Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
9/19/2020

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 58.1-300. Incomes not subject to local taxation.

No county, city, town or other political subdivision of this Commonwealth shall impose any tax or levy upon incomes, incomes being hereby segregated for state taxation only.

Code 1950, § 58-151.04; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1989, c. 245; 2013, c. 766.

§ 58.1-301. Conformity to Internal Revenue Code.

A. Any term used in this chapter shall have the same meaning as when used in a comparable context in the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, unless a different meaning is clearly required.

B. Any reference in this chapter to the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes shall mean the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, and amendments thereto, and other provisions of the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, as they existed on December 31, 2019, except for:

1. The special depreciation allowance for certain property provided for under §§ 168(k), 168(l), 168(m), 1400L, and 1400N of the Internal Revenue Code;

2. The carry-back of certain net operating losses for five years under § 172(b)(1)(H) of the Internal Revenue Code;

3. The original issue discount on applicable high yield discount obligations under § 163(e)(5)(F) of the Internal Revenue Code;

4. The deferral of certain income under § 108(i) of the Internal Revenue Code. For Virginia income tax purposes, income from the discharge of indebtedness in connection with the reacquisition of an "applicable debt instrument" (as defined under § 108(i) of the Internal Revenue Code) reacquired in the taxable year shall be fully included in the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income for the taxable year, unless the taxpayer elects to include such income in the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income ratably over a three-taxable-year period beginning with taxable year 2009 for transactions completed in taxable year 2009, or over a three-taxable-year period beginning with taxable year 2010 for transactions completed in taxable year 2010 on or before April 21, 2010. For purposes of such election, all other provisions of § 108(i) of the Internal Revenue Code shall apply mutatis mutandis. No other deferral shall be allowed for income from the discharge of indebtedness in connection with the reacquisition of an "applicable debt instrument";

5. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2019, the provisions of § 11046 of the federal Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, P.L. 115-97 (2017), related to the suspension of the overall limitation on itemized deductions; and

6. The provisions of § 103 of Division Q of the federal Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020, P.L. 116-94 (2019), related to the reduction in the medical expense deduction floor.

The Department of Taxation is hereby authorized to develop procedures or guidelines for implementation of the provisions of this section, which procedures or guidelines shall be exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

Code 1950, § 58-151.01; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1980, c. 633; 1984, c. 675; 1994, c. 1; 2003, cc. 2, 163; 2004, c. 512; 2005, cc. 5, 26; 2006, cc. 63, 162; 2007, cc. 59, 782; 2008, cc. 1, 2; 2009, cc. 2, 3, 781; 2010, cc. 872, 874; 2011, cc. 2, 866, 890; 2012, cc. 2, 335, 480, 578; 2013, cc. 4, 693; 2014, c. 1; 2014, cc. 1, 2; 2015, cc. 1, 61; 2016, cc. 2, 19; 2017, cc. 1, 2; 2018, cc. 14, 15; 2019, cc. 17, 18; 2020, cc. 1, 255.

§ 58.1-302. Definitions.

For the purpose of this chapter and unless otherwise required by the context:

"Affiliated" means two or more corporations subject to Virginia income taxes whose relationship to each other is such that (i) one corporation owns at least 80 percent of the voting stock of the other or others or (ii) at least 80 percent of the voting stock of two or more corporations is owned by the same interests.

"Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions and any other form of remuneration paid or accrued to employees for personal services.

"Corporation" includes associations, joint stock companies and insurance companies.

"Domicile" means the permanent place of residence of a taxpayer and the place to which he intends to return even though he may actually reside elsewhere. In determining domicile, consideration may be given to the applicant's expressed intent, conduct, and all attendant circumstances including, but not limited to, financial independence, business pursuits, employment, income sources, residence for federal income tax purposes, marital status, residence of parents, spouse and children, if any, leasehold, sites of personal and real property owned by the applicant, motor vehicle and other personal property registration, residence for purposes of voting as proven by registration to vote, if any, and such other factors as may reasonably be deemed necessary to determine the person's domicile.

