Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 36. Housing
Chapter 4.2. Manufactured Housing Licensing and Transaction Recovery Fund Law
5/20/2022

Chapter 4.2. Manufactured Housing Licensing and Transaction Recovery Fund Law.

Article 1. Licensing of Manufactured Housing Industry.

§ 36-85.16. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless a different meaning or construction is clearly required by the context:

"Board" means the Virginia Manufactured Housing Board.

"Buyer" means the person who purchases at retail from a dealer or manufacturer a manufactured home for personal use as a residence or other related use.

"Claimant" means any person who has filed a verified claim under this chapter.

"Code" means the appropriate standards of the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code and the Industrialized Building and Manufactured Home Safety Regulations adopted by the Board of Housing and Community Development and administered by the Department of Housing and Community Development pursuant to the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 for manufactured homes.

"Defect" means any deficiency in or damage to materials or workmanship occurring in a manufactured home which has been reasonably maintained and cared for in normal use. The term also means any failure of any structural element, utility system or the inclusion of a component part of the manufactured home which fails to comply with the Code.

"Department" means the Department of Housing and Community Development.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Housing and Community Development, or his designee.

"Fund" or "recovery fund" means the Virginia Manufactured Housing Transaction Recovery Fund.

"Manufactured home" means a structure constructed to federal standards, transportable in one or more sections, which, in the traveling mode, is 8 feet or more in width and is 40 feet or more in length, or when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein.

"Manufactured home broker" or "broker" means any person, partnership, association or corporation, resident or nonresident, who, for compensation or valuable consideration, sells or offers for sale, buys or offers to buy, negotiates the purchase or sale or exchange, or leases or offers to lease used manufactured homes that are owned by a party other than the broker.

"Manufactured home dealer" or "dealer" means any person, resident or nonresident, engaged in the business of buying, selling or dealing in manufactured homes or offering or displaying manufactured homes for sale in Virginia. Any person who buys, sells, or deals in three or more manufactured homes in any 12-month period shall be presumed to be a manufactured home dealer. The terms "selling" and "sale" include lease-purchase transactions. The term "manufactured home dealer" does not include banks and finance companies that acquire manufactured homes as an incident to their regular business.

"Manufactured home manufacturer" or "manufacturer" means any persons, resident or nonresident, who manufacture or assemble manufactured homes for sale in Virginia.

"Manufactured home salesperson" or "salesperson" means any person who for compensation or valuable consideration is employed either directly or indirectly by, or affiliated as an independent contractor with, a manufactured home dealer, broker or manufacturer to sell or offer to sell, or to buy or offer to buy, or to negotiate the purchase, sale or exchange, or to lease or offer to lease new or used manufactured homes.

"New manufactured home" means any manufactured home that (i) has not been previously sold except in good faith for the purpose of resale, (ii) has not been previously occupied as a place of habitation, (iii) has not been previously used for commercial purposes such as offices or storage, and (iv) has not been titled by the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and is still in the possession of the original dealer. If the home is later sold to another dealer and then sold to a consumer within two years of the date of manufacture, the home is still considered new and must continue to meet all state warranty requirements. However, if a home is sold from the original dealer to another dealer and it is more than two years after the date of manufacture, and it is then sold to a consumer, the home must be sold as "used" for warranty purposes. Notice of the "used" status of the manufactured home and how this status affects state warranty requirements must be provided, in writing, to the consumer prior to the closing of the sale.

"Person" means any individual, natural person, firm, partnership, association, corporation, legal representative, or other recognized legal entity.

"Regulant" means any person, firm, corporation, association, partnership, joint venture, or any other legal entity required by this chapter to be licensed by the Board.

"Responsible party" means a manufacturer, dealer, or supplier of manufactured homes.

"Set-up" means the operations performed at the occupancy site which render a manufactured home fit for habitation. Such operations include, but are not limited to, transportation, positioning, blocking, leveling, supporting, anchoring, connecting utility systems, making minor adjustments, or assembling multiple or expandable units. Such operations do not include lawful transportation services performed by public utilities operating under certificates or permits issued by the State Corporation Commission.

