Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 36. Housing
Chapter 1. Housing Authorities Law
11/27/2022

Article 7. Redevelopment Projects.

§ 36-48. Creation of Redevelopment Areas.

A redevelopment area as defined in § 36-3 may be created by an authority as provided in this chapter and a redevelopment plan may be adopted to address conditions in such redevelopment area. The redevelopment plan shall (i) outline specific boundaries for the redevelopment area and designate for acquisition such properties as are necessary or appropriate for the clearance, replanning, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of the redevelopment area, (ii) be adopted in accordance with § 36-49, and (iii) satisfy the requirements as set forth in § 36-51.

1946, p. 278; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8a); 1975, c. 455; 1988, cc. 572, 591; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-48.1. Creation of Conservation Areas.

A conservation area as defined in § 36-3 may be created by an authority as provided in this chapter and a conservation plan may be adopted to provide for the conservation, rehabilitation, and revitalization of such conservation area. The conservation plan shall (i) outline specific boundaries for the conservation area, (ii) be adopted in accordance with § 36-49.1, and (iii) satisfy the requirements as set forth in § 36-51.1.

1964, c. 378; 1978, c. 360; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-49. Adoption of Redevelopment Plans.

A. An authority may adopt a redevelopment plan for a designated redevelopment area to address blighted areas and in particular is specifically empowered to carry out any work or undertaking in the redevelopment area, including any or all of the following:

1. Acquire blighted areas, which are hereby defined in § 36-3;

2. Acquire other real property for the purpose of removing, preventing, or reducing blight;

3. Acquire real property where the condition of the title, the diverse ownership of the real property to be assembled, the street or lot layouts, or other conditions prevent a proper development of the property and where the acquisition of the area by the authority is necessary to carry out a redevelopment plan;

4. Permit the preservation, repair, or restoration of buildings of historic interest; and to clear any areas acquired and install, construct, or reconstruct streets, utilities, and site improvements essential to the preparation of sites for uses in accordance with the redevelopment plan;

5. Provide for the conservation of portions of the project area and the rehabilitation to project standards as stated in the redevelopment plan of buildings within the project area, where such rehabilitation is deemed by the authority to be feasible and consistent with project objectives;

6. Make land so acquired available to nongovernmental persons or entities or public agencies (including sale, leasing, or retention by the authority itself) in accordance with the redevelopment plan;

7. Assist the reconstruction of project areas by making loans or grants of funds received from any public or private source, for the purpose of facilitating the construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation or sale of housing or other improvements constructed or to be constructed on land situated within the boundaries of a redevelopment project;

8. Acquire, construct or rehabilitate residential housing developments for occupancy by persons of low, moderate and middle income to be owned, operated, managed, leased, conveyed, mortgaged, encumbered or assigned by an authority. Income limits for such persons shall be determined for each redevelopment project by an authority by resolution adopted by a majority of its appointed commissioners, shall be adjusted for household size and may be revised as an authority deems appropriate. In connection with a residential housing development, an authority shall have all rights, powers and privileges granted by subdivision 4 of § 36-19;

9. Accomplish any combination of the foregoing to carry out a redevelopment plan; and

10. Exercise such other powers as are authorized by law.

B. No redevelopment plan shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27 and the redevelopment plan has been approved by the local governing body.

1946, p. 278; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8b); 1962, c. 336; 1972, cc. 466, 782; 1980, c. 133; 1988, cc. 572, 591; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-49.1. Adoption of Conservation Plans.

A. An authority may adopt a conservation plan for a designated conservation area to address blight and blighting conditions, to conserve such area, prevent further deterioration and prevent such area from becoming blighted, and in particular is specifically empowered to carry out any work or undertaking in the conservation area, including any or all of the following:

1. Acquire property within such areas which is blighted, designated for public use in the conservation plan, or the use or condition of which is inconsistent with the purposes of the conservation plan or the provisions of the zoning ordinance or code of the locality;

2. Rehabilitate or clear property so acquired;

3. Provide for the installation, construction or reconstruction of streets, utilities, parks, parking facilities, playgrounds, public buildings and other site improvements essential to the conservation or rehabilitation planned;

