Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 32.1. Health
6/16/2019

Article 3.02. Quarantine and Isolation of Persons with Communicable Diseases of Public Health Threat.

§ 32.1-48.05. Application of article; determination of exceptional circumstances; regulations; duties of the State Health Commissioner not be delegated.

A. Upon a determination by the State Health Commissioner that exceptional circumstances exist relating to one or more persons in the Commonwealth who are known to have been exposed to or infected with or reasonably suspected to have been exposed to or infected with a communicable disease of public health threat and that such exceptional circumstances render the procedures of Article 3.01 (§ 32.1-48.01 et seq.) of this chapter to be insufficient control measures or that the individuals have failed or refused to comply voluntarily with the control measures directed by the State Health Commissioner in response to a communicable disease of public health threat, the State Health Commissioner may invoke the provisions of this article relating to quarantine and isolation.

B. The Board of Health shall promulgate regulations for the implementation of this article that shall (i) address the circumstances that are subject to the application of Article 3.01 (§ 32.1-48.01 et seq.) of this chapter and the exceptional circumstances in which this article may be invoked by the State Health Commissioner; (ii) provide procedures to assure that any quarantine or isolation is implemented in the least restrictive environment; (iii) ensure that the essential needs of persons subject to an order of isolation issued pursuant to this article shall be met, including, but not limited to, food, water, and health care, e.g., medications, therapies, testing, and durable medical equipment; (iv) provide procedures for proper notice of orders of quarantine and orders of isolation; (v) provide procedures for the State Health Commissioner to issue an emergency detention order for persons for whom he has probable cause to believe that they may fail or refuse to comply with an order of quarantine or an order of isolation; and (vi) address any other issue or procedure covered herein that the Board deems to be properly the subject of regulation.

C. The powers granted to the State Health Commissioner pursuant to this article shall not be delegated to or invoked by any local or district health department director. However, in the event the State Health Commissioner, duly appointed and confirmed pursuant to § 32.1-17, shall be unable to perform his duties pursuant to this article, any Deputy Commissioner, appointed by the State Health Commissioner and approved by the Board pursuant to § 32.1-22, shall be authorized to invoke the provisions of this article.

2004, cc. 773, 1021.

§ 32.1-48.06. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Affected area" means any part or the whole of the Commonwealth, which has been identified as where persons reside, or may be located, who are known to have been exposed to or infected with or who are reasonably suspected to have been exposed to or infected with a communicable disease of public health threat. "Affected area" shall include, but not be limited to, cities, counties, towns, and subsections of such areas, public and private property, buildings, and other structures.

"Communicable disease of public health threat" means an illness of public health significance, as determined by the State Health Commissioner in accordance with regulations of the Board of Health, caused by a specific or suspected infectious agent that may be reasonably expected or is known to be readily transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another and has been found to create a risk of death or significant injury or impairment; this definition shall not, however, be construed to include human immunodeficiency viruses or tuberculosis, unless used as a bioterrorism weapon. "Individual" shall include any companion animal. Further, whenever "person or persons" is used herein it shall be deemed, when the context requires it, to include any individual.

"Companion animal" means, consistent with the provisions of § 3.2-6500, any domestic or feral dog, domestic or feral cat, nonhuman primate, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit not raised for human food or fiber, exotic or native animal, reptile, exotic or native bird, or any feral animal or any animal under the care, custody, or ownership of a person or any animal that is bought, sold, traded, or bartered by any person. Agricultural animals, game species, or any animals regulated under federal law as research animals shall not be considered companion animals for the purposes of this article.

"Isolation" means the physical separation, including confinement or restriction of movement, of an individual or individuals who are infected with or are reasonably suspected to be infected with a communicable disease of public health threat in order to prevent or limit the transmission of the communicable disease of public health threat to other uninfected and unexposed individuals.

"Law-enforcement agency" means any sheriff's office, police department, adult or youth correctional officer, or other agency or department that employs persons who have law-enforcement authority that is under the direction and control of the Commonwealth or any local governing body. "Law-enforcement agency" shall include, by order of the Governor, the Virginia National Guard.

"Quarantine" means the physical separation, including confinement or restriction of movement, of an individual or individuals who are present within an affected area, as defined herein, or who are known to have been exposed or may reasonably be suspected to have been exposed to a communicable disease of public health threat and who do not yet show signs or symptoms of infection with the communicable disease of public health threat in order to prevent or limit the transmission of the communicable disease of public health threat to other unexposed and uninfected individuals.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-48.07. Conditions for invoking the provisions of this article.

