Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 38.2. Insurance
11/20/2019

Chapter 10. Organization, Admission and Licensing of Insurers.

Article 1. Organization of Domestic Insurers.

§ 38.2-1000. Incorporation of domestic stock insurers.

Domestic stock insurers shall be incorporated under the provisions of Article 3 (§ 13.1-618 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of Title 13.1. A foreign insurer may become a domestic insurer under the provisions of Article 11 (§ 13.1-705 et seq.) or Article 12 (§ 13.1-715.1 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of Title 13.1. Except as otherwise provided in this title, domestic stock insurers shall be subject to all the general restrictions and shall have all the general powers imposed and conferred by law.

Code 1950, §§ 38-27, 38-28; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-71; 1956, c. 431; 1986, c. 562; 1995, c. 69; 2005, c. 765.

§ 38.2-1001. Incorporation of domestic mutual insurers.

Domestic mutual insurers shall be incorporated under the provisions of Article 3 (§ 13.1-818 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 13.1. A foreign insurer may become a domestic insurer under the provisions of Article 10 (§ 13.1-884 et seq.) or Article 11 (§ 13.1-893.1 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 13.1. Except as otherwise provided in this title, domestic mutual insurers shall be subject to all the general restrictions and shall have all the general powers imposed and conferred by law.

Code 1950, §§ 38-27, 38-497, 38-498, 38-500, 38-501, 38-502; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-74; 1956, c. 431; 1986, c. 562; 1995, c. 69.

§ 38.2-1002. Additional requirements of articles of incorporation; name.

The articles of incorporation for a domestic mutual insurer shall be signed by at least twenty natural persons, a majority of whom are legal residents of this Commonwealth. The articles shall, in addition to complying with the requirements of Article 3 (§ 13.1-818 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 13.1, set forth the classes of insurance the insurer proposes to write.

Code 1950, §§ 38-28, 38-497, 38-498, 38-499; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-75; 1956, c. 431; 1958, c. 596; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1003. When corporate status attained; bylaws filed with Commission.

A domestic mutual insurer shall have legal existence as soon as the charter has been recorded with the Commission, after which the board of directors named in the charter may adopt bylaws and accept applications for insurance. However, no insurance shall be put in force until the insurer has been licensed to transact the business of insurance as provided by this chapter. The bylaws and any amendments shall be filed with the Commission within thirty days after adoption.

Code 1950, § 38-503; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-76; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1004. Voting.

Each member of a domestic mutual insurer shall have one vote, or a number of votes based upon the insurance in force, the number of policies held, or the amount of premiums paid, as provided in the bylaws of the insurer.

Code 1950, § 38-507; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-77; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1005. Certain mutual companies and societies not to become stock companies without approval of Commission.

No mutual insurance company, mutual assessment property and casualty insurer, cooperative nonprofit life benefit company, mutual assessment life, accident and sickness company, burial society, or fraternal benefit society shall be converted into a stock corporation unless such conversion and the plan for conversion are approved by the Commission. The insurer shall comply with § 38.2-1028 before approval for conversion is granted by the Commission unless the Commission finds that the insurer will have the required capital and surplus within a reasonable time after conversion. A society or other nonstock company licensed under any chapter of this title except Chapter 10 (§ 38.2-1000 et seq.) shall be licensed as a mutual insurer subject to § 38.2-1029 prior to seeking approval for conversion under § 38.2-1005.1 or § 38.2-1005.1:9.

1952, c. 317, § 38.1-79; 1970, c. 636; 1986, c. 562; 2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1. Conversion of a domestic mutual insurer to a domestic stock insurer.

A. Any domestic mutual insurer may convert to a domestic stock insurer pursuant to a plan of conversion approved by the Commission.

B. The Commission shall approve any such plan of conversion if, after giving notice and an opportunity to be heard to the policyholders of the domestic mutual insurer, the Commission determines that:

1. The terms and conditions of the plan are fair and equitable to the policyholders of the domestic mutual insurer;

2. The plan is subject to approval by a vote of more than two-thirds of all votes cast on the plan at a meeting of the members of the domestic mutual insurer called for that purpose at which a quorum is present;

3. Except as otherwise provided in subdivision 4 of this subsection, the plan allocates and directs that the entire stock ownership interests and other consideration to be distributed pursuant to the plan of conversion be distributed to the policyholders of the domestic mutual insurer;

4. In the case of a domestic mutual insurer that converted from a health services plan that was in existence prior to December 31, 1987, the plan of conversion allocates and distributes to the State Treasurer, in addition to any shares of stock that the Commonwealth may be entitled to receive as a policyholder, shares of stock or cash or both with a value equal to the surplus, computed in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, of such health services plan on December 31, 1987, plus ten million dollars; and

5. Immediately after the conversion, the insurer will have the fully paid capital stock and surplus required by applicable law.

C. A plan of conversion that utilizes a statutory merger in order to effect a conversion may be approved in accordance with this section and § 38.2-1005.1:9, and the provisions of § 38.2-1018 shall not be applicable to such plan of conversion.

1996, cc. 801, 831; 2001, c. 726.

Article 1.1. Formation of Mutual Insurance Holding Company; Conversion of Mutual Holding Company to Stock Holding Company.

§ 38.2-1005.1:1. Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Converted company" means a stock insurance company incorporated and organized under the laws of this Commonwealth that continues in existence after a reorganization under this article in connection with the formation of a mutual holding company.

"Converted mutual holding company" means the stock corporation into which a mutual holding company has been converted pursuant to § 38.2-1005.1:9.

"Eligible member" means a member as of the date the board of directors of a mutual company adopts a plan of MHC conversion under this article. For the conversion of a mutual holding company, the term eligible member means a member of the mutual holding company who is of record on the date the board of directors of the mutual holding company adopts a plan of conversion authorized pursuant to this article.

"Intermediate holding company" means a corporation authorized to issue one or more classes of capital stock, the corporate purposes of which include holding, directly or indirectly, the voting stock of a converted company.

"Member" means a person who, on the records of a mutual company and pursuant to the articles of incorporation or bylaws of a mutual company, is deemed to be the holder of a membership interest in a mutual company. The term member also includes a person insured under a group policy if:

1. The person is insured or covered under a group life insurance policy or group annuity contract under which funds are accumulated and allocated to the respective persons covered under such policy or contract;

2. The person has the right to direct the application of the funds so allocated;

3. The group policyholder does not pay any portion of the premiums or deposits for the policy or contract; and

4. The mutual company has the names and addresses of the persons covered under the group life insurance policy or group annuity contract.

When a plan of MHC conversion has become effective under this article, the term "member" shall mean a member of the mutual holding company created by such plan.

"Mutual company" means a mutual insurance company incorporated and organized under the laws of this Commonwealth and licensed pursuant to Chapter 10 (§ 38.2-1000 et seq.) of this title.

"Mutual holding company" or "MHC" means a corporation organized under the provisions of the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act (§ 13.1-801 et seq.) in connection with the reorganization of a mutual company under this article. A MHC shall be subject to the provisions of this article and any other provisions of this title that are applicable to mutual companies and not inconsistent with the provisions of this article. The articles of incorporation of a MHC shall state:

1. That the corporation is organized under this article as a MHC;

2. That the MHC shall hold not less than a majority of the shares of voting stock of a converted company or an intermediate holding company that, in turn, directly or indirectly holds all of the voting shares of a converted company;

3. That the corporation is not authorized to issue capital stock except in accordance with the provisions of § 38.2-1005.1:9;

4. That its members shall have the rights specified in this article and its articles of incorporation and bylaws; and

5. That its assets shall be subject to inclusion in the estate of the converted company in any proceeding initiated against the converted company under Chapter 15 (§ 38.2-1500 et seq.) of this title.

"Plan of MHC conversion" or "plan" means a plan adopted pursuant to this article by the board of directors of a mutual company for the conversion of a mutual company into a direct or indirect stock subsidiary of a mutual holding company.

"Policy" includes any group or individual policy or contract issued by a mutual company, including an annuity contract, but does not include a certificate of insurance issued in connection with a group policy or contract.

"Policyholder" means the holder of a policy other than a reinsurance contract.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:2. Formation of mutual holding company and conversion of mutual company.

A mutual company, upon approval of the Commission, may reorganize by forming a mutual holding company and continue the corporate existence of the reorganizing mutual company as a stock insurance company in accordance with the provisions of this article. At the time a plan of MHC conversion becomes effective and without any further action:

1. The mutual company shall become a stock corporation, the membership interests of the policyholders in the mutual company shall be deemed extinguished and all eligible members of the mutual company shall become members of the mutual holding company in accordance with the articles of incorporation and bylaws of the mutual holding company and the applicable provisions of this article and Chapter 10 (§ 38.2-1000 et seq.) of this title; and

2. All of the shares of capital stock of the converted company shall be issued to the mutual holding company that, at all times thereafter, shall own not less than a majority of the issued shares of the voting stock of the converted company; however, either at the time the conversion becomes effective or, with the Commission's approval, at any later time, the voting shares of the converted company may be held by one or more intermediate holding companies so long as the mutual holding company at all times owns, directly or indirectly, a majority of the voting shares of the converted company.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:3. Mutual holding company membership interest.