"Substantial identity of interest" means (i) a controlling financial interest by the individual or corporate principals of the manufactured home broker, dealer, or manufacturer whose license has been revoked or not renewed or (ii) substantially identical principals or officers as the manufactured home broker, dealer, or manufacturer whose license has been revoked or not renewed by the Board.

"Supplier" means the original producer of completed components, including refrigerators, stoves, water heaters, dishwashers, cabinets, air conditioners, heating units, and similar components, and materials such as floor coverings, panelling, siding, trusses, and similar materials, which are furnished to a manufacturer or a dealer for installation in the manufactured home prior to sale to a buyer.

"Used manufactured home" means any manufactured home other than a new home as defined in this section.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 1994, c. 671; 2005, c. 430; 2008, c. 350.

§ 36-85.16:1. Certified mail; subsequent mail or notices may be sent by regular mail.

Whenever in this chapter the Board, the Director, or the Department is required to send any mail or notice by certified mail and such mail or notice is sent certified mail, return receipt requested, then any subsequent, identical mail or notice that is sent by the Board, the Director, or the Department may be sent by regular mail.

2011, c. 566.

§ 36-85.17. Manufactured Housing Board created; membership.

A. There is hereby created the Virginia Manufactured Housing Board within the Department of Housing and Community Development. The Board shall be composed of nine members, eight of whom shall be nonlegislative citizen members appointed by the Governor subject to confirmation by the General Assembly and one of whom shall be the Director, who shall serve ex officio. The appointed members shall include two manufactured home manufacturers, two manufactured home dealers, and four members representing the public who have knowledge of the industry.

B. The Board shall elect from its members a chairman and a vice-chairman for terms of two years. The members of the Board shall serve for terms of four years. In the event of any vacancy, the Governor shall appoint a replacement to serve the unexpired term. The ex officio member shall serve a term coincident with his term of office. Meetings shall be held at the call of the chairman or whenever two members so request.

C. No member of the Board shall participate in any proceeding before the Board involving that member's own business.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 1995, c. 33; 2016, c. 331.

§ 36-85.18. Powers and duties of Manufactured Housing Board.

The Virginia Manufactured Housing Board shall have the following powers and duties:

1. To issue licenses to manufacturers, dealers, brokers, and salespersons;

2. To require that an adequate recovery fund be established for all regulants;

3. To receive and resolve complaints from buyers of manufactured homes and from persons in the manufactured housing industry;

4. To promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter, including but not limited to the licensure of manufactured home brokers, dealers, manufacturers, and salespersons and the relicensure of manufactured home brokers, dealers, manufacturers, or salespersons after license revocation or nonrenewal;

5. To make case decisions in accordance with the Administrative Process Act as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter; and

6. To levy and collect fees that are sufficient to cover the expenses for the administration of this chapter by the Board and the Department. Such fees may be levied and collected on a per unit sold basis, a percentage basis, an annual per dealer basis, or a combination thereof.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 1994, c. 671; 2008, c. 350.

§ 36-85.19. License required; penalty.

A. It shall be unlawful and constitute the commission of a Class 1 misdemeanor for any manufactured home manufacturer, dealer, broker, or salesperson to be engaged in business as such in this Commonwealth without first obtaining a license from the Board, as provided in this chapter.

Application for such license shall be made to the Board at such time, in such form, and contain such information as the Board shall require, and shall be accompanied by required fees established by the Board by regulation in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). The Board shall levy and collect fees that are sufficient to cover the expenses for the administration of this chapter by the Board and the Department. Such fees may be levied and collected on a per unit sold basis, a percentage basis, an annual per dealer basis, or a combination thereof.

In such application, the Board shall require information relating to the matters set forth in § 36-85.20 as grounds for refusal of a license, and information relating to other pertinent matters consistent with safeguarding the public interest. All such information shall be considered by the Board in determining the fitness of the applicant to engage in the business for which the license is sought.

All licenses that are granted shall expire, unless revoked or suspended, on the annual anniversary of the date of issuance.