4. Make land or improvements so acquired available to nongovernmental persons or entities or public agencies (by sale, lease or retention of ownership by the authority itself);

5. Assist the reconstruction of project areas by making loans or grants of funds received from any public or private source, for the purpose of facilitating the construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation or sale of housing or other improvements constructed or to be constructed on land situated within the boundaries of a conservation project;

6. Encourage and assist property owners or occupants within the conservation area to improve their respective holdings, by suggesting improved standards for design, construction, maintenance and use of such properties and offering encouragement or assistance in other ways including the power to lend money and make grants to owners or occupants, directed toward prevention and elimination of blight;

7. Acquire, construct or rehabilitate residential housing developments for occupancy by persons of low, moderate and middle income to be owned, operated, managed, leased, conveyed, mortgaged, encumbered or assigned by an authority. Income limits for such persons shall be determined for each conservation project by an authority by resolution adopted by a majority of its appointed commissioners, shall be adjusted for household size and may be revised as an authority deems appropriate. In connection with a residential housing development, an authority shall have all rights, power and privileges granted by subdivision 4 of § 36-19; and

8. Exercise such other powers as are authorized by law.

B. No conservation plan shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27 and the conservation plan has been approved by the local governing body.

1964, c. 378; 1966, cc. 81, 418; 1968, c. 312; 1970, cc. 222, 491, 555, 596; 1972, c. 174; 1973, c. 29; 1974, c. 137; 1975, c. 532; 1976, c. 510; 1980, c. 133; 1988, cc. 572, 591; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-49.1:1. Spot blight abatement authorized; procedure.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, an authority, or any locality, shall have the power to acquire or repair any blighted property, as defined in § 36-3, whether inside or outside of a conservation or redevelopment area, by purchase or through the exercise of the power of eminent domain provided in Chapter 2 (§ 25.1-200 et seq.) of Title 25.1, and, further, shall have the power to hold, clear, repair, manage or dispose of such property for purposes consistent with this chapter. In addition, the authority and locality shall have the power to recover the costs of any repair or disposal of such property from the owner or owners of record, determined in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27. This power shall be exercised only in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section.

B. The chief executive or designee of the locality or authority shall make a preliminary determination that a property is blighted in accordance with this chapter. It shall send notice to the owner or owners of record determined in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27, specifying the reasons why the property is blighted. The owner or owners of record shall have 30 days from the date the notice is sent in which to respond in writing with a spot blight abatement plan to address the blight within a reasonable time.

C. If the owner or owners of record fail to respond within the 30-day period with a written spot blight abatement plan that is acceptable to the chief executive of the agency, authority or locality, the agency, authority or locality may request the locality to declare the property as blighted, which declaration shall be by ordinance adopted by the governing body.

D. No spot blight abatement plan shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record and an ordinance has been adopted by the local governing body. Written notice to the property owner shall be sent by regular mail to the last address listed for the owner on the locality's assessment records for the property, together with a copy of such spot blight abatement plan prepared by the agency, authority, or locality. If the repair or other disposition of the property is approved, the authority, agency, or locality may carry out the approved plan to repair or acquire and dispose of the property in accordance with the approved plan, the provisions of this section, and the applicable law.

E. If the ordinance is adopted by the governing body of the locality, the locality shall have a lien on all property so repaired or acquired under an approved spot blight abatement plan to recover the cost of (i) improvements made by such locality to bring the blighted property into compliance with applicable building codes and (ii) disposal, if any. The lien on such property shall bear interest at the legal rate of interest established in § 6.2-301, beginning on the date the repairs are completed through the date on which the lien is paid. The lien authorized by this subsection may be recorded as a lien among the land records of the circuit court, which lien shall be treated in all respects as a tax lien and enforceable in the same manner as provided in Articles 3 (§ 58.1-3940 et seq.) and 4 (§ 58.1-3965 et seq.) of Chapter 39 of Title 58.1. The governing body may recover its costs of repair from the owner or owners of record of the property when the repairs were made at such time as the property is sold or disposed of by such owner or owners. If the property is acquired by the governing body through eminent domain, the cost of repair may be recovered when the governing body sells or disposes of the property. In either case, the costs of repair shall be recovered from the proceeds of any such sale.

F. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, unless otherwise provided for in Title 36, if the blighted property is occupied for personal residential purposes, the governing body, in approving the spot blight abatement plan, shall not acquire by eminent domain such property if it would result in a displacement of the person or persons living in the premises. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to acquisitions, under an approved spot blight abatement plan, by any locality of property which has been condemned for human habitation for more than one year. In addition, such locality exercising the powers of eminent domain in accordance with Title 25.1, may provide for temporary relocation of any person living in the blighted property provided the relocation is within the financial means of such person.

G. In lieu of the acquisition of blighted property by the exercise of eminent domain, and in lieu of the exercise of other powers granted in subsections A through H, any locality may, by ordinance, declare any blighted property as defined in § 36-3 to constitute a nuisance, and thereupon abate the nuisance pursuant to § 15.2-900 or § 15.2-1115. Such ordinance shall be adopted only after written notice by certified mail to the owner or owners at the last known address of such owner as shown on the current real estate tax assessment books or current real estate tax assessment records. If the owner does not abate or remove the nuisance and the locality abates or removes the nuisance at its expense, the costs of the removal or abatement of the nuisance shall be a lien on the property and such lien shall bear interest at the legal rate of interest established in § 6.2-301, beginning on the date the removal or abatement is completed through the date on which the lien is paid.

H. The provisions of this section shall be cumulative and shall be in addition to any remedies for spot blight abatement that may be authorized by law.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 5, 10; 1995, cc. 702, 827; 1996, c. 847; 1997, c. 572; 1998, cc. 690, 898; 1999, cc. 39, 410, 418; 2001, c. 482; 2003, c. 940; 2006, c. 784; 2007, c. 763; 2009, cc. 181, 551.

§ 36-49.2. Power to purchase or lease land for certain other redevelopment projects.

In addition to the other powers to acquire real property by purchase or lease, an authority is specifically empowered to purchase or lease real property for immediate or future use, without the exercise of the power of eminent domain, for improvement and development for sale, lease, or sublease as industrial sites, scientific research laboratory sites, educational institution sites or sites for housing persons displaced from other lands of the authority.

1964, Ex. Sess., c. 16.

§ 36-50. Extension of general powers for actions taken pursuant to a redevelopment plan.

In undertaking actions pursuant to a redevelopment plan, an authority shall have all the rights, powers, privileges, and immunities provided in this chapter. However, nothing contained in §§ 36-21 and 36-22 shall be construed as limiting the power of an authority, in the event of a default (including failure of compliance with a redevelopment plan) by a purchaser or lessee of land in a redevelopment plan, to acquire property and operate it free from the restrictions contained in §§ 36-21 and 36-22; and provided further, that any property which an authority leases to nongovernmental persons or entities for redevelopment under a redevelopment plan shall have the same tax status as if such leased property were owned by such nongovernmental persons or entities.

1946, p. 279; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8c); 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-50.1. Extension of general powers for actions taken pursuant to a conservation plan.

In implementing a conservation plan, an authority shall have all the rights, powers, privileges, and immunities provided in this chapter. However, the power of eminent domain shall not be exercised in connection with a conservation project except to acquire (i) properties designated for use by the public or a public agency in the conservation plan, (ii) properties which are determined by the authority to be in violation of the standards for design, construction, maintenance and use of property set out in the conservation plan for the project in which such property is situate, and which have not been made to comply with such standards within one year after a written request to rehabilitate to project standards is given to the owner by the authority, (iii) properties as to which voluntary conveyance cannot be effected in the course of the execution of the conservation plan because of the inability of the owners to convey marketable title, or (iv) properties which are infeasible of rehabilitation, blighted properties or properties which inhibit or prevent accomplishment of the purposes of the conservation plan.

1964, c. 378; 1972, c. 733; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-51. Redevelopment plans.