A. A member of a mutual holding company shall not transfer membership in the company or any right arising from membership.

B. A member of a mutual holding company shall not, as a member, be personally liable for or subject to assessment on account of any act, debt, liability or obligation of the MHC or of any entity owned or controlled by the MHC.

C. A membership interest in a mutual holding company shall not constitute a security under the laws of the Commonwealth.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:4. Contents of plan of MHC conversion.

A plan of MHC conversion shall:

A. Include:

1. The reasons for the proposed conversion; and

2. The effect of the proposed conversion on the mutual company's existing policies.

B. Provide that:

1. All policies of the converted company in force on the effective date of the conversion shall continue in force under the terms of those policies, except that all voting and other membership rights of the policyholders provided for under the policies or under the laws of this Commonwealth and any provisions for contingent liability of members shall be extinguished on the effective date of the plan of MHC conversion.

2. The holders of participating policies in force on the date of conversion shall continue to have the right to receive dividends as provided in such policies, if any. However, except in the case of a mutual company's life insurance policies, guaranteed renewable accident and sickness insurance policies, and non-cancelable accident and sickness insurance policies, if any, a plan may provide that the converted stock company will issue the insured a nonparticipating policy as a substitute for the participating policy on the renewal date of the participating policy next following the date the plan becomes effective.

3. If a mutual life insurance company has participating life insurance policies in force on the effective date of the plan of conversion, the converted company will maintain such participating life policies as a closed block of business for dividend purposes, except that any or all classes of group participating policies may be excluded from the closed block. The plan shall provide for the establishment of one or more segregated accounts in connection with the closed block of business and shall allocate to such segregated accounts sufficient assets of the mutual company so that the assets so allocated, together with the revenue for the closed block of business, are sufficient to support the closed block including, but not limited to, the payment of claims, expenses, taxes and any dividends that are provided for under the terms of the participating policies with appropriate adjustments in the dividends for experience changes. The plan shall be accompanied by an opinion of a qualified actuary or appointed actuary who meets the standards provided in this title or the Commission's regulations for the submission of actuarial opinions as to the adequacy of reserves or assets. The actuarial opinion shall relate to the adequacy of the assets allocated to the segregated accounts of the closed block and shall be based on methods of analysis deemed appropriate for such purposes by the Actuarial Standards Board. The amount of assets allocated to the segregated accounts of the closed block shall be based upon the mutual company's most recent annual statement updated to the effective date of the conversion. After the effective date of the conversion, the converted company shall keep a separate accounting for the closed block and shall make and include in each annual statement to be filed with the Commission a separate statement showing gains, losses and expenses properly attributable to the closed block. With the Commission's prior approval, assets allocated to the closed block of business that are in excess of the amount of assets necessary to support the policies then remaining in the closed block shall revert to the benefit of the converted company. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision, the Commission may waive the requirement for the establishment of a closed block of participating policies when it deems a waiver to be in the best interests of the participating policyholders of the mutual company.

C. Include the requirements for granting membership interest to persons who become policyholders of the converted company subsequent to the effective date of the conversion.

D. Include information sufficient to demonstrate that the financial condition of the converted company will not be diminished by the plan of MHC conversion.

E. Include a description of any current proposal to issue shares of the converted company or an intermediate holding company to the public or to other persons or entities who are not direct or indirect subsidiaries of the mutual holding company.

F. Include the identity of each of the proposed directors and officers of the mutual holding company and each intermediate holding company, if any, together with such biographical information the Commission may require.

G. Include such other information as the Commission considers appropriate for inclusion in the plan of MHC conversion.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:5. Adoption and approval of plan of MHC conversion.

A. The board of directors of a mutual company may adopt a plan of MHC conversion that is consistent with the provisions of § 38.2-1005.1:4 by the affirmative vote of not less than two-thirds of the members of the board. At any time before approval of the plan by the mutual company's eligible members, the board of directors, by affirmative vote of not less than two-thirds of its members, may amend or withdraw the plan.

B. After a plan of MHC conversion has been adopted by the board of directors, the plan and all amendments subsequently adopted shall be filed with the Commission for review and approval. In addition to the plan and supporting documents, the filing shall include (i) the form of notice to eligible members required by subdivision E 1 of this section, (ii) the form of any proxy to be solicited from eligible members together with all material to be distributed in connection with such solicitation, (iii) the proposed articles of incorporation and bylaws of the mutual holding company and each intermediate holding company, if any, and (iv) the revised articles of incorporation and bylaws of the converted company.

C. Upon receipt of the plan and other documents specified in subsection B of this section, the Commission shall conduct a review of the plan. The Commission shall approve the plan if it determines that the provisions of this article have been complied with and that the plan is fair and equitable as regards the interests of the members of the mutual company. The Commission may in its discretion order a public hearing for the purpose of determining whether the plan complies with the conditions listed in the preceding sentence. The Commission may retain, at the mutual company's expense, any qualified expert not a member of its staff to assist in its review of the plan.

D. The Commission may condition approval of the plan upon such conditions, stipulations or provisions as it determines are reasonably necessary to protect policyholder interests of the converted company, including, but not limited to:

1. Its prior approval of:

a. Any acquisition or formation of affiliate entities of the mutual holding company;

b. The capital structure of any intermediate holding company or any subsequent change thereto;

c. Any initial public offering or other issuance of equity or debt securities of an intermediate holding company or the converted company by private sale or public offering; and

d. Expansion of the activities of the mutual holding company into lines of business, industries or operations not identified or apparent at the time of approval of the plan.

2. Limitations on:

a. Dividends and distributions, in addition to those otherwise provided by law, if their effect would be to reduce the capital and surplus of the converted company; and

b. The pledge, encumbrance or transfer of the stock of the converted company.

E. 1. Upon approval of a plan of MHC conversion by the Commission, the plan shall be submitted to a vote of the eligible members at an annual or special meeting of the members of the mutual company held not less than twenty-five nor more than sixty days from the date notice of the meeting is given. Notice of the members' meeting to act on the plan shall be given to each eligible member at the member's address as shown on the company's records not later than forty-five days following the date of the Commission's approval of the plan. The notice shall identify in reasonable detail the benefits and risks of the plan of MHC conversion and shall be accompanied by a copy of the plan or, if authorized by the Commission, a summary thereof; provided, however, that if a summary of the plan is sent with the notice, members shall be advised that a complete copy of the plan will be available without charge upon request. The notice shall state that the Commission has approved the plan but that such approval does not constitute a recommendation that members vote to adopt the plan.

2. Approval of the plan shall be by the affirmative vote of more than two-thirds of the votes cast by eligible members at a meeting at which a quorum is present. Eligible members may vote in person or by proxy. The number of votes an eligible member may cast shall be determined by the bylaws of the mutual company. If the bylaws contain no such provisions, each eligible member shall be entitled to cast one vote.

3. Upon approval of the plan by the eligible members of the mutual company, the articles of incorporation of the mutual holding company, any intermediate holding company, and the converted company shall be adopted and filed with the Commission. In addition, the converted company shall file with the Commission a copy of the minutes of the meeting at which the members approved the plan together with a copy of the bylaws of the mutual holding company, any intermediate holding company, and the converted company. The plan of MHC conversion shall become effective on the date that all of the provisions of this section have been complied with and the new and revised articles of incorporation have been filed and admitted to record in the office of the clerk of the Commission in the manner provided by Chapter 9 (§ 13.1-601 et seq.) of Title 13.1.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:6. Corporate existence.

A. Upon conversion of a mutual company to a converted company in accordance with the provisions of this article, the corporate existence of the mutual company shall be continued in the converted company with the original date of incorporation of the mutual company. All rights, franchises and interests of the mutual company in and to any type of property, real, personal, mixed, tangible or intangible, held immediately prior to the effective date of the conversion shall be deemed transferred to and vested in the converted company without further act or deed. Simultaneously, the converted company shall be deemed to have assumed all obligations and liabilities of the mutual company that existed immediately prior to the conversion.

B. Unless otherwise provided in the plan of MHC conversion, the directors and officers of the mutual company shall serve as the directors and officers of the converted company until new directors and officers of the converted company are elected in accordance with the articles of incorporation and bylaws of the converted company.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:7. Regulation and authority of a mutual holding company.