A. Prior to issuing any order of quarantine or any order of isolation pursuant to this article, the State Health Commissioner shall ensure that:

1. Any quarantine or isolation is implemented in the least restrictive environment necessary to contain the communicable disease of public health threat;

2. Any quarantined persons shall be confined separately from any isolated persons, to the maximum extent practicable;

3. Upon determining that any quarantined person can be reasonably believed to have become infected with a communicable disease of public health threat, the infected person shall be promptly removed from quarantine and placed in isolation;

4. The health and disease status of any quarantined and isolated persons shall be monitored regularly to determine if such persons require continued quarantine or isolation;

5. Any quarantined or isolated persons shall be immediately released from quarantine or isolation upon a determination by the State Health Commissioner that such quarantined or isolated persons pose no risk of transmitting the communicable disease of public health threat to other persons; and

6. The site of any quarantine or isolation shall be, to the extent practicable, safely and hygienically maintained with adequate food, clothing, health care, and other essential needs made available to the persons who are subject to any order of quarantine or isolation.

B. All persons subject to an order of quarantine or an order of isolation shall comply with the order and the conditions governing their quarantine or isolation.

C. In the case of any person who has been quarantined or isolated in a location other than a medical care facility, the State Health Commissioner shall authorize health care professionals to enter the premises of quarantine or isolation. No person, other than such authorized health care professionals, shall enter the premises of quarantine or isolation, unless authorized by the State Health Commissioner. Upon determining that any person, who has entered the premises of quarantine or isolation, poses a threat to public health and safety, the State Health Commissioner may quarantine or isolate such person.

2004, cc. 773, 1021.

§ 32.1-48.08. Declaration of quarantine.

A. The State Health Commissioner may declare a quarantine of any person or persons or any affected area after he finds that the quarantine is the necessary means to contain a communicable disease of public health threat as defined in § 32.1-48.06 to which such person or persons or the people of an affected area have been or may have been exposed and thus may become infected.

B. The State Health Commissioner shall record his findings and any information on which he has relied in making the finding required for quarantine pursuant to subsection A. The State Health Commissioner's record of findings concerning any communicable disease of public health threat shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed in accordance with subdivision 12 of § 2.2-3705.5.

C. The State Health Commissioner may order the quarantined person or persons to remain in their residences, to remain in another place where they are present, or to report to a place or places designated by the State Health Commissioner for the duration of their quarantine. An electronic device may be used to enforce any such quarantine. The Commissioner's order of quarantine shall be for a duration consistent with the known incubation period for such disease or, if the incubation period is unknown, for a period anticipated as being consistent with the incubation period for other similar infectious agents.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2017, c. 778.

§ 32.1-48.09. Order of quarantine.

A. The State Health Commissioner shall, prior to placing any person or persons under quarantine, issue an order of quarantine that shall: (i) identify the communicable disease of public health threat that is reasonably believed to be involved and the reasons why exceptional circumstances apply and the quarantine is the necessary means to contain the risks of transmission of the disease; (ii) contain sufficient information to provide reasonable notice to persons who are affected by the order of quarantine that they are subject to the order; (iii) specify the means by which the quarantine is to be implemented; (iv) establish clearly the geographic parameters of the quarantine, if involving an affected area; (v) specify the duration of the quarantine; (vi) provide sufficient directions for compliance with the quarantine to enable persons subject to the order to comply; (vii) provide timely opportunities, if not readily available under the circumstances, for the person or persons who are subject to the order to notify employers, next of kin or legally authorized representatives and the attorneys of their choice of the situation; (viii) specify the penalty or penalties that may be imposed for noncompliance with the order of quarantine pursuant to § 32.1-27; and (ix) include a copy of § 32.1-48.010 to inform any person or persons subject to an order of quarantine of the right to seek judicial review of the order.

B. No affected area shall be the subject to an order of quarantine issued by the State Health Commissioner unless the Governor, pursuant to the authority vested in him pursuant to Chapter 3.2 (§ 44-146.13 et seq.) of Title 44, has declared a state of emergency for such affected area of the Commonwealth.

C. The order of quarantine shall be delivered to any person or persons affected by the quarantine, in so far as practicable. However, if, in the opinion of the State Health Commissioner, the number of quarantined persons is too great to make delivery of copies of the order of quarantine to each person possible in a timely manner, or if the order of quarantine designates an affected area instead of a specific person or persons, the State Health Commissioner shall cause the order of quarantine to be communicated to the persons residing or located in the affected area.