"Foreign source income" means:

1. Interest, other than interest derived from sources within the United States;

2. Dividends, other than dividends derived from sources within the United States;

3. Rents, royalties, license, and technical fees from property located or services performed without the United States or from any interest in such property, including rents, royalties, or fees for the use of or the privilege of using without the United States any patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like properties;

4. Gains, profits, or other income from the sale of intangible or real property located without the United States; and

5. The amount of an individual's share of net income attributable to a foreign source qualified business unit of an electing small business corporation (S corporation). For purposes of this subsection, qualified business unit shall be defined by § 989 of the Internal Revenue Code, and the source of such income shall be determined in accordance with §§ 861, 862 and 987 of the Internal Revenue Code.

In determining the source of "foreign source income," the provisions of §§ 861, 862, and 863 of the Internal Revenue Code shall be applied except as specifically provided in subsection 5 above.

"Income and deductions from Virginia sources" includes:

1. Items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to:

a. The ownership of any interest in real or tangible personal property in Virginia;

b. A business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in Virginia; or

c. Prizes paid by the Virginia Lottery Department, and gambling winnings from wagers placed or paid at a location in Virginia.

2. Income from intangible personal property, including annuities, dividends, interest, royalties and gains from the disposition of intangible personal property to the extent that such income is from property employed by the taxpayer in a business, trade, profession, or occupation carried on in Virginia.

"Income tax return preparer" means any person who prepares for compensation, or who employs one or more persons to prepare for compensation, any return of tax imposed by this chapter or any claim for refund of tax. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the preparation for compensation of any portion of a return or claim for refund shall be treated as if it were the preparation of the return or claim for refund. A person shall not be an "income tax return preparer" merely because the person:

1. Furnishes typing, reproducing, or other mechanical assistance;

2. Prepares a return or claim for refund of the employer (or of an officer or employee of the employer) by whom he is regularly and continuously employed;

3. Prepares as a fiduciary a return or claim for refund for any person; or

4. Prepares an application for correction of an erroneous assessment or a protective claim for refund for a taxpayer in response to any assessment pursuant to § 58.1-1812 issued to the taxpayer or in response to any waiver pursuant to § 58.1-101 or 58.1-220 after the commencement of an audit of the taxpayer or another taxpayer if a determination in such audit of such other taxpayer directly or indirectly affects the tax liability of such taxpayer.

"Individual" means all natural persons whether married or unmarried and fiduciaries acting for natural persons, but not fiduciaries acting for trusts or estates.

"Intangible expenses and costs" means:

1. Expenses, losses and costs for, related to, or in connection directly or indirectly with the direct or indirect acquisition, use, maintenance or management, ownership, sale, exchange, lease, transfer, or any other disposition of intangible property to the extent such amounts are allowed as deductions or costs in determining taxable income;

2. Losses related to or incurred in connection directly or indirectly with factoring transactions or discounting transactions;

3. Royalty, patent, technical and copyright fees;

4. Licensing fees; and

5. Other similar expenses and costs.

"Intangible property" means patents, patent applications, trade names, trademarks, service marks, copyrights and similar types of intangible assets.

"Interest expenses and costs" means amounts directly or indirectly allowed as deductions under § 163 of the Internal Revenue Code for purposes of determining taxable income under the Internal Revenue Code to the extent such expenses and costs are directly or indirectly for, related to, or in connection with the direct or indirect acquisition, use, maintenance, management, ownership, sale, exchange, lease, transfer, or disposition of intangible property.

"Nonresident estate or trust" means an estate or trust which is not a resident estate or trust.

"Related entity" means:

1. A stockholder who is an individual, or a member of the stockholder's family enumerated in § 318 of the Internal Revenue Code, if the stockholder and the members of the stockholder's family own, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 percent of the value of the taxpayer's outstanding stock;

2. A stockholder, or a stockholder's partnership, limited liability company, estate, trust or corporation, if the stockholder and the stockholder's partnerships, limited liability companies, estates, trusts and corporations own directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 percent of the value of the taxpayer's outstanding stock; or

3. A corporation, or a party related to the corporation in a manner that would require an attribution of stock from the corporation to the party or from the party to the corporation under the attribution rules of § 318 of the Internal Revenue Code, if the taxpayer owns, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, at least 50 percent of the value of the corporation's outstanding stock. The attribution rules of § 318 of the Internal Revenue Code shall apply for purposes of determining whether the ownership requirements of this subdivision have been met.

"Related member" means a person that, with respect to the taxpayer during all or any portion of the taxable year, is a related entity, a component member as defined in § 1563(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, or is a person to or from whom there is attribution of stock ownership in accordance with § 1563(e) of the Internal Revenue Code.