A. A mutual holding company organized under Title 13.1 pursuant to the authority granted by this article shall have all of the powers granted to a domestic mutual insurance company licensed under Chapter 10 (§ 38.2-1000 et seq.) and shall be subject to the same limitations and restrictions imposed on insurance holding companies by Article 5 (§ 38.2-1322 et seq.), Article 5.1 (§ 38.2-1334.3 et seq.), Article 5.2 (§ 38.2-1334.11 et seq.), and Article 6 (§ 38.2-1335 et seq.) of Chapter 13 as well as all requirements and provisions of the laws of this Commonwealth that are not inconsistent with the provisions of this article except that a mutual holding company shall not have authority to transact insurance pursuant to this title.

B. Neither the mutual holding company nor any intermediate holding company shall issue or reinsure policies of insurance.

C. A mutual holding company may enter into an affiliation agreement or merger agreement either at the time of the conversion, or at some later time with the approval of the Commission, with any mutual insurance company licensed to transact insurance in this Commonwealth or another mutual holding company. Any such merger agreement may authorize members of the mutual insurance company or other mutual holding company to become members of the mutual holding company. Any such affiliation or merger agreement shall be subject to the provisions of this title relating to transactions entered into by a mutual insurance company organized and licensed under the laws of this Commonwealth.

D. The assets of the mutual holding company shall be held in trust under such arrangements and on such terms as the Commission may approve for the benefit of the policyholders of the converted company. Any residual rights of the MHC in such assets or any of the assets of the MHC determined not to be held in trust shall be subject to a lien in favor of the policyholders of the converted company under such terms as the Commission may approve. Upon conversion of the mutual holding company as provided for in § 38.2-1005.1:9, such assets shall be released from trust in accordance with the plan of conversion approved by the Commission.

2001, c. 726; 2014, c. 248; 2017, c. 643.

§ 38.2-1005.1:8. Diversion of business to affiliates.

Without prior approval of the Commission, neither the converted company nor any person affiliated with or controlling the converted company shall divert business from the converted company to any insurance company affiliated with the converted company if the purpose or effect of such diversion would be to reduce significantly the number of members of the mutual holding company.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:9. Conversion of mutual holding company.

A mutual holding company may reorganize as a stock holding company by complying with the applicable provisions of § 38.2-1005.1. For the purposes of effecting such conversion, the mutual holding company shall be deemed a mutual insurer and the converted mutual holding company shall be deemed a stock insurer. Notwithstanding any provision of § 38.1-1005.1 to the contrary, the Commission shall approve the reorganization of the mutual holding company as a stock holding company if the Commission determines that the provisions of applicable law have been complied with and that the reorganization is fair and equitable as regards the interests of the members of the mutual holding company. The Commission may in its discretion order a public hearing for the purpose of determining whether the reorganization complies with such conditions.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:10. Conflicts of interest.

No director, officer, agent or employee of a mutual company or other person shall receive any fee, commission or other valuable consideration, other than such person's regular salary or compensation, for in any manner aiding, promoting, arranging, or assisting in a conversion except as set forth in the plan of MHC conversion approved by the Commission. This provision shall not prohibit the payment of reasonable fees and compensation to attorneys, accountants or actuaries for services performed in the independent practice of their professions notwithstanding the fact that such attorney, accountant or actuary is a director of the mutual company.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:11. Costs and expenses.

All costs and expenses incurred in connection with a plan of MHC conversion shall be paid either by the mutual company or the converted company.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:12. Failure to give notice.

If a mutual company complies substantially and in good faith with the notice requirements in this article, its failure to give any member a required notice shall not impair the validity of any action taken under this article.

2001, c. 726.

§ 38.2-1005.1:13. Limitation on actions.

Any action challenging the validity of or arising out of any act taken or proposed to be taken under this article shall be commenced within thirty days after the date the plan of MHC conversion becomes effective.

2001, c. 726.

Article 2. Conversion of Domestic Stock Insurer to Mutual Insurer.

§ 38.2-1006. Conversion of a domestic stock insurer to a mutual insurer.

A. Any domestic stock life insurer may become a mutual life insurer, and to that end may carry out a plan for the acquisition of shares of its capital stock by purchase, gift or bequest, if the plan:

1. Has been adopted by a vote of a majority of the directors of the insurer;

2. Has been approved by a vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the stock outstanding at a meeting called for that purpose;

3. Has been submitted to and approved by the Commission; and

4. Has been approved by a majority vote of the policyholders voting at a meeting called for that purpose. Only those policyholders whose insurance is then in force and has been in force for at least one year before the meeting shall be entitled to vote.

B. For the purpose of this article, "policyholder" shall include the employer, or the president, secretary or other executive officer of any corporation or association, to which a master group policy has been issued, but shall exclude the holders of certificates or policies issued under or in connection with a master group policy.

Code 1950, §§ 38-420, 38-424; 1952, c. 317, §§ 38.1-489, 38.1-493; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1007. Notice to policyholders of meeting to approve conversion.

At least thirty days before the meeting of policyholders required by § 38.2-1006, the insurer shall mail notice of the meeting to each policyholder at the last known address or shall deliver the notice in person to the policyholder.

Code 1950, § 38-421; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-490; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1008. Conduct of and voting at meeting.

The meeting required by § 38.2-1006 shall be conducted in the manner provided in the plan, subject to the following requirements:

1. Policyholders may vote in person, by proxy, or by mail, but all votes shall be cast by ballot; and

2. A representative of the Commission shall supervise the procedure of the meeting and shall appoint an adequate number of inspectors to oversee the voting at the meeting. The inspectors, acting under any rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission, shall have power to determine all questions concerning the verification and validity of the ballots, the qualifications of the voters, and the canvass of the vote. The inspectors shall certify the results of the voting to the representative of the Commission and to the insurer.

All necessary expenses incurred by the Commission or its representative in connection with the meeting shall be paid by the insurer.

Code 1950, § 38-422; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-491; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1009. Payment for shares pursuant to conversion plan.

Every payment for the acquisition of any shares of the capital stock of the insurer, the purchase price of which is not fixed by the plan, shall be subject to the approval of the Commission. Neither the plan, nor any payment under the plan, nor any payment not fixed by the plan, shall be approved by the Commission if the making of the payment reduces the surplus to policyholders to an amount less than that required at that time for the licensure of domestic mutual insurers.

Code 1950, § 38-423; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-492; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1010. How acquired shares held.

Until all shares are acquired, the acquired shares shall be held in trust for the policyholders of the insurer as provided in this article and shall be assigned and transferred on the books of the insurer to not less than three nor more than five trustees and shall be held by them in trust. Shares transferred to the trustees shall be voted by them at all corporate meetings at which stockholders have the right to vote until all of the capital stock of the insurer is acquired. The trustees shall be appointed and vacancies in the office of trustee shall be filled as provided in the plan adopted under § 38.2-1006. The trustees shall file with the insurer and with the Commission a verified acceptance of their appointment and a declaration that they will faithfully discharge their duties as such trustees.

Code 1950, § 38-425; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-494; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1011. Disposition of dividends after payments provided in conversion plan.

After the payment of stockholder dividends as provided in the plan adopted under § 38.2-1006, and after paying the necessary expenses of executing the trust all dividends and other sums received by the trustees on the shares of acquired stock, shall be immediately repaid to the insurer for the benefit of those who are or may become policyholders of the insurer and entitled to participate in the profits of the insurer. These payments shall be added to and become a part of the earned surplus of the insurer.

Code 1950, § 38-426; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-495; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1012. Jurisdiction to compel completion of mutualization.

Whenever (i) a plan of mutualization approved in accordance with the laws of this Commonwealth has been in effect for more than five years, and (ii) the insurer has acquired in the name of its trustees under the plan at least ninety percent of its outstanding stock, and (iii) the plan itself contains no provision for the compulsory completion of mutualization inconsistent with the terms of this article, circuit courts shall have jurisdiction to compel completion of the mutualization of the insurer upon the petition of either the insurer or any stockholder of the insurer.

1954, c. 20, § 38.1-495.1; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1013. Venue of proceedings.

The petition may be filed in the circuit court of record with general equity jurisdiction in the county or city in which the principal office of the insurer is located.

1954, c. 20, § 38.1-495.2; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1014. Parties and process.

Necessary parties to the proceeding shall be (i) the insurer, (ii) the registered holders of all its stock still outstanding in the hands of the public, and (iii) its policyholders as a class. Process may be served on the policyholders as a class by publication but any policyholder may, on motion, be admitted as an individual party. The court shall appoint an attorney to represent all other policyholders.

1954, c. 20, § 38.1-495.3; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1015. Determining value of stock outstanding; dismissal of petition or entry of decree requiring payment for and transfer of stock.