D. The State Health Commissioner or his legal representative shall, as soon as practicable following the issuance of an order of quarantine, file a petition seeking an ex parte court review and confirmation of the quarantine.

E. The petition shall be filed in the circuit court for the city or county in which the person or persons resides or is located or, in the case of an affected area, in the circuit court of the affected jurisdiction or jurisdictions.

The petition shall include (i) a copy of the order of quarantine or all information contained in the State Health Commissioner's order of quarantine in some other format and (ii) a summary of the findings on which the Commissioner relied in deciding to issue the order of quarantine.

Upon receiving multiple orders of quarantine, the court may, on the motion of any party or on the court's own motion, consolidate the cases into a single proceeding for all orders when (i) there are common questions of law or fact relating to the individual claims or rights to be determined, (ii) the claims of the consolidated cases are substantially similar, and (iii) all parties to the orders will be adequately represented in the consolidation.

F. Prior to the expiration of the original order of quarantine, the Commissioner may extend the duration of the original order upon finding that such an extension is necessary. The Commissioner, or his legal representative, shall, as soon as practicable following the extension of an order of quarantine, file a petition seeking court review and confirmation of the order to extend the duration of the quarantine.

G. In reviewing the petition for review and confirmation of the order of quarantine or an extension of the order of quarantine, the court shall give due deference to the specialized expertise of the State Health Commissioner. The court shall grant the petition to confirm or extend the quarantine upon finding probable cause that quarantine was the necessary means to contain the disease of public health threat and is being implemented in the least restrictive environment to address the public health threat effectively, given the reasonably available information on effective control measures and the nature of the communicable disease of public health threat.

H. The State Health Commissioner may, if he reasonably believes that public disclosure of the information contained in the order of quarantine or the petition for court review and confirmation or extension of the order of quarantine will exacerbate the public health threat or compromise any current or future criminal investigation or compromise national security, file some or all of any petition relating to an order of quarantine under seal. After reviewing any information filed under seal by the State Health Commissioner, the court shall reseal the relevant materials to the extent necessary to protect public health and safety.

I. The State Health Commissioner shall ensure that the protected health information of any person or persons subject to the order of quarantine shall only be disclosed in compliance with § 32.1-127.1:03 of this title and the regulations relating to privacy of health records promulgated by the federal Department of Health and Human Services pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. § 1320d et seq.).

J. Any law-enforcement officer, state or local health department employee, or any other person designated by a law-enforcement officer or state or local health department employee is empowered and authorized to deliver an order of quarantine.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-48.010. Appeal of any order of quarantine.

A. Any person or persons subject to an order of quarantine or a court-ordered extension of any such order pursuant to this article may file an appeal of the order of quarantine as such order applies to such person or persons in the circuit court for the city or county in which the subject or subjects of the order reside or are located or the circuit court for the jurisdiction or jurisdictions for any affected area. Any petition for appeal shall be in writing, shall set forth the grounds on which the order of quarantine is being challenged vis-a-vis the subject person or persons or affected area, and shall be served upon the State Health Commissioner or his legal representative.

B. A hearing on the appeal of the order of quarantine shall be held within 48 hours of the filing of the petition for appeal or, if the 48-hour period terminates on a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday or day on which the court is lawfully closed, the hearing shall be held on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday or day on which the court is lawfully closed.

In extraordinary circumstances, for good cause shown, the Commissioner may request a continuance of the hearing, which the court shall only grant after giving due regard to the rights of the affected individuals, the protection of the public health and safety, the severity of the emergency, and the availability of witnesses and evidence.

C. Any person appealing an order of quarantine shall have the burden of proving that he is not properly the subject of the order of quarantine.

D. The filing of an appeal shall not stay any order of quarantine.

E. Upon receiving multiple appeals of an order of quarantine that applies to a group of persons or an affected area, the court may, on the motion of any party or on the court's own motion, consolidate the cases in a single proceeding for all appeals when (i) there are common questions of law or fact relating to the individual claims or rights to be determined; (ii) the claims of the consolidated cases are substantially similar; and (iii) all parties to the appeals will be adequately represented in the consolidation.