"Resident" applies only to natural persons and includes, for the purpose of determining liability for the taxes imposed by this chapter upon the income of any taxable year every person domiciled in Virginia at any time during the taxable year and every other person who, for an aggregate of more than 183 days of the taxable year, maintained his place of abode within Virginia, whether domiciled in Virginia or not. The word "resident" shall not include any member of the United States Congress who is domiciled in another state.

"Resident estate or trust" means:

1. The estate of a decedent who at his death was domiciled in the Commonwealth;

2. A trust created by will of a decedent who at his death was domiciled in the Commonwealth; or

3. A trust created by or consisting of property of a person domiciled in the Commonwealth

"Sales" means all gross receipts of the corporation not allocated under § 58.1-407, except the sale or other disposition of intangible property shall include only the net gain realized from the transaction.

"State," for purposes of Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.), means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, and any foreign country.

"Trust" or "estate" means a trust or estate, or a fiduciary thereof, which is required to file a fiduciary income tax return under the laws of the United States.

"Virginia fiduciary adjustment" means the net amount of the applicable modifications described in §§ 58.1-322.01, 58.1-322.02, and 58.1-322.04 (including subdivision 1 of § 58.1-322.04 if the estate or trust is a beneficiary of another estate or trust) which relate to items of income, gain, loss or deduction of an estate or trust. The fiduciary adjustment shall not include the modification in § 58.1-322.03, except that the amount of state income taxes excluded from federal taxable income shall be included. The fiduciary adjustment shall also include the modification in subdivision 7 of § 58.1-322.03 regarding the deduction for the purchase of a prepaid tuition contract or contribution to a savings trust account.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.02, 58-151.013, 58-151.023, 58-151.034, 58-151.081; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 827; 1973, cc. 198, 345, 458; 1974, c. 682; 1975, c. 46; 1976, cc. 528, 694, 781; 1977, cc. 297, 612; 1978, cc. 67, 158; 1979, cc. 226, 404, 596; 1981, cc. 402, 414; 1982, c. 633; 1983, cc. 452, 472; 1984, cc. 153, 162, 636, 674, 675, 729; 1990, c. 294; 1992, c. 678; 1995, c. 602; 2000, cc. 382, 400; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3; 2005, c. 48; 2017, c. 444; 2019, cc. 23, 192.

§ 58.1-303. Residency for portion of tax year.

A. Any person who, during the taxable year, becomes a resident of Virginia, whether domiciliary or actual, for purposes of income taxation, by moving to the Commonwealth from without during such taxable year, shall be taxable as a resident for only that portion of the taxable year during which he was a resident of the Commonwealth and his personal exemptions shall be reduced to an amount which bears the same ratio to the full exemptions as the number of days during which he was a resident of the Commonwealth bears to 365 days. No person to whom the preceding sentence applies shall be entitled to any credit on his income tax payable to Virginia for any income tax paid to the state or other jurisdiction of his former domicile or actual residence for that part of the taxable year during which he was a domiciliary or actual resident of such other state or jurisdiction, notwithstanding the provisions of § 58.1-332.

B. Any person who, on or before the last day of the taxable year, changes his place of abode to a place without the Commonwealth with the bona fide intention of continuing actually to abide permanently without Virginia shall be taxable as a resident for only that portion of the taxable year during which he was a resident of Virginia and his personal exemptions shall be reduced to an amount which bears the same ratio to the full exemptions as the number of days during which he was a resident of this Commonwealth bears to 365 days. The fact that a person who has changed his place of abode, within six months from so doing abides again in the Commonwealth, shall be prima facie evidence that he did not intend permanently to have his place of abode without Virginia. The fact that a person has removed his abode to a place without the Commonwealth is not conclusive evidence of a change of domicile.

C. Any person who is taxable as a resident of the Commonwealth for only a portion of a taxable year because he moved to this Commonwealth from without Virginia during the taxable year as set out in subsection A, or because he changed his place of abode during the taxable year to a place without Virginia as set out in subsection B, and who, as a nonresident of Virginia for any other part of the taxable year derived income from any property owned or from any business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in Virginia shall be taxable as a nonresident with respect to such income as provided in § 58.1-325.

Code 1950, § 58-151.02; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 310, 827; 1979, c. 404; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-304. Reserved.