The court shall determine the per share fair cash value as of the date of the filing of the petition of the stock remaining in the hands of the public. If the court finds that on that basis, completion of mutualization may not be effected without jeopardizing the solvency of the insurer or the security of its policyholders, the petition shall be dismissed. Otherwise, the court shall enter an appropriate decree to require (i) the payment into court by the insurer of the aggregate amount due the remaining stockholders, with any interest and costs, which may include attorneys' fees that the court may require, and (ii) the transfer and delivery to the insurer of all stock certificates still outstanding in the hands of the public. Upon payment by the insurer, the trustees under the plan of mutualization shall be considered, for all purposes of the plan of mutualization, to have acquired all of its outstanding stock. The holders of the stock shall possess no further right with respect to the stock, except to receive its fair cash value as determined by the court. The court shall retain jurisdiction over the distribution of the funds.

1954, c. 20, § 38.1-495.4; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1016. Amendment of charter and bylaws; change of name; retirement and cancellation of stock; when mutualization effective; assets and liabilities; officers and directors; general restrictions and powers.

A. Upon acquisition by the trustees of all of the capital stock of the insurer pursuant to the provisions of this article, the charter of the insurer shall be amended to reflect its mutualization. The charter may be amended in any other respect considered necessary by the board of directors and trustees of the insurer in accordance with the provisions of this article and Article 11 (§ 13.1-705 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of Title 13.1. Upon the amendment of the charter of the insurer, the board of directors named in the amendment shall adopt any changes in the bylaws considered necessary, and the bylaws and any amendments to them shall be filed with the Commission within thirty days after adoption.

B. As soon as the charter of the insurer has been amended as provided in this section, the capital stock of the insurer held by the trustees shall be assigned to the insurer and shall be retired and cancelled. Certification of that action by the proper officers of the insurer shall be made to the Commission, and the trustees acting under the plan shall be discharged. The insurer shall then immediately become a mutual insurer owning all the assets of the converted stock insurer and subject to all its liabilities.

C. The officers and directors of the insurer named in the amended charter shall continue as the officers and directors of the mutual insurer until their successors are duly elected in accordance with the provisions of the amended charter and the bylaws adopted under it.

D. The converted mutual insurer, except as otherwise provided in this title, shall be subject to all the general restrictions and have all the general powers imposed and conferred upon nonstock corporations by law.

1954, c. 20, § 38.1-495.5; 1956, c. 431; 1986, c. 562.

Article 2.1. Conversion of Health Maintenance Organization to Accident and Sickness Insurer.

§ 38.2-1016.1. Conversion of a health maintenance organization to an accident and sickness insurer.

A. Any health maintenance organization domiciled in the Commonwealth and subject to the provisions of Chapter 43 (§ 38.2-4300 et seq.) may, at its option and without reincorporation, convert to an insurer licensed to write accident and sickness insurance, hereinafter referred to as the "converted insurer," by following the procedures set forth in this section. A health maintenance organization that becomes a converted insurer under this section shall have all of the rights to and titles and interests in the assets of the original health maintenance organization, as well as all of its liabilities and obligations.

B. A health maintenance organization eligible to become a converted insurer under subsection A may effect such conversion by (i) complying with the requirements for formation of a domestic insurer under Article 1 (§ 38.2-1000 et seq.); (ii) promptly filing with the Commission any necessary amendments to its articles of incorporation, bylaws, and other corporate documents pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 9 (§ 13.1-601 et seq.) of Title 13.1; and (iii) filing with the Commission such other information as the Commission may require to meet all of the requirements of an insurer in Virginia. When those requirements have been met, the Commission shall issue a license in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 (§ 38.2-1024 et seq.) to permit the converted insurer to conduct the business of accident and sickness insurance in the Commonwealth. Upon the issuance of the converted insurer's license, and except as provided in this section, the converted insurer shall be subject to all of the provisions of this title that pertain to insurers licensed pursuant to Article 5 (§ 38.2-1024 et seq.) of this chapter and the business of accident and sickness insurance.

C. After the effective date of the health maintenance organization's conversion to and licensure as an insurer, all of the converted insurer's individual and group health care plans, contracts, and evidences of coverage shall remain valid and in force in accordance with their terms until the earlier of (i) the expiration or termination of the plans, contracts, or evidences of coverage; or (ii) the last day of the eighteenth month after the effective date of conversion. For the period during which the converted insurer continues to provide or arrange for health care services under such health care plan or plans, the insurer's obligation to pay license taxes under Chapter 25 (§ 58.1-2500 et seq.) of Title 58.1 and fees for maintaining the Bureau of Insurance under Chapter 4 (§ 38.2-400 et seq.), which are, in all cases, attributable to such health care plan or plans, shall be the same as the license taxes and fees required of health maintenance organizations generally.

D. Except as provided herein, a converted insurer shall not, after the effective date of its conversion, use in its accident and sickness insurance policies, contracts or other literature (i) the words "health maintenance organization" or "HMO" or (ii) any other words descriptive of a health maintenance organization or deceptively similar to the name or description of any health maintenance organization then doing business in the Commonwealth in any manner that misrepresents the benefits, advantages, conditions, or terms of the converted insurer's insurance policies, contracts, or other literature.

E. For the purposes of handling the rehabilitation, liquidation, or conservation of a converted insurer, the provisions of Chapter 15 (§ 38.2-1500 et seq.) shall apply. Whenever an order has been entered pursuant to Chapter 15 authorizing the Commission or other receiver to proceed with the rehabilitation, liquidation, or conservation of a converted insurer, the Commission may utilize the provisions of § 38.2-4310, to protect the interests of enrollees in the converted insurer's health care plans. If a receivership occurs in a converted insurer that continues to provide or arrange for health care services under such health care plan or plans, contracts, or policies, the receiver shall consider these plans, contracts, or policies as existing in the converted insurer. The Commission or other receiver appointed pursuant to Chapter 15 shall allocate the assets, liabilities, and obligations of the insolvent converted insurer in the manner that the Commission or other receiver determines is fair and equitable to the insurer's accident and sickness insurance policyholders, health care plan enrollees, and other creditors. The accident and sickness insurance contracts and policies issued by the converted insurer shall be governed by the provisions applicable to the Virginia Life, Accident and Sickness Insurance Guaranty Association pursuant to Chapter 17 (§ 38.2-1700 et seq.). The health care plans, contracts, or policies of the converted insurer, associated with the business written as a health maintenance organization, shall be governed by the provisions of § 38.2-4310.

2007, c. 579; 2018, c. 706.

Article 3. Mergers.

§ 38.2-1017. Applicability of Title 13.1.

Except as otherwise provided in this title, Article 12 (§ 13.1-715.1 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of Title 13.1 shall apply to mergers involving a domestic stock insurer and Article 11 (§ 13.1-893.1 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 13.1 shall apply to mergers involving a domestic mutual insurer.

1952, c. 317, § 38.1-80; 1956, c. 431; 1986, c. 562; 2005, c. 765.

§ 38.2-1018. Plan of merger to be approved by Commission.

Before any joint agreement for the merger of domestic insurers is submitted to the stockholders or members, it shall first be submitted to and approved by the Commission. The Commission shall not approve the agreement unless, after a hearing, it finds that the plan of merger is fair, equitable, consistent with law, and that no reasonable objection to the plan exists. If the Commission fails to approve the plan it shall state the reasons in its order.

1952, c. 317, § 38.1-81; 1956, c. 431; 1986, c. 562.

Article 4. Redomestication of Insurers.

§ 38.2-1019. Change of status from foreign to domestic insurer.

A. Any foreign insurer licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth may become a domestic insurer upon (i) complying with the requirements for formation of a domestic insurer under Article 1 (§ 38.2-1000 et seq.) of this chapter at the date of redomestication, and (ii) promptly filing any necessary amendments to its articles of incorporation, charters, bylaws and other corporate documents. When those requirements have been met, the Commission may issue a license dated as of the date of redomestication in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 (§ 38.2-1024 et seq.) of this chapter to permit the company to transact the business of insurance in the Commonwealth as a domestic insurer. Such insurer shall be recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth as an insurer initially licensed in another jurisdiction, as of the date it was first licensed as an insurer in its original domiciliary state.

B. An insurer that changes its status from foreign to domestic in accordance with subsection A of this section has all the rights, titles and interests in the assets of the original corporation, as well as all of its liabilities and obligations.

1983, c. 441, § 38.1-949; 1986, c. 562; 2000, c. 169.

§ 38.2-1020. Transfer of domicile from Virginia to another state.

Any domestic insurer, upon the approval of the Commission, may transfer its domicile from this Commonwealth to any other state in which it is licensed to transact the business of insurance. The Commission may approve the proposed transfer of domicile if it determines that the transfer is in the best interests of the insurer's policyholders and this Commonwealth. If the Commission does not approve the transfer, it shall give the insurer written notice of the refusal and the reasons for it within thirty days after the date the request for transfer was made. If the request for transfer is granted and the insurer is otherwise qualified, it may transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth as a foreign insurer without interruption in licensing.

1983, c. 441, § 38.1-950; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1021. Change of domicile of foreign insurer to another foreign state.