F. The circuit court shall not conduct a de novo review of the order of quarantine; however, the court shall consider the existing record and such supplemental evidence as the court shall consider relevant. The court shall conduct the hearing on an appeal of an order of quarantine in a manner that will protect the health and safety of court personnel, counsels, witnesses, and the general public and in accordance with rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia pursuant to subsection C of § 17.1-503. The court may, for good cause shown, hold all or any portion of the hearings in camera upon motion of any party or upon the court's own motion.

G. Upon completion of the hearing, the court may (i) vacate or modify the order of quarantine as such order applies to any person who filed the appeal and who is not, according to the record and the supplemental evidence, appropriately subject to the order of quarantine; (ii) vacate or modify the order of quarantine as such order applies to all persons who filed an appeal and who are not, according to the record and the supplemental evidence, appropriately subject to the order of quarantine; (iii) confirm the order of quarantine as it applies to any person or all appealing parties upon a finding that such person or persons are appropriately subject to the order of quarantine and that quarantine is being implemented in the least restrictive environment to address the public health threat effectively, given the reasonably available information on effective control measures and the nature of the communicable disease of public health threat; or (iv) confirm the order of quarantine as it applies to all persons subject to the order upon finding that all such persons are appropriately subject to the order of quarantine and that quarantine is being implemented in the least restrictive environment to address the public health threat effectively, given the reasonably available information on effective control measures and the nature of the communicable disease of public health threat.

In any case in which the court shall vacate the order of quarantine as it applies to any person who has filed a request for review of such order and who is subject to such order or as it applies to all persons seeking judicial review who are subject to such order, the person or persons shall be immediately released from quarantine unless such order to vacate the quarantine shall be stayed by the filing of an appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia. Any party to the case may file an appeal of the circuit court decisions to the Supreme Court of Virginia. Parties to the case shall include any person who is subject to an order of quarantine and has filed an appeal of such order with the circuit court and the State Health Commissioner.

H. Appeals of any final order of any circuit court regarding the State Health Commissioner's petition for review and confirmation or extension of an order of quarantine or any appeal of an order of quarantine by a person or persons who are subject to such order shall be appealable directly to the Supreme Court of Virginia, with an expedited review in accordance with the rules of the court pursuant to subsection C of § 17.1-503.

I. Appeals of any circuit court order relating to an order of quarantine shall not stay any order of quarantine.

J. Persons requesting judicial review of any order of quarantine shall have the right to be represented by an attorney in all proceedings. If the person is unable to afford an attorney, counsel shall be appointed for the person by the circuit court for the jurisdiction in which the person or persons who are subject to the order of quarantine reside or, in the case of an affected area, by the circuit court for the jurisdiction or jurisdictions for the affected area. Counsel so appointed shall be paid at a rate established by the Supreme Court of Virginia from the Commonwealth's criminal fund.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-48.011. Isolation may be ordered under certain exceptional circumstances; Commissioner authorized to require hospitalization or other health care.

A. Whenever the State Health Commissioner makes a determination of exceptional circumstances pursuant to § 32.1-48.05 and that the isolation procedures set forth in Article 3.01 (§ 32.1-48.01 et seq.) of this chapter are insufficient control measures to contain a communicable disease of public health threat, the isolation procedures herein may be invoked.

B. The State Health Commissioner may order the isolation of a person or persons upon a finding that (i) such person or persons are infected with or may reasonably be suspected to be infected with a communicable disease of public health threat and (ii) isolation is necessary to protect the public health, to ensure such isolated person or persons receive appropriate medical treatment, and to protect health care providers and others who may come into contact with such infected person or persons.

C. The State Health Commissioner shall record his findings and any information on which he has relied in making the finding required for isolation pursuant to this section. The State Health Commissioner's record of findings concerning any communicable disease of public health threat that is involved in an order of isolation shall be confidential and shall not be disclosed in accordance with subdivision 12 of § 2.2-3705.5.

D. The Commissioner may order the isolated person or persons to remain in their places of residence, to remain in another place where they are present, or to report to a place or facility designated by the Commissioner for the duration of their isolation. An electronic device may be used to enforce any such isolation. The Commissioner's order of isolation shall be for a duration consistent with the known course of such communicable disease of public health threat or, if the course of the disease is unknown or uncertain, for a period consistent with the probable course of the communicable disease of public health threat.

E. To the extent that persons subject to an order of isolation pursuant to this article require hospitalization or other health care services, the State Health Commissioner shall be authorized to require that such services be provided.