Reserved.

§ 58.1-305. Duties of commissioner of the revenue relating to income tax.

Every commissioner of the revenue shall obtain an income tax return from every individual or fiduciary within his jurisdiction who is liable under the law to file such a return with him; provided such individual or fiduciary has not filed such a return with the Department of Taxation. This duty of the commissioner of the revenue to obtain such return shall in no manner diminish any obligation to file a return without being called upon to do so by the commissioner of the revenue or any other officer. Each commissioner of the revenue shall audit returns as soon as practicable after they are made to him and shall assess the amount of taxes, or the amount of additional taxes, as the case may be, which appears to be due. Such auditing shall not be done in a manner or at a time in any case as will result in any delay on the part of the commissioner of the revenue in complying with §§ 58.1-307 and 58.1-350.

Code 1950, § 58-151.068; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2004, c. 544.

§ 58.1-306. Filing of individual, estate or trust income tax returns with the Department.

Every individual and fiduciary responsible for filing income tax returns may file such returns with the Department of Taxation or the appropriate commissioner of the revenue. Whenever an individual or fiduciary files with the Department an income tax return for a current year, the Department may assess the state income tax against such taxpayer instead of transmitting such return to a commissioner of the revenue for assessment. In every such case the Department, however, shall advise the appropriate commissioner of the revenue of such action. The Department may advise taxpayers through its publications and instructions of their right to file state income tax returns with the Department but shall not by any means whatsoever, either directly or indirectly, in its bulletins, instructions, publications or otherwise, request, promote or solicit, in any local jurisdiction, unless requested by the commissioner of the revenue or assessing officer thereof on or before September 1 of each year, the filing of such state income tax return with the Department. Nothing in this chapter shall prohibit the Department from including the mailing addresses of the local commissioners of the revenue as well as the Department within the appropriate income tax forms and filing instructions.

Code 1950, § 58-151.065; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1974, c. 281; 1984, c. 675; 2004, cc. 521, 544.

§ 58.1-307. Disposition of returns; handling of state income tax payments; audit.

A. As soon as the individual and fiduciary income tax returns have been received by the commissioner of the revenue and entered upon the assessment sheets or forms, the commissioner of the revenue shall forward such returns to the Department. The Department, however, may authorize the commissioner of the revenue to retain such returns for such length of time as may be necessary to enable him to review them under § 58.1-305 and to use them in ascertaining delinquents. As soon as practicable after each such return is received by the Department, it shall examine and audit it. Except in criminal and internal investigations, the Department shall conduct its audits, inspections of records, and meetings with taxpayers at reasonable times and places. For purposes of informal meetings on appeals under § 58.1-1821, Richmond shall be a reasonable place to meet.

B. If any income tax return filed with and received by the commissioner of the revenue or director of finance or other assessing officer is accompanied by payment, in whole or in part, of the liability shown on such return, such officer, within two banking days of receipt of such return, shall deliver such payment or payments to the treasurer. The commissioner of the revenue or director of finance or other assessing officer shall maintain a record of the date on which such payments are received and shall also record the date on which such payments are delivered to the treasurer. The Auditor of Public Accounts shall either prescribe or approve the commissioner of the revenue's or director of finance's or other assessing officer's record-keeping system and shall audit such records as provided for in Chapter 14 (§ 30-130 et seq.) of Title 30. The Auditor, in his discretion, upon a showing of hardship making it difficult to comply with these requirements, may prescribe or approve alternative arrangements intended to accomplish the same result. The treasurer shall act in accordance with subsection B of § 2.2-806 and 58.1-3168 in the handling, deposit, and accounting of such payments.

Code 1950, § 58-151.070; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1991, c. 485; 1996, c. 634.

§ 58.1-308. Assessment and payment of deficiency; fraud; penalties.

If the amount of tax computed by the Department is greater than the amount theretofore assessed, the excess shall be assessed by the Department and a bill for the same shall be mailed to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall pay such additional tax to the Department within thirty days after the amount of the tax as computed is mailed by the Department. In such case, if the return was made in good faith and the understatement of the amount in the return was not due to any fault of the taxpayer, there shall be no penalty on the additional tax because of such understatement, but interest shall be added to the amount of the deficiency at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

If the understatement is false or fraudulent with intent to evade the tax, a penalty of 100 percent shall be added together with interest on the tax at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

Nothing contained in this section shall prevent the taxpayer from applying to the circuit court of the county or the city wherein he resides for a correction of the assessment made by the Department, with right of appeal in the manner provided by law.