Any foreign insurer licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth, upon proper notice to the Commission, may change its domicile to another foreign state without interruption in licensing and without reapplying as a foreign insurer if:

1. For a foreign stock insurer, the change in domicile does not result in a reduction in its capital and surplus to policyholders below the capital and surplus requirements for licensure specified in § 38.2-1028;

2. For a foreign mutual insurer, the change in domicile does not result in a reduction in its surplus below the surplus requirements for licensure specified in § 38.2-1029;

3. There is no substantial change in the lines of insurance to be written by the insurer;

4. There is no substantial change in the nature of the insurer or its method of operations and there is no deterioration in its financial condition; and

5. The change in domicile has been approved by the supervising regulatory officials of both the former and new state of domicile.

1983, c. 441, § 38.1-951; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1022. Commission to be notified of proposed transfer of domicile.

Each insurer licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth that transfers its domicile to any other state shall notify the Commission of the proposed transfer and shall file promptly with it any necessary amendments to articles of incorporation, charters, and other corporate documents.

1983, c. 441, § 38.1-952; 1986, c. 562; 2006, c. 329.

§ 38.2-1023. Effect of transfer of domicile on certificate of authority, agents' appointments and licenses, etc.

When any insurer licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth transfers its domicile to this or any other state, its certificate of authority, agents' appointments and licenses, policy forms, rates, authorizations, and other filings and approvals that existed at the time of the transfer shall remain in effect after the transfer of domicile occurs.

1983, c. 441, § 38.1-953; 1986, c. 562.

Article 5. Licensing of Insurers.

§ 38.2-1024. License required to transact the business of insurance; application fee requirements for license.

A. No insurer unless authorized pursuant to Chapter 48 (§ 38.2-4806 et seq.) of this title shall transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth until it has obtained a license from the Commission. For a foreign or alien insurer or reciprocal, this license shall be in addition to the certificate of authority required by § 38.2-1027. Each application for a license to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable license application fee of $500. The fee shall be collected by the Commission and paid directly into the state treasury and credited to the Bureau of Insurance's maintenance fund as provided in subsection B of § 38.2-400. The license shall be signed by a member or other duly authorized agent of the Commission and shall expire on the next June 30 after the date on which it becomes effective, subject to renewal pursuant to § 38.2-1025.

B. The Commission shall not grant a license to do the business of insurance in this Commonwealth to any insurer until it is satisfied that, from the evidence it requires under uniform procedures suitable to and applied equally to all classes of insurers, the insurer:

1. Has paid all fees, taxes, and charges required by law;

2. Has made any deposit required by this title;

3. Has the minimum capital and surplus if a stock insurer, the minimum surplus if a mutual or a reciprocal insurer, and the minimum trusteed surplus if an alien insurer, prescribed in this title for insurers transacting the same class of insurance;

4. Has filed a financial statement or statements and any reports, certificates or other documents the Commission considers necessary to secure a full and accurate knowledge of its affairs and financial condition;

5. Is solvent and its financial condition, method of operation, and manner of doing business are such as to satisfy the Commission that it can meet its obligations to all policyholders; and

6. Has otherwise complied with all the requirements of law.

Code 1950, §§ 38-31 to 38-33, 38-505, 38-514; 1952, c. 317, §§ 38.1-85, 38.1-86; 1978, cc. 4, 20; 1981, c. 605; 1986, c. 562; 1994, c. 316; 2017, c. 655.

§ 38.2-1025. Annual renewal of license.

Each insurer licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth shall obtain an annual renewal of its license from the Commission. The Commission may refuse to renew the license of any insurer or may renew the license, subject to any restrictions considered appropriate by the Commission, if it finds an impairment of required capital and surplus or if it finds that the insurer has not satisfied all the conditions set forth in subsection B of § 38.2-1024. The Commission shall not fail to renew the license of any insurer to transact the business of insurance without giving the insurer ten days' notice and giving it an opportunity to be heard. The hearing may be informal, and the required notice may be waived by the Commission and the insurer.

Code 1950, § 38-57; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-98; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1026. Retaliatory provisions as to taxes, fees, deposits and other requirements.

A. When a domestic insurer or its agents are subject to regulatory costs in another state that are greater than those imposed in this Commonwealth upon insurers domiciled in that state or their agents, then the regulatory costs imposed by this Commonwealth on those foreign insurers or their agents shall be increased to equal the regulatory costs imposed by the other state on the domestic insurer or its agents. For the purpose of this section, regulatory cost includes (i) any deposits of securities, (ii) payment of taxes, fines, penalties or fees exacted for the privilege of doing business or (iii) any restitutions, obligations or conditions necessary for doing business.

B. For the purposes of this section an alien insurance company shall be considered domiciled in the state wherein it has the largest amount of its assets held in trust and on deposit for the benefit of its policyholders, or of its policyholders and creditors in the United States. An insurance company incorporated in Canada shall be considered domiciled in Canada.

C. Any foreign or alien insurance company subject to this section shall annually, on or before March 1, file a report with the Department of Taxation which compares the regulatory costs imposed on such insurer by this Commonwealth during the preceding calendar year to the regulatory costs that would have been imposed on a similar insurer domiciled in this Commonwealth by such insurer's state of domicile during the preceding calendar year. This report shall be filed on a form and in such detail as prescribed by the Department of Taxation. Amounts owed due to the equalization of the regulatory costs imposed on such insurer by this Commonwealth and the regulatory costs of such insurer's state of domicile shall be remitted to the Department of Taxation on or before March 1 of each year. Upon the failure of any insurance company to pay amounts due under this section before the date herein prescribed, the Department of Taxation shall impose a penalty of 10 percent of the amount due and interest shall be charged at a rate established pursuant to § 58.1-15 for the period between the due date and the date of full payment.

Code 1950, §§ 38-12, 38-13; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-87; 1986, c. 562; 1998, c. 60; 2011, c. 850.

§ 38.2-1027. Admission of foreign and alien insurers.

Before transacting any insurance business in this Commonwealth, each foreign or alien insurer or reciprocal shall obtain a certificate of authority and shall comply with the applicable provisions of Article 17 (§ 13.1-757 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of Title 13.1 in the case of a stock insurer, of Article 14 (§ 13.1-919 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 13.1 in the case of a mutual insurer, and of Article 1 (§ 38.2-1200 et seq.) of Chapter 12 in the case of a reciprocal. The certificate shall be in addition to the license to transact the business of insurance required by § 38.2-1024.

Code 1950, §§ 38-32, 38-34; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-83; 1956, c. 431; 1986, c. 562; 2017, c. 655.

§ 38.2-1028. Additional licensing requirements for stock insurers.

No stock insurer shall be licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth unless it has fully paid in capital stock of at least one million dollars and surplus of at least three million dollars.

Code 1950, §§ 38-29, 38-33, 38-36, 38-330; 1952, c. 317, §§ 38.1-88, 38.1-89; 1966, c. 580; 1977, c. 322; 1978, c. 20; 1986, c. 562; 1991, c. 261.

§ 38.2-1029. Additional licensing requirements for mutual insurers.

No mutual insurer shall be licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth unless it has a surplus of at least $1,600,000.

Code 1950, § 38-514; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-94; 1966, c. 580; 1978, c. 20; 1986, c. 562; 1991, c. 261.

§ 38.2-1030. Surplus requirements for issuing policies without contingent liability.

No domestic or foreign mutual insurer shall issue policies without contingent liability unless, at the time of issue, the insurer has at least four million dollars of surplus. In the case of an alien insurer, policies without contingent liability shall not be issued unless, at the time of issue, the insurer has at least four million dollars of trusteed surplus.

However, any mutual insurer that on June 30, 1991, was authorized to issue and was engaged in issuing policies without contingent liability may continue to do so, until July 1, 1994, by maintaining at all times the minimum surplus if a domestic or foreign insurer, and the minimum trusteed surplus if an alien insurer, required at the time of authorization.

Code 1950, § 38-508; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-95.1; 1966, c. 580; 1977, c. 322; 1986, c. 562; 1987, c. 520; 1991, c. 261.

§ 38.2-1031. Additional requirements, alien insurers.

A. No alien insurer shall be licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth unless it (i) has a "trusteed surplus," as defined in subsection B of this section, of at least four million dollars and (ii) has filed with the Commission a certificate from the supervising insurance official of the state of entry certifying that it is authorized to write the classes of insurance it proposes to write in this Commonwealth or it has filed with the Commission a certificate of the supervising insurance official of its domiciliary country that it is authorized there to transact the kind of insurance business it proposes to transact in this Commonwealth.

B. "Trusteed surplus" of an alien insurer means the excess of the aggregate value of the assets set forth in subsection C of this section over the aggregate net amount of all of its liabilities in the United States.

C. 1. General state deposits are all of the alien insurer's assets within the United States on deposit with officers of any state for the benefit and security of all of its policyholders and creditors in the United States.