F. The State Health Commissioner shall also have the authority to monitor the medical condition of any person or persons subject to an order of isolation pursuant to this article through regular visits by public health nurses or such other means as the Commissioner shall determine to be necessary.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2017, c. 778.

§ 32.1-48.012. Isolation order.

A. The State Health Commissioner shall, prior to placing any person or persons in isolation, prepare a written order of isolation that shall: (i) identify the person or persons subject to such order of isolation; (ii) identify the site of isolation, which may, in the Commissioner's discretion, include the residence of any isolated individual; (iii) specify the date and time that isolation is to commence; (iv) identify the communicable disease of public health threat or the suspected communicable disease of public health threat with which the person or persons are known to be infected or reasonably suspected to be infected; (v) specify the bases for isolation, including why isolation is the necessary means to contain transmission of the disease, and any conditions of the isolation; (vi) provide timely opportunities, if not readily available under the circumstances, for the person or person who are subject to the order to notify employers, next of kin or legally authorized representatives and the attorneys of their choice of the situation; (vii) specify the penalty or penalties that may be imposed for noncompliance with order of isolation pursuant to § 32.1-27; and (viii) include a copy of § 32.1-48.013 to inform any person or persons subject to an order of isolation of the right to seek judicial review or the order.

B. No affected area shall be the subject of an order of isolation prepared by the State Health Commissioner unless the Governor, pursuant to the authority vested in him pursuant to Chapter 3.2 (§ 44-146.13 et seq.) of Title 44, has declared a state of emergency for such affected area of the Commonwealth.

C. The order of isolation shall be delivered to any person or persons affected by the isolation, in so far as practicable. However, if, in the opinion of the State Health Commissioner, the number of isolated persons is too great to make delivery of copies of the order of isolation to each person possible in a timely manner, or if the order of isolation designates an affected area instead of a specific person or persons, the State Health Commissioner shall cause the order of isolation to be communicated to the persons residing or located in the affected area.

D. The State Health Commissioner shall, as soon as practicable following the issuance of an order of isolation, file a petition seeking an ex parte court order to review and confirm the isolation.

E. The petition shall be filed in the circuit court for the city or county in which the person or persons resides or is located or, in the case of an affected area, in the circuit court of the affected jurisdiction or jurisdictions.

Upon receiving multiple orders of isolation, the court may, on the motion of any party or on the court's own motion, consolidate the cases into a single proceeding for all orders when (i) there are common questions of law or fact relating to the individual claims or rights to be determined, (ii) the claims of the cases are substantially similar, and (iii) all parties to the orders will be adequately represented in the consolidation.

F. The petition shall include (i) a copy of the order of isolation or all information contained in the State Health Commissioner's order of isolation in some other format and (ii) a summary of the findings on which the Commissioner relied in determining that an order of isolation was required to contain the transmission of the communicable disease of public health threat.

G. Prior to the expiration of the original order of isolation, the Commissioner may extend the duration of the original order upon finding that such an extension is necessary. The Commissioner, or his legal representative, shall, as soon as practicable following the extension of an order of isolation, file a petition seeking court review and confirmation of the order to extend the duration of the isolation.

H. In reviewing any petition for review and confirmation or extension of the order of isolation, the court shall give due deference to the specialized expertise of the State Health Commissioner. The court shall grant the petition to confirm or extend the isolation upon finding probable cause that isolation was the necessary means and remains the least restrictive environment to address the public health threat effectively, given the reasonably available information on effective control measures and the nature of the communicable disease of public health threat.

I. The State Health Commissioner may, if he reasonably believes that public disclosure of the information contained in the order of isolation or the petition for review and confirmation or extension of the order of isolation will exacerbate the public health threat or compromise any current or future criminal investigation or compromise national security, file some or all of any petition to extend an order of isolation under seal. After reviewing any information filed under seal by the State Health Commissioner, the court shall reseal the relevant materials to the extent necessary to protect public health and safety.

J. The State Health Commissioner shall ensure that the protected health information of any person or persons subject to the order of isolation shall only be disclosed in compliance with the regulations relating to privacy of health records promulgated by the federal Department of Health and Human Services pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.

K. Any law-enforcement officer, state or local health department employee, or any other person designated by a law-enforcement officer or state or local health department employee is empowered and authorized to deliver an order of isolation.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-48.013. Appeal of any order of isolation.