A. An authority shall not implement any redevelopment plan under this law until the governing body of the locality has approved the redevelopment plan, which provides an outline for the development or redevelopment of the redevelopment area and is sufficiently complete to indicate (i) its relationship to definite local objectives as to appropriate land uses and improved traffic, public transportation, public utilities, recreational and community facilities and other public improvements; (ii) proposed land uses and building requirements in the redevelopment area; (iii) the land in the redevelopment area that the authority does not intend to acquire; (iv) the land in the redevelopment area that will be made available after acquisition to nongovernmental persons or entities for redevelopment and that land which will be made available after acquisition to public enterprise for redevelopment; (v) anticipated funding sources that may be sufficient to acquire all property designated for acquisition within five years of the locality's approval; and (vi) the method for the temporary relocation of persons living in the redevelopment areas; and also the method for providing (unless already available) decent, safe and sanitary dwellings in the locality substantially equal in number to the number of substandard dwellings to be cleared from the redevelopment area, at rents within the financial reach of the income groups displaced from such substandard dwellings. Any locality is hereby authorized to approve redevelopment plans through their governing body or agency designated for that purpose.

B. No sooner than thirty months or later than thirty-six months following the date of the locality's approval of the redevelopment plan (hereinafter called the "approval date"), the locality shall review and determine by resolution whether to reaffirm the redevelopment plan. Where the locality fails to reaffirm the redevelopment plan, any real property within the redevelopment area that has not been acquired by the authority, or for which a petition in condemnation has not been filed by the authority, prior to the date of adoption of such resolution by the locality (hereinafter called the "termination date") shall no longer be eligible for acquisition by the authority unless the authority and the property owner mutually agree to the acquisition, in which case the authority shall be specifically empowered to acquire the property. For purposes of this section, a mediation request submitted by either the authority or the property owner, in accordance with § 36-27, prior to the termination date shall preserve the authority's right to file a petition in condemnation relating to such real property for a period of six months after the termination date.

C. Where the locality reaffirms the redevelopment plan, the authority shall continue to be authorized to acquire real property within the redevelopment area by purchase, or through the institution of eminent domain proceedings in accordance with § 36-27, until the fifth anniversary of the approval date. Any real property within the redevelopment area that has not been acquired by the authority, or for which a petition in condemnation has not been filed by the authority, prior to the fifth anniversary of the approval date, shall no longer be eligible for acquisition by the authority unless the authority and the property owner mutually agree to the acquisition, in which case the authority shall be specifically empowered to acquire the property. For purposes of this section, a mediation request submitted by either the authority or the property owner, in accordance with § 36-27, prior to the fifth anniversary of the approval date, shall preserve the authority's right to file a petition in condemnation relating to the real property for a period of six months after the fifth anniversary of the approval date.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, a locality shall not be precluded from adopting a new redevelopment plan, in accordance with this section, which designates a redevelopment area that includes real property that was previously included within a redevelopment area under a previously adopted redevelopment plan.

E. If the authority decides against acquiring real property designated for acquisition under an approved redevelopment plan after having made a written purchase offer to the owner of the property, it shall, upon the written request of the property owner given no later than one year after the date of written notice from the authority to the property owner of its decision not to acquire his property, reimburse the owner of the property his reasonable expenses incurred in connection with the proposed acquisition of his property. Reasonable expenses shall include, but are not limited to, reasonable fees of attorneys and appraisers or other experts necessary to establish the value of the property to be appraised.

1946, p. 279; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8d); 2001, c. 729; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-51.1. Requirements for "conservation plan" generally.

An authority shall not implement any conservation plan under this law until the governing body of the locality has approved a conservation plan, which provides an outline for the conservation, development or redevelopment of the conservation area, affording maximum opportunity for conservation, rehabilitation or redevelopment by nongovernmental persons or entities consistent with the ends to be achieved, and is sufficiently complete to indicate (i) its relationship to definite local objectives as to appropriate land uses and improved traffic, public transportation, public utilities, recreational and community facilities and other public improvements; (ii) any conditions and limitations on acquisition of property; (iii) proposed land uses for the properties to be acquired; (iv) any conditions and limitations, including time limitation, under which property shall be made available for rehabilitation or redevelopment by public enterprise or nongovernmental persons or entities (by sale, lease or retention by the authority itself); (v) standards of design, construction, maintenance, and use of property and other measures to be taken or recommended toward elimination and prevention of blight and deterioration; (vi) the method for the temporary relocation of any persons living in the conservation area who will be displaced in accordance with the plan, as well as the method of providing (unless already available) decent, safe and sanitary dwellings in such city or county substantially equal in number to the number of substandard dwellings to be cleared from the conservation area, at rents within the financial reach of the income groups displaced from such substandard dwellings; (vii) any limitation on the length of time within which project activities can be undertaken; (viii) a procedure for administrative review of the determination at staff level and prior to a final determination by the authority under § 36-50.1 that an individual property is in violation of project standards and, therefore, subject to condemnation; and (ix) the procedure by which such conservation plan may be amended.