Every regulant under this chapter shall obtain a renewal of a license for the ensuing year, by application, accompanied by the required fee. Upon failure to renew, the license shall automatically expire. Such license may be renewed upon payment of the prescribed renewal fee and upon evidence satisfactory to the Board that the applicant has not engaged in business as a manufactured home manufacturer, dealer, broker, or salesperson after expiration of the license and is otherwise eligible for a license under the provisions of this chapter.

Special licenses, not to exceed ten days in duration, may be issued for each temporary place of business, operated or proposed by the regulant, that is not contiguous to other premises for which a license is issued. The fee for a special license shall be established by the Board, provided that no such license shall be required for a place of business operated by a regulant that is used exclusively for storage.

B. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, the Board may provide by regulation that a manufactured home salesperson will be allowed to engage in business during the time period after applying for a license but before such license is granted.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 1994, c. 671.

§ 36-85.20. Grounds for denying, suspending or revoking license.

A. A license may be denied, suspended, or revoked by the Board on any one or more of the following grounds:

1. Material misstatement in application for license;

2. Failure to pay required assessment to the Manufactured Housing Recovery Fund;

3. Engaging in the business of a manufactured home manufacturer, dealer, broker, or salesperson without first obtaining a license from the Board;

4. Failure to comply with the warranty service obligations and claims procedure established by this chapter;

5. Failure to comply with the set-up and tie-down requirements of the Code;

6. Having knowingly failed or refused to account for or to pay over moneys or other valuables belonging to others which have come into the regulant's possession arising from the sale of manufactured homes;

7. Use of unfair methods of competition or unfair or deceptive commercial acts or practices;

8. Failure to appear before the Board upon due notice or to follow directives of the Board issued pursuant to this chapter;

9. Employing unlicensed retail salespersons;

10. Knowingly offering for sale the products of manufacturers who are not licensed pursuant to this chapter or selling to dealers not licensed pursuant to this chapter manufactured homes which are to be sold in the Commonwealth to buyers as defined in this chapter;

11. Having had a license revoked, suspended, or denied by the Board under this chapter; or having had a license revoked, suspended or denied by a similar entity in another state; or engaging in conduct in another state which conduct, if committed in this Commonwealth, would have been a violation under this chapter;

12. Defrauding any buyer, to the buyer's damage, or any other person in the conduct of the regulant's business; or

13. Failure to comply with any provisions of this chapter.

B. The Board may revoke or deny renewal of an existing license or refuse to issue a license to any manufactured home broker, dealer, manufacturer or salesperson who is shown to have a substantial identity of interest with a manufactured home broker, dealer, or manufacturer whose license has been revoked or not renewed by the Board.

C. Any person whose license is revoked or not renewed by the Board shall not be eligible for a license under any circumstances or under any name, except as provided by regulations of the Board pursuant to § 36-85.18.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 2008, c. 350.

§ 36-85.21. Notice and hearing.

The Board shall not suspend, revoke, or deny a license or refuse the renewal of a license, or impose a civil penalty, until a written notice of the complaint has been furnished to the regulant or applicant against whom the same is directed, and a hearing thereon has been held before the Board. Reasonable written notice of the time and place of the hearing shall be given to the regulant or applicant by certified mail to his last known address, as shown on the license or other record of information in possession of the Board. At any such hearing, the regulant or applicant shall have the right to be heard in person or through counsel. After the hearing, the Board shall have the power to deny, suspend, revoke or refuse to renew the license in question for violation of the provisions of this chapter. Immediate notice of any such action by the Board shall be given to the regulant or applicant in the same manner as provided herein for furnishing notice of hearing.

In the event of a conflict between the provisions of this section and the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.), the provisions of the Administrative Process Act shall govern.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.22. Set-up requirements; effect on insurance policies.

Manufactured homes shall be set-up in accordance with the Code.

In the event that a manufactured home is insured against damage caused by windstorm and subsequently sustains windstorm damage of a nature that indicated the manufactured home was not set-up in the manner required by this section, the insurer issuing the homeowner's insurance policy on the manufactured home shall not be relieved from meeting the obligations specified in the insurance policy with respect to such damage on the basis that the manufactured home was not properly set-up.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.23. Warranties.