A. Any person or persons subject to an order of isolation or a court-ordered confirmation or extension of any such order pursuant to this article may file an appeal of the order of isolation in the circuit court for the city or county in which such person or persons reside or are located or, in the case of an affected area, in the circuit court for any affected jurisdiction or jurisdictions. Any petition for appeal shall be in writing, shall set forth the grounds on which the order of isolation is being challenged vis-a-vis the subject person or persons or affected area, and shall be served upon the State Health Commissioner or his legal representative.

B. A hearing on the appeal of the order of isolation shall be held within 48 hours of the filing of the petition for appeal or, if the 48-hour period terminates on a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday or day on which the court is lawfully closed, the hearing shall be held on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday or day on which the court is lawfully closed.

In extraordinary circumstances, for good cause shown, the Commissioner may request a continuance of the hearing, which the court shall only grant after giving due regard to the rights of the affected individuals, the protection of the public health and safety, the severity of the emergency, and the availability of witnesses and evidence.

C. Any person appealing an order of isolation shall have the burden of proving that he is not properly the subject of the order of isolation.

D. An appeal shall not stay any order of isolation.

E. Upon receiving multiple appeals of an order of isolation, the court may, on the motion of any party or on the court's own motion, consolidate the cases in a single proceeding for all appeals when (i) there are common questions of law or fact relating to the individual claims or rights to be determined; (ii) the claims of the consolidated cases are substantially similar; and (iii) all parties to the appeals will be adequately represented in the consolidation.

F. The circuit court shall not conduct a de novo review of the order of isolation; however, the court shall consider the existing record and such supplemental evidence as the court shall consider relevant. The court shall conduct the hearing on an appeal of an order of isolation in a manner that will protect the health and safety of court personnel, counsels, witnesses, and the general public and in accordance with rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia pursuant to subsection C of § 17.1-503. The court may, for good cause shown, hold all or any portion of the hearings in camera upon motion of any party or the court's own motion.

G. Upon completion of the hearing, the court may (i) vacate or modify the order of isolation as such order applies to any person who filed the appeal and who is not, according to the record and the supplemental evidence, appropriately subject to the order of isolation; (ii) vacate or modify the order of isolation as such order applies to all persons who filed an appeal and who are not, according to the record and the supplemental evidence, appropriately subject to the order of isolation; (iii) confirm the order of isolation as it applies to any person or all appealing parties upon a finding that such person or persons are appropriately subject to the order of isolation and that isolation is being implemented in the least restrictive environment to address the public health threat effectively, given the reasonably available information on effective infection control measures and the nature of the communicable disease of public health threat; or (iv) confirm the order of isolation as it applies to all persons subject to the order upon finding that all such persons are appropriately subject to the order of isolation and that isolation is being implemented in the least restrictive environment to address the public health threat effectively given the reasonably available information on effective control measures and the nature of the communicable disease of public health threat.

In any case in which the court shall vacate the order of isolation as it applies to any person who has filed a request for review of such order and who is subject to such order or as it applies to all persons seeking judicial review who are subject to such order, the person or persons shall be immediately released from isolation unless such order to vacate the isolation shall be stayed by the filing of an appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia. Any party to the case may file an appeal of the circuit court decisions to the Supreme Court of Virginia. Parties to the case shall include any person who is subject to an order of isolation and has filed an appeal of such order with the circuit court and the State Health Commissioner.

H. Appeals of any final order of any circuit court regarding the State Health Commissioner's petition for review and confirmation or extension of an order of isolation or any appeal of an order of isolation by a person or persons who are subject to such order shall be appealable directly to the Supreme Court of Virginia, with an expedited review in accordance with the rules of the court pursuant to subsection C of § 17.1-503.

I. Appeals of any circuit court order relating to an order of isolation shall not stay any order of isolation.

J. Persons appealing any order of isolation shall have the right to be represented by an attorney in all proceedings. If the person is unable to afford an attorney, counsel shall be appointed for the person by the circuit court for the jurisdiction in which the person or persons who are subject to the order of isolation reside or, in the case of an affected area, by the circuit court for the jurisdiction or jurisdictions for the affected area. Counsel so appointed shall be paid at a rate established by the Supreme Court of Virginia from the Commonwealth's criminal fund.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-48.013:1. Electronic filings as protection from communicable disease.

Notwithstanding Rule 1:17 of the Supreme Court of Virginia, a court in its discretion may permit the electronic or facsimile filing of a petition, notice, brief, notice of appeal, or other legal document when such filing is necessary to expedite the proceedings or to protect the public, court officials, or others participating in the proceedings from exposure to a communicable disease.