1964, c. 378; 1966, c. 81; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-52. Cooperation by localities.

Any local government shall have the same rights and powers to cooperate with and assist authorities with respect to implementation of conservation or redevelopment plans that such locality has pursuant to §§ 36-6 and 36-7 and any other provision of the Housing Authorities Law.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8e); 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-52.1. Authority for localities to create conservation or redevelopment areas.

A locality has no authority to create conservation or redevelopment areas, except through a redevelopment and housing authority and only in accordance with this chapter.

1964, c. 378; 1966, c. 81; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-52.2. Acquisition of property prior to adoption of development or conservation plan in certain cities.

Whenever the governing body of any city of more than 300,000 population has approved an area for survey and planning preliminary to the adoption of a redevelopment or conservation plan, and the area includes property within such county, city or town duly designated by said governing body for educational, medical center or municipal uses, an authority may acquire such property by deed or by eminent domain.

1968, c. 710.

§ 36-52.3. Adoption and designation of "rehabilitation area.".

A. Whenever it appears to the governing body of any locality that a portion of such locality adjacent to an area embraced in a "conservation plan," approved by such body pursuant to § 36-49.1, is in the early stages of deterioration and determines that if not rehabilitated such area is likely to continue to deteriorate and become eligible for designation as a conservation area, such governing body may create a rehabilitation area.

B. No rehabilitation area shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record in such area in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27 and an ordinance approving such rehabilitation area has been adopted by the local governing body. The ordinance shall outline specific boundaries for the rehabilitation area, establish that the rehabilitation area is adjacent to a conservation area and include such properties as are in need of rehabilitation in such area.

C. An authority is specifically empowered to encourage and assist property owners or occupants within the rehabilitation area so designated to improve their respective holdings, by suggesting improved standards for design, construction, maintenance, renovation and use of such properties and offering encouragement or assistance in other ways including the power to lend money and make grants to said owners or occupants, directed toward prevention and elimination of deteriorating conditions within such area.

D. In executing the powers provided in subsection C, an authority shall have all of the rights, powers and immunities granted in connection with conservation or redevelopment plans pursuant to this chapter except the power to acquire property through the exercise of the power of eminent domain.

1978, c. 360; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-53. Making property available for conservation or redevelopment.

An authority may make land in a conservation or redevelopment area available for purchase or use by nongovernmental persons or entities or public agencies in accordance with the conservation or redevelopment plan. Such land may be made available at its fair value, which represents the value at which the authority determines such land should be made available in order that it may be developed, conserved or redeveloped for the purposes specified in such plan.

To assure that land acquired in a conservation or redevelopment area is used in accordance with the conservation or redevelopment plan, an authority, upon the sale or lease of such land, shall obligate purchasers or lessees: (1) to use the land for the purpose designated in the conservation or redevelopment plan; (2) to begin the building of their improvements within a period of time which the authority fixes as reasonable; and (3) to comply with such other conditions as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter. Any such obligations by the purchaser shall be covenants and conditions running with the land where the authority so stipulates.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8f); 1970, c. 222; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-54. Aid from federal government.

An authority may borrow money or accept contributions from the federal government to assist in its undertaking redevelopment projects. An authority may do any and all things necessary or desirable to secure such financial aid (including obligating itself in any contract with the federal government for annual contributions to convey to the federal government the project to which the contract relates upon the occurrence of a substantial default thereunder), in the same manner as it may do to secure such aid in connection with slum clearance and housing projects.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8g).

§ 36-55. Bonds to be legal investments and security.

Bonds or other obligations issued by an authority in connection with projects authorized under this chapter shall be security for public deposits and legal investments to the same extent and for the same persons, institutions, associations, corporations and other bodies and officers as bonds or other obligations issued by an authority in connection with the development of slum clearance or housing projects.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8h); 1964, c. 378.