Code 1950, § 58-151.071; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-309. Refund of overpayment.

If the amount of taxes as computed is less than the amount theretofore paid, the excess shall be refunded out of the state treasury on the order of the Tax Commissioner upon the Comptroller.

Code 1950, § 58-151.072; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1974, c. 178; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-310. Examination of federal returns.

Whenever in the opinion of the Department it is necessary to examine the federal income returns or any copy thereof of any individual, estate, trust, partnership or corporation in order properly to audit such returns, the Department or the commissioner of the revenue shall have the right to require such taxpayer to provide such return or a copy thereof and all statements, inventories, and schedules in support thereof.

Code 1950, § 58-151.097; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1973, c. 198; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-311. Report of change in federal taxable income.

If the amount of any individual, estate, trust or corporate taxpayer's federal taxable income reported on his federal income tax return for any taxable year is changed or corrected by the United States Internal Revenue Service or other competent authority, or as the result of a renegotiation of a contract or subcontract with the United States, the taxpayer shall file an amended return, or such other form as the Department may prescribe, reporting such change or correction in federal taxable income within one year after the final determination date, as defined in § 58.1-311.2, for such change, correction, or renegotiation, or as otherwise required by the Department, and shall concede the accuracy of such determination or state wherein it is erroneous. However, if the Department has sufficient information from which to compute the proper additional tax and the taxpayer has paid such tax, then the taxpayer is not required to file an amended individual income tax return. Any taxpayer filing an amended federal income tax return shall also file within one year thereafter an amended return under this chapter and shall give such information as the Department may require. The Department may by regulation prescribe such exceptions to the requirements of this section as it deems appropriate.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0103; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1992, c. 678; 2006, c. 234; 2020, c. 1030.

§ 58.1-311.1. Report of change in taxes paid to other states.

If the amount of any individual taxpayer's income tax reported on a return filed with any other state for any taxable year is changed or corrected by such state as a result of an examination conducted by a competent authority of such state, and the taxpayer previously claimed a credit for such tax pursuant to § 58.1-332, the taxpayer shall file an amended return, or such other form as the Department may prescribe, reporting the effects of such change or correction on the taxpayer's Virginia individual income tax within one year after the final determination of such change or correction, or as otherwise required by the Department, and shall concede the accuracy of such determination or declare wherein it is erroneous. However, if the Department has sufficient information from which to compute the proper additional tax and the taxpayer has paid such tax, then the taxpayer is not required to file an amended individual income tax return. Any taxpayer filing an amended income tax return with any other state that results in a change to the taxpayer's Virginia income tax shall also file an amended return within one year thereafter under this chapter and shall provide such information as the Department may require. The Department may by regulation prescribe such exceptions to the requirements of this section as it deems appropriate.

2006, c. 234.

§ 58.1-311.2. Final determination date.

As used in § 58.1-311, "final determination date" means:

1. Except as provided in subdivisions 1 and 2, if the federal adjustment arises from an Internal Revenue Service audit or other action by the Internal Revenue Service, the final determination date is the first day on which no federal adjustments arising from that audit or other action remain to be finally determined, whether by Internal Revenue Service decision with respect to which all rights of appeal have been waived or exhausted, by agreement, or, if appealed or contested, by a final decision with respect to which all rights of appeal have been waived or exhausted. For agreements required to be signed by the Internal Revenue Service and the taxpayer, the final determination date is the date on which the last party signed the agreement.

2. For federal adjustments arising from an Internal Revenue Service audit or other action by the Internal Revenue Service, if the taxpayer filed as a member of a combined or consolidated return under § 58.1-442, the final determination date means the first day on which no related federal adjustments arising from that audit remain to be finally determined, as described in subdivision 1, for the entire group.

3. If the federal adjustment results from filing an amended federal return, a federal refund claim, or an administrative adjustment request, as that term is used in § 58.1-396, or if it is a federal adjustment reported on an amended federal return or other similar report filed pursuant to § 6225(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, the final determination date means the day on which the amended return, refund claim, administrative adjustment request, or other similar report was filed.

2020, c. 1030.

§ 58.1-312. Limitations on assessment.

