Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 45.1. Mines and Mining
8/22/2019

Article 9. Enforcement and Penalties; Reports of Violations.

§ 45.1-161.90. Notices of violations.

A. If the Director, the Chief, or a mine inspector has reasonable cause to believe that a violation of the Act has occurred, he shall with reasonable promptness issue a notice of violation to the person who is responsible for the violation. Each notice of violation shall be in writing and shall describe with particularity the nature of the violation or violations, including a reference to the provision of this Act or the appropriate regulations violated, and shall include an order of abatement and fix a reasonable time for abatement of the violation.

B. A copy of the notice of violation shall be delivered to the operator, his agent, or mine foreman.

C. Upon a finding by the mine inspector of completion of the action required to abate the violation, the Director, the Chief, or the mine inspector shall issue a notice of correction, a copy of which shall be delivered as provided in subsection B.

D. The notice of violation shall be deemed to be the final order of the Department and not subject to review by any court or agency unless, within twenty days following its issuance, the person to whom the notice of violation has been issued appeals its issuance by notifying the Department in writing that he intends to contest its issuance. The Department shall conduct informal conference or consultation proceedings, presided over by the Chief, pursuant to § 2.2-4019, unless the person and the Department agree to waive such a conference or proceeding to go directly to a formal hearing. If such a conference or proceeding has been waived, or if it has failed to dispose of the case by consent, the Department shall conduct a formal hearing pursuant to § 2.2-4020. The formal hearing shall be presided over by a hearing officer pursuant to § 2.2-4024, who shall recommend findings and an initial decision, which shall be subject to review and approval by the Director. Any party aggrieved by and claiming unlawfulness of the decision shall be entitled to judicial review pursuant to Article 5 (§ 2.2-4025 et seq.) of the Administrative Process Act.

E. If it shall be finally determined that a notice of violation was not issued in accordance with the provisions of this section, the notice of violation shall be vacated, and the improperly issued notice of violation shall not be used to the detriment of the person or the operator to whom it was issued.

Code 1950, §§ 45-4.1, 45-9, 45-12, 45-74; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, § 45.1-5; 1976, c. 598; 1978, c. 120; 1984, c. 236; 1985, c. 448; 1987, c. 470; 1990, c. 963; 1994, c. 28; 1997, c. 390.

§ 45.1-161.91. Closure orders.

A. The Director, the Chief, or a mine inspector shall issue a closure order requiring any mine or section thereof cleared of all persons, or equipment removed from use, and refusing further entry into the mine of all persons except those necessary to correct or eliminate a hazardous condition, when (i) a violation of this Act has occurred, which creates an imminent danger to the life or health of persons in the mine; (ii) a mine fire, mine explosion, or other serious accident has occurred at the mine, as may be necessary to preserve the scene of such accident during the investigation of the accident; (iii) a mine is operating without a license, as provided by § 45.1-161.57; or (iv) an operator to whom a notice of violation was issued has failed to abate the violation cited therein within the time period provided in such notice for its abatement; however, a closure order shall not be issued for failure to abate a violation during the pendency of an administrative appeal of the issuance of the notice of violation as provided in subsection D of § 45.1-161.90. In addition, a technical specialist may issue a closure order upon discovering a violation creating an imminent danger.

B. One copy of the closure order shall be delivered to the operator of the mine or his agent or the mine foreman.

C. Upon a finding by the mine inspector of abatement of the violation creating the hazardous condition pursuant to which a closure order has been issued as provided in clause (i) of subsection A, or cessation of the need to preserve an accident scene as provided in clause (ii) of subsection A, or the issuance of a license for the mine if the closure order was issued as provided in clause (iii) of subsection A, or abatement of the violation for which the notice of violation was issued as provided in clause (iv) of subsection A, the Director, the Chief, or mine inspector shall issue a notice of correction, copies of which shall be delivered as provided in subsection B.

D. The issuance of a closure order shall constitute a final order of the Department, and the owner or operator of the mine shall not be entitled to administrative review of such decision. The owner or operator of any mine or part thereof for which a closure order has been issued may, within ten days following the issuance of the order, bring a civil action in the circuit court of the city or county in which the mine, or the greater portion thereof, is located for review of the decision. The commencement of such a proceeding shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the closure order. The court shall promptly hear and determine the matters raised by the owner or operator. In any such action the court shall receive the records of the Department with respect to the issuance of the order, and shall receive additional evidence at the request of any party. In any proceeding under this section, the Attorney General or the attorney for the Commonwealth for the jurisdiction where the mine is located, upon the request of the Director, shall represent the Department. The court shall vacate the closure order if the preponderance of the evidence establishes that the order was not issued in accordance with the provisions of this section.