2. Special state deposits are all of the alien insurer's assets in the United States, other than general state deposits, which are on deposit with officers of any state for the benefit and security of its policyholders and creditors in the state of deposit, or for the benefit and security of certain classes of its policyholders and creditors either in the state of deposit or in the United States. The value of special state deposits shall in no event exceed the value of the liability secured by the special state deposits.

3. Trusteed assets are all of its assets in the United States, other than general state deposits and special state deposits, held by any trustee for the benefit and security of all of its policyholders and creditors in the United States.

4. Interest receivable includes any interest collectable by the state or trustee that is receivable, due and accrued on the general state deposits, the special state deposits, and the trusteed assets of the alien insurer.

D. An alien insurer's liabilities in the United States are all of the reserves and other liabilities incurred by the alien insurer in the United States, from which may be deducted:

1. An amount equal to the reinsurance credits allowed by Article 3.1 (§ 38.2-1316.1 et seq.) of Chapter 13;

2. From the amount of such liabilities for unearned premiums, the unearned portion of premiums receivable by an alien insurer from its agents or policyholders under policies issued by it in the United States and not more than ninety days past due on the date of such statement;

3. Those liabilities in the United States pertaining to any asset in the United States of the alien insurer other than the assets described in subsection C of this section. This deduction shall be allowed only to the extent considered appropriate by the Commission and shall in no case exceed that portion of the value of the asset that is applicable to the liability pertaining to the asset; and

4. The amount of the unpaid principal and interest of any loan made by the alien insurer to the holder of, and solely on the security of, any life insurance policy or annuity contract issued or assumed by it on the life of or to any person in the United States. This amount shall in no case exceed the amount of the reserve it is required to maintain on the policy or annuity contract.

Code 1950, §§ 38-38, 38-514; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-95; 1966, c. 580; 1977, c. 322; 1978, c. 20; 1985, c. 243; 1986, c. 562; 1991, c. 261.

§ 38.2-1032. Additional licensing requirements for domestic insurers.

No domestic insurer shall be licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth until it has furnished the Commission with a statement under the seal of the insurer, verified by the president or treasurer or two of its directors, showing (i) the amount of surplus, (ii) the amount of capital stock fully paid in, (iii) the amount of actual cash in its treasury, (iv) the amount invested with a list of the investments and their cash value, and (v) any other information the Commission requires. In its discretion the Commission may make or direct to be made an examination of the insurer to ascertain if it is entitled to the license.

Code 1950, § 38-505; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-91; 1960, c. 289; 1966, c. 580; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1033. Additional licensing requirements for foreign insurers.

No foreign insurer shall be licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth until it has filed with the Commission a certificate from the supervising insurance official of the state in which it is incorporated certifying that it is authorized to write the classes of insurance it proposes to write in this Commonwealth.

Code 1950, §§ 38-36, 38-330; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-89; 1966, c. 580; 1977, c. 322; 1978, c. 20; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1034. How domestic mutual insurers may acquire initial surplus.

Any domestic mutual insurer or mutual assessment property and casualty insurer may, without pledging any of its assets, provide a guaranty fund sufficient to defray the expenses of its organization and its initial minimum surplus required to obtain a license to do the business of insurance. The fund may be increased with the prior approval of the Commission by receiving advances or by borrowing funds upon an agreement that the funds, including interest at a rate not exceeding the one-year treasury bill interest rate plus three percentage points at the time the loan is made or renewed, shall be repaid only if the insurer has sufficient earned surplus. The agreement shall provide that the insurer may repay the advances or loans or any part of them whenever it is able to do so in accordance with the requirements of this article. No commission or brokerage shall be paid in acquiring the funds. No repayments of principal, either in whole or in part, and no payments of interest, shall be made without the prior written approval of the Commission. Neither the principal advanced or borrowed nor any interest accrued thereon under this provision shall form a part of the legal liabilities of the insurer until the Commission approves the repayment of such principal or the payment of interest thereon. However, all statements published or filed by the insurer shall show accrued interest and the amount of principal remaining unpaid. All claims under the instrument shall be subordinated to policyholder, claimant and beneficiary claims as well as debts owed to all other classes of creditors.

Code 1950, § 38-512; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-92; 1960, c. 291, § 38.1-92.1; 1970, c. 595; 1980, c. 187; 1986, c. 562; 1994, c. 503.

§ 38.2-1035. Domestic insurers to maintain minimum capital and surplus; proceedings by Commission if impairment found.

A. Each domestic insurer shall maintain at all times the minimum surplus if a mutual insurer, and the minimum capital and surplus if a stock insurer, required by §§ 38.2-1028, 38.2-1029 or § 38.2-1030. If the Commission finds that (i) the minimum capital and surplus of a domestic stock insurer is impaired or (ii) the minimum surplus of a domestic mutual insurer is impaired, the Commission shall issue an order requiring the insurer to eliminate the impairment within a period not exceeding ninety days. The Commission may by order served upon the insurer prohibit the insurer from issuing any new policies while the impairment exists.

B. Any domestic mutual insurer may make an assessment upon its assessable members for an amount that will provide funds to cover all or any part of the impairment. However, no member shall be liable for an assessment exceeding the limit specified in his policy, and no assessment shall be made upon any member under a nonassessable policy. The assessment shall be made upon each assessable member in proportion to the liability as expressed in the policy. With the prior approval of the Commission, the deficiency may be made up from advances or borrowed funds and subject to the restrictions provided in § 38.2-1034 for obtaining guaranty funds.

C. If at the expiration of the designated period the insurer has not satisfied the Commission that the impairment has been eliminated, an order for the rehabilitation or liquidation of the insurer may be entered as provided in Chapter 15 (§ 38.2-1500 et seq.) of this title.

Code 1950, § 38-511; 1952, c. 317, §§ 38.1-90, 38.1-93; 1966, c. 580; 1977, c. 322; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1036. Impairment of capital and surplus of foreign and alien company ground for suspension or revocation of license.

Each foreign and each alien insurer shall maintain at all times the minimum surplus, capital and surplus, or trusteed surplus required by §§ 38.2-1028, 38.2-1029, 38.2-1030 or § 38.2-1031. If the Commission finds an impairment of (i) the required minimum capital and surplus of any foreign stock insurer, (ii) the required minimum surplus of any foreign mutual insurer, or (iii) the required minimum trusteed surplus of any alien insurer, the Commission may order the insurer to eliminate the impairment and restore the minimum capital and surplus, minimum surplus or minimum trusteed surplus, to the amount required by law. The Commission may, by order served upon the insurer, prohibit the insurer from issuing any new policies while the impairment exists. If the insurer fails to comply with the Commission's order within a period of not more than ninety days, the Commission may, in the manner set out in Article 6 (§ 38.2-1040 et seq.) of this chapter, suspend or revoke the license of the insurer to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 38-511; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-96; 1978, c. 20; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1037. Exceptions for licensed and operating insurers.

A. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this chapter with respect to minimum required capital and surplus, any insurer which, on June 30, 1991, was licensed to write and was writing any class of insurance in this Commonwealth may continue to write that class of insurance under the appropriate license from the Commission, until July 1, 1994, if it maintains at all times (i) the minimum capital and surplus if a stock insurer, (ii) the minimum surplus if a mutual insurer, and (iii) the minimum trusteed surplus if an alien insurer, required of the insurer as of June 30, 1991.

B. Any insurer not licensed to write a class of insurance in this Commonwealth on June 30, 1991, shall meet all the capital surplus and trusteed surplus requirements of this article before it obtains a license to write that class of insurance.

1952, c. 317, § 38.1-97; 1966, c. 580; 1977, c. 322; 1978, c. 20; 1986, c. 562; 1987, c. 520; 1991, c. 261.

§ 38.2-1038. Authority of Commission to issue orders covering insurers in hazardous financial condition.

If, after reviewing an insurer's financial condition, method of operation, or manner of doing business, the Commission finds that (i) the insurer cannot, or there is a reasonable expectation that the insurer will not be able to, meet its obligations to all policyholders or (ii) the insurer's continued operation in this Commonwealth is hazardous to policyholders, creditors and the public in this Commonwealth the Commission may order the insurer to take appropriate action to remedy the Commission's concerns. The insurer shall be given ten days' notice prior to issuing the order and shall be given the opportunity to be heard and introduce evidence on its behalf. The hearing may be informal, and the required notice may be waived by the Commission and the insurer. If the insurer fails to comply with the Commission's order within the prescribed time, the Commission may suspend or revoke the license of the insurer to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth as set forth in Article 6 (§ 38.2-1040 et seq.) of this chapter.

1978, c. 20, § 38.1-97.2; 1986, c. 562; 1991, c. 261.

§ 38.2-1039. Enjoining unlicensed foreign or alien insurers from transacting the business of insurance in Commonwealth.