Each manufacturer, dealer, and supplier of manufactured homes shall warrant each new manufactured home sold in this Commonwealth, and the dealer shall warrant the set-up of each manufactured home if performed by or contracted for by the dealer, in accordance with the warranty requirements prescribed by this section for a period of at least twelve months, measured from the date of delivery of the manufactured home to the buyer. The warranty requirements for each manufacturer, dealer, and supplier are as follows:

1. The manufacturer warrants that all structural elements, plumbing systems, heating, cooling (if any), and fuel burning systems, electrical systems, and any other components included by the manufacturer are manufactured and installed free from defect.

2. The dealer warrants:

a. That any modifications or alterations made to the manufactured home by the dealer or authorized by the dealer are free from defects. Alterations or modifications made by the dealer, without written permission of the manufacturer, shall relieve the manufacturer of warranty responsibility as to the item altered or modified and any damage resulting therefrom.

b. That set-up operations performed by the dealer or by persons under contract to the dealer on the manufactured home are accomplished in compliance with the applicable Code standards for installation of manufactured homes.

c. That during the course of set-up and transportation of the manufactured home performed by the dealer or by persons under contract to the dealer, defects do not occur to the manufactured home.

3. The supplier warrants that any warranties generally offered in the ordinary sale of his product to consumers shall be extended to buyers of manufactured homes. The manufacturer's warranty shall remain in effect notwithstanding the existence of a supplier's warranty.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.24. Presenting claims for warranties and defects.

Whenever a claim for a warranty service or about a defect is made to a regulant, it shall be handled as provided by this chapter. A record shall be made of the name and address of each claimant and the date, substance, and disposition of each claim about a defect. The regulant may request that a claim be made in writing, but nevertheless shall record it as provided above, and may not delay service pending receipt of the written claim.

When the regulant notified is not the responsible party, he shall, in writing, immediately notify the claimant of that fact, and shall also, in writing, immediately notify the responsible party of the claim. When a responsible party is asked to remedy defects, such party may not fail to remedy those defects because another responsible party may also be responsible. Nothing herein shall prevent a responsible party from obtaining compensation by way of contribution or subrogation from another responsible party in accordance with any other provision of law or contract.

Within the time limits provided in this chapter, the regulant shall either resolve the claim or determine that it is not justified. At any time a regulant determines that a claim for service is not justified in whole or part, he shall immediately notify the claimant in writing that the claim or part of the claim is rejected and why, and shall inform the claimant that he is entitled to complain to the Board. The complete mailing address of the Board shall be provided in the notice. Within five working days of receipt of a complaint, the Board shall send a complete copy thereof to the Director.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.25. Warranty service.

When a service agreement exists between or among a manufacturer, dealer, and supplier to provide warranty service, the agreement shall specify which such responsible party is to remedy warranty defects. Every such service agreement shall be in writing. Nothing contained in such an agreement shall relieve the responsible party, as provided in this chapter, of responsibility to perform warranty service. However, any responsible party undertaking such an agreement to perform the warranty service obligations of another shall thereby become responsible both to that other responsible party and to the buyer for his failure to adequately perform as agreed.

When no service agreement exists for warranty service, the responsible party as designated by the provisions of this chapter is responsible for remedying the warranty defects.

A defect shall be remedied within forty-five days of receipt of the written notification of the warranty claim, unless the claim is unreasonable or a bona fide reason exists for not remedying the defect within the forty-five-day period. The responsible party shall respond to the claimant in writing with a copy to the Board stating what further action is contemplated by the responsible party. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, defects which constitute an imminent safety hazard to life and health shall be remedied within three days of receipt of the written notification of the warranty claim. An imminent safety hazard to life and health shall include but not be limited to (i) inadequate heating in freezing weather; (ii) failure of sanitary facilities; (iii) electrical shock or leaking gas; or (iv) major structural failure. The Board may suspend this three-day time period in the event of widespread defects or damage resulting from adverse weather conditions or other natural catastrophes.