E. If it shall be finally determined that a closure order was not issued in accordance with the provisions of this section, the closure order shall be vacated, and the improperly issued closure order shall not be used to the detriment of the owner or operator of the mine for which it was issued.

Code 1950, §§ 45-4.1, 45-9, 45-12, 45-74; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, § 45.1-5; 1976, c. 598; 1978, c. 120; 1984, c. 236; 1985, c. 448; 1987, c. 470; 1990, c. 963; 1994, c. 28; 1996, c. 774.

§ 45.1-161.92. Tolling of time for abating violations.

The period of time specified in a notice of violation for the abatement of the violation shall not begin to run until the final decision of the Department is issued, if an administrative appeal of its issuance is pursued, or until the final order of the circuit court is rendered, if an appeal of its issuance is taken to circuit court, provided that the appeal was undertaken in good faith and not solely for delay or avoidance of penalties.

1994, c. 28.

§ 45.1-161.93. Injunctive relief.

A. Any person violating or failing, neglecting or refusing to obey any closure order may be compelled in a proceeding instituted by the Director in any appropriate circuit court to obey same and to comply therewith by injunction or other appropriate relief.

B. Any person failing to abate any violation of this Act which has been cited in a notice of violation within the time period provided in such notice for its abatement may be compelled in a proceeding instituted by the Director in any appropriate circuit court to abate such violation as provided in such notice, and to cease the operation of the mine at which such violation exists until the violation has been abated, by injunction or other appropriate remedy.

C. The Director may file a bill of complaint with any appropriate circuit court asking the court to temporarily or permanently enjoin a person from operating a mine or mines in the Commonwealth, to be granted upon finding by a preponderance of the evidence that (i) a history of noncompliance at the mine or mines operated by the person demonstrates that he is not able or willing to operate a mine in compliance with the provisions of this Act or (ii) a history of the issuance of closure orders for the mine or mines operated by the person demonstrates that he is not able or willing to operate a mine in compliance with the provisions of this Act.

Code 1950, §§ 45-8, 45-84; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, § 45.1-104; 1972, c. 784; 1974, c. 323; 1975, c. 520; 1978, c. 120; 1982, c. 118; 1990, c. 963; 1994, c. 28.

§ 45.1-161.94. Violations; penalties.

Any person convicted of willfully violating any provisions of this Act or any regulation promulgated pursuant to this Act, unless otherwise specified in this Act, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 45-17; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, § 45.1-105; 1975, c. 520; 1978, c. 118; 1980, c. 388; 1994, c. 28.

§ 45.1-161.95. Prosecution of violations.

A. It shall be the duty of every attorney for the Commonwealth to whom the Director or his authorized representative has reported any violation of this Act or on his own initiative to cause proceedings to be prosecuted in such cases.

B. If the attorney for the Commonwealth declines to cause proceedings to be prosecuted in such cases, the Director or the Chief may request the Attorney General to institute proceedings for any violation of the Act on behalf of the Commonwealth; however, such action shall not preclude the Director or the Chief from pursuing other applicable statutory procedures. Upon receiving such a request from the Director or the Chief, the Attorney General shall have the authority to institute actions and proceedings for violations described in the request.

Code 1950, § 45-17; 1954, c. 191; 1966, c. 594, § 45.1-105; 1975, c. 520; 1978, c. 118; 1980, c. 388; 1994, c. 28.

§ 45.1-161.96. Fees and costs.

No fees or costs shall be charged the Commonwealth by a court or any officer for or in connection with the filing of any pleading or other papers in any action authorized by this article.

1994, c. 28.

§ 45.1-161.97. Reports of violations.

A. Any person aware of a violation of this Act may report the violation to a mine inspector or to any other employee of the Department, in person, in writing, or by telephone call, at the mine, at an office of the Department or at the mine inspector's residence.

B. The operator of every mine, or his agent, shall deliver a copy of this Act to every miner upon the commencement of his employment at the mine, unless the miner is already in possession of a copy.

C. The operator of every mine, or his agent, shall display on a sign placed at the mine office, at the bath house, and on a bulletin board at the mine site, a notice containing the office and home telephone numbers of mine inspectors and other Department personnel, and office addresses, which may be used to report any violation of this Act.

D. The Department shall keep a record, on a form prepared for such purpose, of every alleged violation of this Act which is reported and the results of any investigation. The Department shall give a copy of the complaint form, with the identity of the person making the report, and any individuals identified in the alleged violation being omitted or deleted, to the operator of the mine or his agent. The Department shall not disclose the identity of any person who reports an alleged violation to the owner or operator of the mine or his agent, or to any other person or entity. Information regarding the identity of the person reporting the violation shall be excluded from access under the provisions of the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

1994, c. 28; 2005, c. 3.

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