2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-48.014. Enforcement of orders of quarantine or isolation; penalties.

A. Any person who does not comply with a validly issued order of quarantine or order of isolation issued or prepared pursuant to this article shall be subject to the penalties provided in § 32.1-27, including, upon conviction, a Class 1 misdemeanor and payment of civil penalties.

B. Any order of quarantine or isolation shall be enforced by law-enforcement agencies, as directed by the State Health Commissioner. Any enforcement authority directed to law-enforcement agencies by the Commissioner shall expressly include, but need not be limited to, the power to detain or arrest any person or persons identified as in violation of any order of quarantine or isolation, or for whom probable cause exists that he may fail or refuse to comply with any such order.

Any person or persons so detained shall be held in the least restrictive environment that can provide any required health care or other services for such person.

C. Every attorney for the Commonwealth shall have the duty to prosecute, without delay, any violation of this chapter in accordance with the penalties set forth in § 32.1-27.

D. Pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 264 et seq. and 42 C.F.R. Parts 70 and 71, any order of quarantine or isolation issued by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention affecting the Commonwealth or the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority may be enforced by local law-enforcement officers or officers of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority with jurisdiction over the facility involved in the quarantine or isolation order.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2007, cc. 699, 783.

§ 32.1-48.015. Authorization to disclose health records.

A. The provisions of this article are hereby declared to be necessary to prevent serious harm and serious threats to the health and safety of individuals and the public in Virginia for purposes of authorizing the State Health Commissioner or his designee to examine and review any health records of any person or persons subject to any order of quarantine or order of isolation pursuant to this article and the regulations of the Department of Health and Human Services promulgated in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended. The State Health Commissioner shall authorize any designee in writing to so examine and review any health records of any person or persons subject to any order of quarantine or order of isolation pursuant to this article.

B. Pursuant to the regulations concerning patient privacy promulgated by the federal Department of Health and Human Services, covered entities may disclose protected health information to the State Health Commissioner or his designee without obtaining consent or authorization for such disclosure from the person who is the subject of the records. Such protected health information shall be used to facilitate the health care of any person or persons who are subject to an order of quarantine or an order of isolation. The State Health Commissioner or his designee shall only redisclose such protected health information in compliance with the aforementioned federal regulations. Further, the protected health information disclosed to the State Health Commissioner or his designee shall be held confidential and shall not be disclosed pursuant to the provisions of subdivision 12 of § 2.2-3705.5.

C. Pursuant to subsection G of § 32.1-116.3, any person requesting or requiring any employee of a public safety agency as defined in subsection J of § 32.1-45.2 to arrest, transfer, or otherwise exercise custodial supervision over an individual known to the requesting person (i) to be infected with any communicable disease or (ii) to be subject to an order of quarantine or an order of isolation pursuant to Article 3.02 (§ 32.1-48.05 et seq.) of Chapter 2 shall inform such employee of a public safety agency of the potential risk of exposure to a communicable disease.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2007, cc. 699, 783; 2017, c. 778.

§ 32.1-48.016. Immunity from liability.

Any person, including a person who serves in a Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) unit or on a Community Emergency Response Team (CERT), who, in good faith and in the performance of his duties, acts in compliance with this article and the Board of Health's regulations shall not be liable for any civil damages for any act or omission resulting from such actions unless such act or omission was the result of gross negligence or willful misconduct.

2004, cc. 773, 1021; 2005, c. 474.

§ 32.1-48.017. Use of public or private property or facilities.

A. Upon the declaration by the Governor of a state of emergency pursuant to § 44-146.17, the State Health Commissioner, acting in concert with the Governor, shall be authorized to require the use of any public or private property, building or facility to implement any order of quarantine or order of isolation. The State Health Commissioner and the Governor shall find, together, that the use of the property, building or facility is necessary and appropriate to enforce an order of quarantine or an order of isolation in the least restrictive environment.

B. If the Commissioner and the Governor elect to use any public or private property, building or facility pursuant to this article and this section, the Commissioner shall make accommodations, in conjunction with the owner or operator of the property, building or facility, for persons who are employed in, using or occupying the property, building or facility and who are not covered by the relevant order of quarantine or order of isolation.

C. Owners or operators of any property, building or facility so commandeered shall be entitled to compensation.

2004, cc. 773, 1021.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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