A. For the purposes of issuing a temporary or permanent injunction under § 38.2-220 to restrain unlicensed foreign or alien insurers from transacting the business of insurance in this Commonwealth, the following acts, effected by mail or otherwise, shall constitute transacting the business of insurance in this Commonwealth:

1. The issuance or delivery of insurance contracts to residents of this Commonwealth or to corporations authorized to do business in this Commonwealth;

2. The solicitation of applications for such contracts;

3. The collection of premiums, membership fees, assessments or other considerations for such contracts; or

4. The transaction of any other insurance business in connection with such contracts.

B. Process may be served in accordance with § 13.1-758 or in any other manner prescribed by law.

C. This section shall not apply to any nonprofit life insurance or annuity company which is organized and operated for the purpose of issuing insurance and annuity contracts, exclusively to or for the benefit of nonprofit educational or scientific institutions and individuals engaged in the service of those institutions. The clerk of the Commission shall be considered the attorney for service of process in this Commonwealth for all of such insurer's policy and contract holders in this Commonwealth. The appointment shall (i) be irrevocable, (ii) bind the insurer and any successors in interest, and (iii) remain in effect as long as there is in force in this Commonwealth any contract made by the insurer or any obligation arising from the contract.

D. This section shall not apply to the following acts:

1. The procuring of a policy of insurance upon a risk within this Commonwealth in compliance with Chapter 48 of this title;

2. Issuance of contracts of reinsurance;

3. Acts in this Commonwealth involving a policy lawfully solicited, written and delivered outside this Commonwealth covering only subjects of insurance not resident, located, or to be performed in this Commonwealth at the time of issuance of the policy;

4. Acts in this Commonwealth involving a group or blanket insurance policy or a group annuity lawfully issued and delivered in a state where the insurer was licensed to transact the business of insurance;

5. Acts in the Commonwealth involving insurance contracts issued to an "industrial insured." For the purposes of this section, an "industrial insured" is an insured (i) who procures the insurance of any risk or risks other than life and annuity contracts by use of the services of a full-time employee acting as an insurance manager or buyer or the services of a regularly and continuously retained licensed insurance consultant, (ii) whose aggregate annual premiums for insurance on all risks, except for life, annuity, and accident and sickness insurance, total at least $100,000, (iii) who has at least 25 full-time employees, and (iv) either has gross assets in excess of $3 million or has annual gross revenues in excess of $5 million.

E. Nothing in this section shall apply to nonprofit Railroad Brotherhood or other similar fraternal organizations.

1968, c. 266, § 38.1-98.1; 1986, c. 562; 2008, c. 95.

§ 38.2-1039.1. Risk retention groups.

Except in the case of a risk retention group all of whose members are insurers, no risk retention group, as defined in Chapter 51 of this title, shall be licensed in this Commonwealth if an insurer is directly or indirectly a member or owner of such risk retention group.

1987, c. 585.

Article 6. Refusal, Suspension or Revocation of Insurer's License.

§ 38.2-1040. Refusal, suspension or revocation of license.

A. The Commission may refuse to issue a license to any domestic, foreign or alien insurer to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth, and may suspend or revoke the license of any licensee, whenever it finds that the applicant or licensee:

1. Has refused to submit its books, papers, accounts, or affairs to the reasonable inspection of the Commission or its representative;

2. Has refused, or its officers or agents have refused, to furnish satisfactory evidence of its financial and business standing or solvency;

3. Is insolvent, or is in a condition that any further transaction of business in this Commonwealth is hazardous to its policyholders, creditors and public in this Commonwealth;

4. Has failed to pay a final judgment against it within sixty days after (i) the judgment became final, (ii) the time for making an appeal has expired, or (iii) the dismissal of an appeal before final determination, whichever date is the latest;

5. Has violated any law of this Commonwealth, or has in this Commonwealth violated its charter or exceeded its corporate powers;

6. Has failed to pay any fees, taxes or charges imposed in this Commonwealth within sixty days after they are due and payable, or within sixty days after final disposition of any legal contest with respect to liability for the fees, taxes or charges;

7. Has had its corporate existence dissolved or its certificate of authority revoked in the state in which it was organized or in this Commonwealth;

8. Has been found insolvent by a court of any other state, or by the Commission or other proper officer or agency of any other state, and has been prohibited from doing business in that state;

9. Has had all its risks reinsured in their entirety in another insurer; or

10. Has notified the insured in writing or by any other means that any policy of insurance covering the ownership or operation of a motor vehicle issued by the insurer will be cancelled if the insured institutes any legal action against the insurer to pursue any rights of the insured under the policy.

B. The grounds for suspension or revocation of licenses in subsection A of this section are in addition to those provided for elsewhere in this title.

Code 1950, §§ 38-68, 38-132, 38-133, 38-134, 38-169, 38-370; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-99; 1966, c. 457; 1986, c. 562; 1987, c. 431.

§ 38.2-1041. Notice to company of proposed suspension or revocation.

The Commission shall not revoke or suspend the license of any insurer to do the business of insurance in this Commonwealth upon any of the grounds set out in § 38.2-1040 until it has given the insurer ten days' notice of the reasons for the proposed revocation or suspension and has given the insurer an opportunity to introduce evidence and be heard. However, the Commission may immediately suspend the license on any of the grounds specified in subdivisions 7 and 8 of subsection A of § 38.2-1040 without prior notice to the insurer. The suspension shall remain in force until the hearing is held. Any hearing authorized by this section may be informal, and the required notice may be waived by the Commission and the insurer.

Code 1950, §§ 38-132, 38-169, 38-370; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-100; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1042. Agent's authority likewise suspended or revoked.

Upon the suspension or revocation of the license of any insurer, the Commission shall suspend or revoke the authority of the insurer's agents in this Commonwealth to act for the insurer.

1952, c. 317, § 38.1-101; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1043. Suspension or revocation published.

Unless an appeal is taken within thirty days, the Commission shall have published in one or more newspapers having general circulation in this Commonwealth a notice of any final order that suspends or revokes the license of an insurer.

Code 1950, §§ 38-68, 38-133, 38-169; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-102; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1044. New business prohibited.

No new business shall be done by any insurer or its agents on behalf of that insurer while its license to do business is suspended or revoked.

Code 1950, §§ 38-68, 38-135; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-103; 1986, c. 562.

Article 7. Deposits.

§ 38.2-1045. Deposits required of insurers generally.

A. Except as otherwise provided in this title, before the Commission issues a license to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth to any insurer, that insurer shall deposit with the State Treasurer securities that (i) are legal investments under the laws of this Commonwealth for public sinking funds or for other public funds, (ii) are not in default as to principal or interest, (iii) have a current market value of not less than $50,000 nor more than $500,000, and (iv) are issued pursuant to a system of book-entry evidencing ownership interests of the securities with transfers of ownership interests effected on the records of a depository and its participants pursuant to rules and procedures established by the depository.

B. The Commission may require a reasonable amount of additional deposits in securities that meet the requirements of clauses (i), (ii) and (iv) of subsection A of this section, whenever the Commission determines that the insurer's financial condition, method of operation, or manner of doing business is such that the Commission is not satisfied that it can meet its obligations to all policyholders.

C. Neither the deposit referred to in this section nor the alternate deposit permitted by § 38.2-1049 shall be required of (i) any mutual assessment property and casualty insurance company, (ii) any fraternal benefit society, or (iii) any insurer transacting exclusively an ocean marine business in this Commonwealth.

D. Any insurer which on June 30, 1991, instead of the deposit of securities required by subsection A, has entered into a bond with surety, approved by the Commission, with any conditions the Commission requires, shall have until the next renewal, anniversary, or expiration date of such bond, or until June 30, 1992, whichever comes first, to comply with the deposit provisions of subsection A. The surety shall be licensed in this Commonwealth to transact the business of suretyship and shall not be directly or indirectly under the same ownership or management as the principal on the bond.

E. Every insurer subject to the provisions of this section having physical securities deposited with the State Treasurer on or before June 30, 1992, shall comply with the provisions of clause (iv) in subsection A not later than January 1, 1993.

Code 1950, § 38-39; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-108; 1956, c. 234; 1960, c. 558; 1964, c. 605; 1973, c. 178; 1975, c. 556; 1986, c. 562; 1991, c. 261; 1992, c. 14.

§ 38.2-1046. Purpose of deposits; enforcement of lien.

A. An insurer's deposits required by § 38.2-1045 shall be held as a special fund in trust for the insurer's liabilities which are incurred or which may be incurred as a result of a loss sustained by (i) this Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions, (ii) any citizen or inhabitant of this Commonwealth, or (iii) any other person owning property in this Commonwealth, when the insurer fails to meet its obligations incurred in this Commonwealth. Policyholders, without preference, shall have a lien on the deposits for the amounts due or which may become due as a result of any failure of the insurer to meet its obligations. General creditors, without preference, shall be entitled to have a similar lien on the deposits which shall be subordinate to the claims of the policyholders.