When the person remedying the defect is not the responsible party as designated by the provisions of this chapter, he shall be entitled to reasonable compensation paid to him by the responsible party. Conduct which coerces or requires a nonresponsible party to perform warranty service is a violation of this chapter.

Warranty service shall be performed at the site at which the manufactured home is initially delivered to the buyer, except for components which can be removed for service without undue inconvenience to the buyer.

Any responsible party shall have the right to complain to the Board when warranty service obligations under this chapter are not being enforced.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.26. Dealer alterations.

A. No alteration or modification shall be made to a manufactured home by a dealer after shipment from the manufacturer's plant, unless such alteration or modification is authorized by this chapter or the manufacturer. The dealer shall ensure that all authorized alterations and modifications are performed, if so required, by qualified persons as defined in subsection D. An unauthorized alteration or modification performed by a dealer or his agent or employee shall place primary warranty responsibility for the altered or modified item upon the dealer. If the manufacturer fulfills or is required to fulfill the warranty on the altered or modified item, he shall be entitled to recover damages in the amount of his cost and attorney's fee from the dealer.

B. An unauthorized alteration or modification of a manufactured home by the owner or his agent shall relieve the manufacturer of responsibility to remedy defects caused by such alterations or modifications. A statement to this effect, together with a warning specifying those alterations or modifications which should be performed only by qualified personnel in order to preserve warranty protection, shall be displayed clearly and conspicuously on the face of the warranty. Failure to display such statement shall result in the manufacturer being responsible for the warranty.

C. The Board is authorized to promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) which define the alterations or modifications which must be made by qualified personnel in accordance with the applicable standards of the Code. The Board may require qualified personnel for those alterations and modifications which could impair the structural integrity or safety of the manufactured home.

D. In order to be designated as a person qualified to alter or modify a manufactured home, a person shall comply with state licensing or competency requirements in skills relevant to performing alterations or modifications on manufactured homes.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.27. Determining length of manufactured homes.

In any advertisement or other communication regarding the length of a manufactured home, a regulant shall not include the length of the towing assembly (hitch) in describing the length of the home.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.28. Limitation on damages; disclosure to buyer.

A. If a buyer fails to accept delivery of a manufactured home, the manufactured home dealer may retain actual damages according to the following terms:

1. If the manufactured home is a single section unit and is in the dealer's stock and is not specially ordered from the manufacturer for the buyer, the maximum retention shall be $1,000.

2. If the manufactured home is a single section unit and is specially ordered from the manufacturer for the buyer, the maximum retention shall be $2,000.

3. If the manufactured home is larger than a single section unit in the dealer's stock and is not specially ordered for the buyer, the maximum retention shall be $4,000.

4. If the manufactured home is larger than a single section unit and is specially ordered for the buyer from the manufacturer, the maximum retention shall be $7,000.

B. A dealer shall provide a written disclosure to the buyer at the time of the sale of a manufactured home alerting the buyer to the actual damages that may be assessed of the buyer, as listed in subsection A, for failure to take delivery of the manufactured home as purchased.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 2009, cc. 141, 579; 2010, c. 167.

§ 36-85.29. Inspection of service records.

The Board is authorized to inspect the pertinent service records of a manufacturer, dealer, supplier, or broker relating to a written warranty claim or complaint made to the Board against such manufacturer, dealer, supplier, or broker. Every regulant shall send to the Board upon request and within ten days, a true copy of every document or record pertinent to any complaint or claim for service.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.30. Other remedies not excluded.

Nothing in this chapter, nor any decision by the Board, shall limit any right or remedy available to the buyer through common law or under any other statute.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

Article 2. Virginia Manufactured Housing Transaction Recovery Fund.

§ 36-85.31. Recovery fund to be established.

A. Each manufactured home manufacturer, dealer, broker and salesperson operating in the Commonwealth of Virginia shall be required to pay an initial assessment fee as set forth in subsection B to the Virginia Manufactured Housing Transaction Recovery Fund. Thereafter, assessment fees shall be assessed as necessary to achieve and maintain a minimum fund balance of $250,000.