A. The tax imposed by this chapter may be assessed at any time if:

1. No return is filed;

2. A false or fraudulent return is filed with intent to evade tax;

3. The taxpayer fails to comply with § 58.1-311 in not reporting a change or correction increasing his federal taxable income as reported on his federal income tax return, or in not reporting a change or correction which is treated in the same manner as if it were a deficiency for federal income tax purposes, or in not filing an amended return; or

4. The taxpayer fails to comply with § 58.1-311.1 by not reporting a change or correction decreasing the tax paid to another state for which a credit was claimed on his Virginia income tax return as a result of an examination conducted by any other state or an amended income tax return filed with any other state.

B. The tax may be assessed within six years after the return was filed, whether such return was filed on or after the date prescribed, if the taxpayer knowingly failed to disclose on his state income tax return a transaction identified by the Tax Commissioner as an abusive tax avoidance transaction and published as provided in § 58.1-204. A return of tax filed before the last day prescribed by law for the timely filing thereof shall be considered as filed on the last day. If such return is false or fraudulent, an assessment may be made at any time whether or not the falsity or fraud is related to the abusive tax avoidance transaction.

C. If the taxpayer pursuant to § 58.1-311 or 58.1-311.1 reports a change or correction or files an amended return increasing his federal taxable income, decreasing the tax paid to another state, or reports a change or correction which is treated in the same manner as if it were a deficiency for federal income tax purposes, the assessment (if not deemed to have been made upon the filing of the report or amended return) may be made at any time within one year after such report or amended return was filed. The amount of such assessment of tax shall not exceed the amount of the increase in Virginia tax attributable to such federal change or correction. The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the time within which or the amount for which an assessment may otherwise be made.

D. If a deficiency is attributable to the application to the taxpayer of a net operating loss carry-back, or to a net capital loss carry-back, it may be assessed at any time that a deficiency for the taxable year of the loss may be assessed.

E. An erroneous refund shall be considered an underpayment of tax on the date made, and an assessment of a deficiency arising out of an erroneous refund may be made at any time within two years from the making of the refund, except that the assessment may be made within five years from the making of the refund if it appears that any part of the refund was induced by fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact.

F. If a return is required for a decedent or for his estate during the period of administration, the tax shall be assessed within eighteen months after written request therefor (made after the return is filed) by the executor, administrator or other person representing the estate of such decedent, but not more than three years after the return was filed, except as otherwise provided in this subsection.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0104; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2006, c. 234; 2007, c. 524.

§ 58.1-313. Immediate assessment where collection jeopardized by delay; notice of assessment; termination of taxable period; memorandum of lien.

A. If the Tax Commissioner determines that the collection of any income tax, penalties or interest required to be paid under this title will be jeopardized by delay, the Tax Commissioner shall immediately assess the actual or estimated amount of tax due, together with all penalties and interest, and demand immediate payment from the taxpayer. A notice of such assessment and demand shall be sent by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the taxpayer's last known address or personally delivered to the taxpayer. In the case of a tax for a current period, the Tax Commissioner shall declare the taxable period of the taxpayer immediately terminated and shall cause notice of such finding and declaration to be mailed or personally delivered to the taxpayer together with a demand for immediate payment of the tax based on the period declared terminated, and such tax shall be immediately due and payable, whether or not the time otherwise allowed by law for filing a return and paying the tax has expired. Assessments provided for in this section shall become immediately due and payable, and if any such tax, penalty or interest is not paid upon demand of the Tax Commissioner, he shall proceed to collect the same by legal process as otherwise provided by law. A memorandum of lien provided for in § 58.1-1805 may be issued immediately upon assessment and notice thereof, or the Tax Commissioner may require the taxpayer to file a bond sufficient in the Commissioner's judgment to protect the interest of the Commonwealth. "Jeopardized by delay" for purposes of this section includes a finding by the Tax Commissioner that a taxpayer designs (i) to depart quickly from the Commonwealth, (ii) to remove his property therefrom, (iii) to conceal himself or his property therein, or (iv) to do any other act tending to prejudice or to render wholly or partially ineffectual proceedings to collect the income tax for the period in question.

B. A memorandum of lien may be filed for delinquent income taxes assessed by the Department only within six years after an assessment.