B. Whenever any such insurer becomes insolvent or bankrupt, or makes an assignment for the benefit of its creditors, any person given a lien by this section may file a bill in the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond for the benefit of himself and all others given a lien by this section to subject such securities as may be on deposit with the State Treasurer or its agent to the payment of the liens thereon. The State Treasurer shall be made a party to such suit and a copy of such bill shall be served upon the Commissioner of Insurance as if he were a party to such suit. The funds shall be distributed by the court.

Code 1950, § 38-50; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-110; 1981, c. 208; 1986, c. 562; 1988, c. 298; 1992, c. 20; 1995, c. 60.

§ 38.2-1047. How deposits applied to payment of claims; deficit to be made good.

A. This section shall apply only where:

1. The insurer has failed to pay any of its liabilities after the liabilities have been ascertained (i) by any agreement of the parties binding the insurer, or (ii) by judgment, order or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction which has not been appealed, superseded or stayed; and

2. The provisions of subsection B of § 38.2-1046 are not applicable.

B. Upon application of the person to whom the debt or money is due and after giving notice as provided in subsection C of this section, the State Treasurer shall (i) sell an amount of securities with accrued interest that provides sufficient funds to pay the sums due and the expenses of the sale and (ii) pay the sums due and expenses out of the available funds. This shall be subject to the approval of the Commission.

C. The State Treasurer shall give the insurer or its agent ten days' notice, either by mail or personally, of the time and place of the sale. The sale shall be advertised daily for ten days in a newspaper of general circulation published in the City of Richmond.

D. The insurer shall immediately make good any deficit in its deposit resulting from a sale. The State Treasurer shall report to the Commission in writing (i) the amount and kind of securities sold in accordance with the provisions of this section and (ii) the amount and kind of securities deposited to make good the deficit.

Code 1950, § 38-49; 1950, p. 996; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-111; 1986, c. 562; 1988, c. 298.

§ 38.2-1048. Return of deposits.

A. The Commission, at its discretion, may direct the State Treasurer to return to any insurer all or a part of the deposit made by it under § 38.2-1045 if the insurer (i) has complied with § 38.2-1049, or (ii) has ceased to transact business in this Commonwealth. In the case of the latter, the fixed or contingent liabilities secured by the deposit shall have been satisfied or terminated or shall have been assumed by another insurer licensed to transact the business of insurance in this Commonwealth. If the Commission finds that any voluntary deposit of any insurer made under § 38.2-1050 no longer is required in whole or in part to comply with the laws of this or any other state, it may to such extent direct the return of that deposit. The Commission, before directing the return of any deposit, may require evidence it considers satisfactory that the insurer is entitled to the return of all or part of the deposit.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions in § 38.2-1046 and subsection A of this section, if an insurer domiciled in this Commonwealth is placed in receivership, and a receiver is appointed, pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 15 (§ 38.2-1500 et seq.) of this title, the Commission shall direct the State Treasurer to return any deposit made with it by the insurer to such receiver for distribution, disbursement, or other application in accordance with provisions set forth in Chapter 15 (§ 38.2-1500 et seq.) of this title and any applicable order of liquidation, conservation or rehabilitation.

Code 1950, § 38-52; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-112; 1986, c. 562; 1988, c. 298; 1995, c. 60.

§ 38.2-1049. Alternate deposit requirements.

A. The insurer, at the discretion of the Commission, may be relieved of making the deposit required by § 38.2-1045 if the insurer makes deposits according to the following provisions:

1. Acceptable securities as defined in subsection B of this section are deposited with the State Treasurer in the form prescribed in clause (iv) of subsection A of § 38.2-1045 or with the insurance commissioner, treasurer or other officer or official body of any other state first for the protection of the insurer's policyholders.

2. The securities are not to be in default as to principal and interest.

3. The securities have a market value of at least $500,000.

4. A certificate is furnished to the Commission and authenticated by the appropriate state official holding the deposit that the requirements of this subsection have been met.

B. For the purpose of this section, acceptable securities are defined as bonds of the United States, or of any state, or of any city, county or town of any state, or bonds or notes secured by mortgages or deeds of trust on otherwise unencumbered real estate of a market value in each case of not less than double the amount loaned, or other securities approved by the Commission.

Code 1950, §§ 38-37, 38-40, 37-175, 38-516; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-113; 1964, c. 605; 1975, c. 556; 1986, c. 562; 1992, c. 14.

§ 38.2-1050. Voluntary deposit in excess of amount required.

Any domestic insurer, in order to comply with the laws of any other state or of the United States, may make a voluntary deposit with the State Treasurer in excess of the amount required by § 38.2-1045. This excess deposit shall be subject to all other applicable provisions of the laws of this Commonwealth relating to the deposits of insurers. However, this excess deposit shall be for the protection of all the insurer's policyholders and general creditors, notwithstanding the provisions of § 38.2-1046.

Code 1950, § 38-41; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-114; 1966, c. 263; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1051. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1992, c. 14.

§ 38.2-1052. Exchange of securities.

A depositing insurer may from time to time exchange for any of the deposited securities other securities eligible for deposit under this article if in the opinion of the Commission the aggregate value of the deposit will not be reduced below the amount required by law.

1952, c. 317, § 38.1-116; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1053. Interest on deposits; to whom paid.

The State Treasurer, at the time of receiving any securities deposited under this title, shall give the insurer authority to collect the interest for its own use as the interest is paid. This authority shall continue in force until the insurer fails to pay any of its liabilities for which the deposit is security. In that case, the party paying interest shall be notified of the failure, and thereafter the interest shall be payable to the State Treasurer, and shall be applied, if necessary, to the payment of the liabilities.

Code 1950, § 38-48; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-117; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1054. Duty of State Treasurer when securities deposited are paid.

When the principal of any securities deposited under this title is paid to the State Treasurer, the money received shall be paid to the insurer. However, if the securities were required to be deposited under § 38.2-1045, the payment shall not be made until the insurer deposits an equal amount of other securities of the character required for similar deposits. If the insurer fails to deliver to the State Treasurer, within thirty days after receiving notice of this requirement, the securities necessary to maintain its required deposit, the State Treasurer with the approval in writing of the Commission, may use the money to purchase and hold other securities of the required character.

Code 1950, § 38-51; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-118; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1055. Annual report of State Treasurer to Commission.

Each January the State Treasurer shall certify to the Commission the kind and face value of all securities, bonds, notes, mortgages or deeds of trust deposited under this title and held at the end of the preceding calendar year.

Code 1950, § 38-45; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-119; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1056. Treasurer to receipt for deposits; responsibility of Commonwealth; taxation of deposited bonds.

The State Treasurer shall provide receipts to the insurer for all securities deposited with him under the provisions of this title. The Commonwealth shall be responsible for the safekeeping of the securities. If some or all of the securities are lost, destroyed or misappropriated, the Commonwealth shall pay or satisfy the loss to the insurer making the deposit. Securities deposited with the State Treasurer shall not be subject to taxation.

Code 1950, §§ 38-42, 38-46; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-120; 1986, c. 562.

§ 38.2-1057. Assessment for expense of holding deposits; Insurance Collateral Assessment Fund.

A. For the purpose of defraying the expense of the State Treasurer's office in the safekeeping and handling of the securities or surety bonds deposited under the provisions of this title, the State Treasurer shall levy annually against each insurer an assessment. The assessment shall be a percentage of the par or face value of the securities or surety bonds on deposit with the State Treasurer's office in each insurer's account at the end of each calendar year. The percentage shall be determined annually by the State Treasurer as the amount necessary to meet the estimated annual expenses incurred by the State Treasurer to meet the provisions of this title. The percentage shall not exceed one-fourth of one percent of the par or face value of the securities or surety bonds on deposit with the State Treasurer's office. Assessment collections that are more than actual expenses in any year shall be added to the next year's assessment calculation. The assessment shall be collected every January. No part of the amount collected shall be used to increase the compensation of any person connected with the office of the State Treasurer.

B. All moneys collected from the annual assessment imposed under subsection A shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to a special, nonreverting fund known as the Insurance Collateral Assessment Fund which is hereby established. The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller and be administered by the State Treasurer's office. Disbursements from the Fund shall be on warrants issued by the Comptroller to pay expenses associated with the safekeeping and handling of the securities or surety bonds deposited under the provisions of this title. Any moneys remaining in the Fund at the end of a fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund and be used to offset subsequent years' expenses as provided in subsection A.

Code 1950, § 38-43; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-121; 1973, c. 173; 1986, c. 562; 2005, c. 38.

§ 38.2-1058. Felony for State Treasurer to dispose of securities illegally.

If the State Treasurer disposes of any securities deposited with him under this title, other than as provided in this title, he shall be guilty of a Class 3 felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished by a fine double the amount of the disposed securities.

Code 1950, § 38-53; 1952, c. 317, § 38.1-122; 1986, c. 562.

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