B. Each applicant approved by the Board for a license as a manufactured home manufacturer, dealer, broker, or salesperson in accordance with the provisions of Article 1 (§ 36-85.16 et seq.) of this chapter shall pay into the fund the following assessment fees:

1. For a manufacturer -- $4,000 for each separate manufacturing facility payable in one installment or $4,400 payable at $2,200 per year for two years.

2. For a dealer -- $500 per retail location.

3. For a broker -- $500 per sales office.

4. For a salesperson -- $50 per individual.

C. All assessment fees collected under this article shall be deposited in the state treasury and the State Treasurer shall credit the amount paid into a special revenue fund from which appropriations may be utilized by the Board in accordance with the express purposes set forth in this article. The assets of the fund shall be invested in accordance with the advice of the State Treasurer. Interest earned on deposits constituting this fund shall accrue to the fund or may be used for the purposes of providing educational programs to the consumer about manufactured housing.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 2009, cc. 141, 579.

§ 36-85.32. Recovery from fund generally.

Any person who suffers any loss or damage by any act of a regulant that constitutes a violation of this chapter shall have the right to institute an action to recover from the recovery fund.

Upon a finding by the Board that a violation has occurred, the Board shall direct the responsible manufacturer, dealer, broker, or salesperson to pay the awarded amount to the claimant. If such amount is not paid within thirty days following receipt of the written decision of the Board and no appeal has been filed in court, the Board shall, upon request of the claimant, pay from the recovery fund the amount of the award to the claimant provided that:

1. The maximum claim of one claimant against the fund because of a single or multiple violations by one or more regulants shall be limited to $40,000;

2. The fund balance is sufficient to pay the award;

3. The claimant has assigned the Board all rights and claims against the regulant; and

4. The claimant agrees to subrogate to the Board all rights of the claimant to the extent of payment.

The aggregate of claims against the fund for violations by any one regulant shall be limited by the Board to $75,000 per manufacturer, $35,000 per dealer, $35,000 per broker, and $25,000 per salesperson during any license period. If a claim has been made against the fund, and the Board has reason to believe there may be additional claims against the fund from other transactions involving the same regulant, the Board may withhold any payments from the fund involving such regulant for a period of not more than one year from the date on which the claimant is approved by the Board for an award from the fund. After this one-year period, if the aggregate of claims against the regulant exceeds the above limitations, said amount shall be prorated by the Board among the claimants and paid from the fund in proportion to the amounts of their awards remaining unpaid.

The amount of damages awarded by the Board shall be limited to actual, compensatory damages and shall not include attorney's fees for representation before the Board.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223; 1994, c. 671; 2009, cc. 141, 579.

§ 36-85.33. Revocation of license upon payment from fund.

Upon payment to a claimant from the fund, the Board shall immediately revoke the license of the regulant whose conduct resulted in this payment. Any regulant whose license is revoked shall not be eligible to apply for a license under this chapter until the regulant has repaid in full the amount paid from the fund on his account, plus interest.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.34. Disciplinary action by Board.

The Board may take disciplinary action against any regulant for any violation of this chapter or the regulations of the Board. Full repayment of the amount paid from the fund on a regulant's account shall not nullify or modify the effect of any disciplinary proceeding against that regulant for any violation.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.35. Appeals from decision of the Board.

Appeals from a decision of the Board shall be to a circuit court with jurisdiction in the Commonwealth. An appeal must be made within thirty days of the date of the Board's order. Once made, an appeal shall stay the Board's order. Neither the regulant nor the Board shall be required to pay damages to the claimant until such time as a final order of the court is issued. The court may award reasonable attorney's fees and court costs to be paid by the recovery fund. Except as provided to the contrary herein, appeals pursuant to this section shall be in conformance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.

§ 36-85.36. Recovery fund administrative regulations.

The Board is authorized to promulgate regulations in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) consistent with this chapter for the administration of the fund to assure the satisfaction of claims.

1991, c. 555; 1992, c. 223.