C. The Department shall notify the taxpayer that he shall have the opportunity to appear at a meeting within fourteen days and make an oral or written statement of why he believes no jeopardy to the revenue exists or why a memorandum of lien should be released, if one was recorded. Upon request of the taxpayer, the Department shall meet with the taxpayer at a time set by the Department within fourteen days after the issuance of the jeopardy assessment. The Department shall determine within twenty days after such meeting whether such jeopardy assessment or lien should be withdrawn and shall send written notice of such finding to the taxpayer. If the finding is not in the taxpayer's favor, he may use the remedies available for corrections of erroneous assessments in Article 2 (§ 58.1-1820 et seq.) of Chapter 18.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0105; 1979, c. 639; 1984, c. 675; 1989, c. 263; 1996, c. 634.

§ 58.1-314. Lien of jeopardy assessment; notice of lien.

Upon the completion of all acts necessary to effect a jeopardy assessment under § 58.1-313 and upon the failure of the taxpayer to make payment in full upon demand of all taxes, penalties and interest immediately due thereunder or post a bond in lieu thereof when applicable, such assessment shall be a lien upon and bind the real and personal property of the delinquent taxpayer against whom it may be issued from the time the taxpayer fails to make full payment thereunder, except as against a bona fide purchaser for a valuable consideration. A notice of such lien, drawn by the Tax Commissioner, shall be sent to the clerk of the circuit court in all jurisdictions wherein the taxpayer is known or believed to own any estate. The clerk to whom any such notice of lien is so sent shall record it, as a judgment is required by law to be recorded, and shall index the same in the name of the Commonwealth as well as of the delinquent taxpayer. Such recordation shall thereupon be constructive notice of the lien created by the assessment as to all estate of the delinquent taxpayer located in such jurisdiction.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.077, 58-151.0106; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1979, c. 639; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-315. Transitional modifications to Virginia taxable income.

The modifications of Virginia taxable income to be made in accordance with subdivision 2 of § 58.1-322.04 and subsection D of § 58.1-402, so long as applicable, are as follows:

1. There shall be subtracted from Virginia taxable income the amount necessary to prevent the taxation under this chapter of any annuity or of any other amount of income or gain which was properly included in income or gain and was taxable under Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 (§§ 58-77 through 58-151) of Chapter 4 of Title 58 to the taxpayer prior to the repeal thereof, or to a decedent by reason of whose death the taxpayer acquires the right to receive the income or gain, or to a trust or estate from which the taxpayer received the income or gain.

2. The carry-back of net operating losses or net capital losses to reduce taxable income of taxable years beginning prior to January 1, 1972, shall not be permitted. Where a taxpayer would have been allowed to deduct an amount as a net operating loss carry-over or net capital loss carry-over in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1971, but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back in determining taxable income for a taxable year beginning prior to January 1, 1972, there shall be added to Virginia taxable income any amount which was actually deducted in determining taxable income as a net operating loss carry-over or net capital loss carry-over and there shall be subtracted from Virginia taxable income the amount which could have been deducted as a net operating loss carry-over or net capital loss carry-over in arriving at taxable income but for the fact that such loss, or a portion of such loss, had been carried back for federal purposes.

3. There shall be added to Virginia taxable income the amount necessary to prevent the deduction under this chapter of any item which was properly deductible by the taxpayer in determining a tax under §§ 58-77 through 58-151 prior to the repeal thereof.

4. There shall be subtracted from Virginia taxable income that portion of any accumulation distribution which is allocable, under the laws of the United States relating to federal income taxes, to undistributed net income of a trust for any taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1971. The rules prescribed by such laws of the United States with reference to any such accumulation distribution shall be applied, mutatis mutandis, to allow for this limitation; and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the credit provided by § 58.1-370 in the case of accumulation distributions shall in no instance encompass any part of any tax paid for a taxable year beginning on or before December 31, 1971.

5. As to gain or loss attributable to the sale or exchange of nondepreciable property, Virginia taxable income shall be adjusted to effect a reduction in such gain or increase in such loss by the amount by which the adjusted basis of such property, determined for Virginia income tax purposes at the close of the taxable period immediately preceding the first taxable period to which Articles 7.1 to 7.6 (§ 58-151.01 et seq.) of Title 58 applied prior to repeal thereof exceeds the adjusted basis of such property for federal income tax purposes determined at the close of the same period.

