additional governing body member or members to represent the additional district or districts for the full or partial term provided by law shall be held at the next November general election in any county or in any city or town that regularly elects its governing body in November pursuant to § 24.2-222.1, or at the next May general election in any other city or town, which occurs at least 120 days after the effective date of the redistricting measure.

E. In the event of a conflict between the provisions of a decennial redistricting measure and the provisions of the charter of any locality, the provisions of the redistricting measure shall be deemed to override the charter provisions to the extent required to give effect to the redistricting plan.

1990, c. 500, § 24.1-17.2; 1993, c. 641; 2000, c. 1045; 2012, c. 791; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 239.

§ 24.2-312. Effective date of other redistricting measures; elections following annexation.

A. Any redistricting, other than the decennial redistricting, of any county, city, or town shall be effective at midnight December 31 of the year in which the redistricting occurs.

B. Members of county, city, and town governing bodies in office when any such redistricting measure is adopted shall complete their terms of office. The elections for their successors shall be held at the general election next preceding the expiration of the terms of office of the incumbent members and shall be conducted on the basis of the districts set out in the measures to accomplish the redistricting.

C. When a county has been redistricted as a result of annexation and the redistricting occurs in the year of a regularly scheduled November general election for members of the county's board of supervisors, the November general election shall be conducted from the newly established districts so long as the redistricting measure has been adopted prior to March 15 of the year of the election.

D. When a city or town has been redistricted as a result of annexation and the redistricting occurs prior to a regularly scheduled May general election for members of the city's or town's governing body, the May general election shall be conducted from the newly established districts so long as the redistricting measure has been adopted prior to the November 15 immediately preceding the election.

1990, c. 500, § 24.1-17.3; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 249.

§ 24.2-313. Rescheduling of certain local elections following the decennial redistricting of districts for the governing body.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, elections for members of the governing body or school board of any county, city, or town that would be held on a regularly scheduled date for a general election, but are delayed because the decennial redistricting plan of such county, city, or town is not precleared by the Attorney General of the United States pursuant to § 5 of the federal Voting Rights Act at least thirty days prior to the general election, shall be held as provided in this section, unless otherwise provided by a court of competent jurisdiction. In the event the Attorney General grants preclearance at least thirty days prior to the general election, the election shall be held as scheduled and shall be conducted from the newly established districts. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any county, city, or town election scheduled to be held entirely on an at-large basis.

B. In each such county, city, or town, such election shall be held on the first Tuesday (i) that is more than sixty days after the Attorney General of the United States issues a letter stating that he interposes no objection to a decennial redistricting plan approved and submitted by the county, city, or town; (ii) that is not the scheduled date of a primary election; and (iii) that is not within the sixty days before or the thirty-five days after a primary or general election.

C. Independent candidates for such rescheduled elections shall qualify in the manner provided by §§ 24.2-505 and 24.2-506, and party nominees shall be nominated and certified at least thirty days before the new election date.

D. All candidates shall file the statements required by §§ 24.2-501 and 24.2-502 at least thirty days before the new election date.

E. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections C and D, any candidate who qualified to have his name printed on the ballot for the original election date, pursuant to § 24.2-504, shall be automatically qualified to have his name printed on the ballot for the delayed election date and shall not have to refile the required documents, provided that the boundaries of the district in which he is seeking office are the same as when he was originally qualified. In any district in which the boundaries have been changed, candidates shall requalify for the ballot; however, at the request of any candidate who filed as an independent, his original petitions shall be reviewed by the registrar, previously verified signatures of voters who reside in the new district shall be counted toward the number needed to qualify to run in the new district, and the candidate may supplement such petitions when he refiles under § 24.2-505.

F. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the term of members of any governing body or school board elected under the provisions of this act shall commence on the first day of the second month following the election and shall terminate on the day on which the term would have expired had the general election been held on its regularly scheduled day.

G. The term of members of any governing body affected by this act that would otherwise expire prior to the commencement of the term of their successors elected pursuant to this section shall be extended until the date that the term of members elected pursuant to this section commences, notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary.

2002, c. 189.

Article 5. Population Data.

§ 24.2-314. Population data; reallocation of prison populations.

A. Persons incarcerated in federal correctional facilities and in state and local correctional facilities, as those terms are defined in § 53.1-1, shall be counted and reallocated for redistricting and reapportionment purposes in accordance with the provisions of this section and the following:

1. A person incarcerated in a federal, state, or local correctional facility whose address at the time of incarceration was located within the Commonwealth shall be deemed to reside at such address.

2. A person incarcerated in a federal, state, or local correctional facility whose address at the time of incarceration was located outside of the Commonwealth or whose address at the time of incarceration cannot be determined shall be deemed to reside at the location of the facility in which he is incarcerated.

B. By July 1 of any year in which the decennial census is taken, the Department of Corrections and the State Board of Local and Regional Jails shall provide to the Division of Legislative Services, in a format specified by the Division of Legislative Services, the following information for each person who was incarcerated in a state or local correctional facility on April 1 of that year:

1. A unique identifier, other than his name or offender identification number, assigned by the Department of Corrections or the State Board of Local and Regional Jails for this purpose;

2. His residential street address at the time of incarceration, or other legal residence, if known;

3. His race, his ethnicity as identified by him, and whether he is 18 years of age or older; and

4. The street address of the correctional facility in which he was incarcerated on April 1 of that year.

C. The Division of Legislative Services shall request each agency operating a federal correctional facility in the Commonwealth that incarcerates persons convicted of a criminal offense to provide to the Division of Legislative Services by July 1 of any year in which the decennial census is taken a record containing the information specified in subsection B for each person who was incarcerated in the facility on April 1 of that year. Any person incarcerated in a federal correctional facility for whom a record is not received by the Division of Legislative Services shall be deemed to have an address at the time of incarceration that cannot be determined.

D. The Division of Legislative Services shall prepare adjusted population data, including race and ethnicity data, in a manner that reflects the inclusion of incarcerated persons in the population count of the locality in which he is deemed to reside pursuant to subdivision A 1 or 2.

This adjusted population data shall be used for purposes of redistricting and reapportionment and shall be the basis for congressional, state Senate, House of Delegates, and local government election districts. This adjusted population data shall not be used in the distribution of any federal or state aid.

E. The Division of Legislative Services shall make the adjusted population data available no later than 30 days following receipt of population data from the United States Bureau of the Census pursuant to P.L. 94-171. In making this data available, the Division of Legislative Services shall ensure no information regarding a specific incarcerated person's address at the time of incarceration is made public.

2020, cc. 759, 1229, 1265.