6. There shall be subtracted from the Virginia taxable income of a shareholder of an electing small business corporation any amount included in his taxable income as his share of the undistributed taxable income of such corporation for any year of the corporation beginning before January 1, 1972.

7. There shall be subtracted from federal taxable income amounts which would have been deductible by the corporation in computing federal taxable income but for the election of such corporation of the additional investment tax credit under § 46(a)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code in effect on January 1, 1978.

Code 1950, § 58-151.0111; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, c. 827; 1973, c. 323; 1974, c. 248; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 2017, c. 444.

§ 58.1-316. Information reporting on rental payments to nonresident payees; penalties.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, every nonresident payee receiving gross payments of $600 or more in any calendar year from the rental of real property in this Commonwealth shall register with the Department of Taxation pursuant to forms and regulations adopted by the Tax Commissioner.

B. Any broker as defined in § 6045(c) of the Internal Revenue Code making payments to a nonresident payee attributable to the rental of real property in this Commonwealth shall obtain from the nonresident payee the registration form required in subsection A of this section or satisfactory evidence of prior registration. The broker shall retain a copy of the registration form in his files and shall transmit the original copy to the Department of Taxation on or before the fifteenth day of the month following the month in which the form was received from the payee.

C. If a nonresident payee fails to provide a completed registration form to the broker within sixty days after being requested by the broker or if such payee provides the broker with a registration form that is incomplete or false on its face, the broker shall file a registration form on behalf of the payee providing the payee's name, address, identification number, and such other information as may be required by the Tax Commissioner. In the case of each failure to file a registration form with the Tax Commissioner on the date prescribed therefor, the broker failing to file such registration form shall pay a $50 penalty for each month that each such failure to file continues, not exceeding six months in the aggregate.

D. Any payee who willfully supplies false or fraudulent information to a broker with the intent to evade the payment of income taxes properly due on the rental of real estate in this Commonwealth and any broker who has actual knowledge that any information supplied by a payee is false or fraudulent and fails to notify the Department of Taxation of such shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

E. For purposes of this section, the term "nonresident payee" means every individual who is not a resident, every nonresident estate or trust, every partnership and S corporation which has nonresident partners or shareholders, or every corporation which is not formed or organized under Virginia law.

1990, c. 910.

§ 58.1-317. Filing of estimated tax by nonresidents upon the sale of real property; penalties.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, every nonresident payee receiving payments from the transfer of fee simple title in real property in this Commonwealth shall concurrent with the transfer of title register with the Department of Taxation pursuant to forms and regulations adopted by the Tax Commissioner.

B. The real estate reporting person as defined in § 6045(e) of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder shall obtain from the nonresident payee the registration form required in subsection A of this section. The real estate reporting person shall retain a copy of the registration form in his files and shall transmit the original copy to the Department of Taxation on or before the fifteenth day of the month following the month in which the title was transferred. As prescribed by the Tax Commissioner, a payee may be excused from the filing of a registration form by furnishing the real estate reporting person with a certificate stating that the payment is not subject to the corporation or individual income tax.

C. If a nonresident payee fails to provide a completed registration form to the real estate reporting person or if such payee provides the real estate reporting person with a registration form that is incomplete or false on its face, the real estate reporting person shall file a registration form on behalf of the payee providing the payee's name, address, taxpayer identification number, and such other information as may be required by the Tax Commissioner. In the case of each failure to file a registration form with the Tax Commissioner on the date prescribed therefor, the real estate reporting person failing to file such registration form shall pay a $50 penalty for each month that each such failure to file continues, not exceeding six months in the aggregate.

D. Any payee who willfully supplies false or fraudulent information to a real estate reporting person with the intent to evade the payment of income taxes properly due on the transfer of fee simple title to real estate in this Commonwealth and any real estate reporting person who has actual knowledge that any information supplied by a payee is false or fraudulent and fails to notify the Department of Taxation of such shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

E. For purposes of this section, the term "nonresident payee" means every individual who is not a resident, every nonresident estate or trust, every partnership and S corporation which has nonresident partners or shareholders, or every corporation which is not formed or organized under Virginia law.

1990, c. 910.

§ 58.1-318. Investments eligible for tax credits.

A. For purposes of this section, "funding portal" means a website that (i) allows accredited investors to participate in general solicitation transactions by an issuer that meet the requirements of § 4(a)(6) of the Securities Act of 1933, P.L. 112-106, or (ii) is an online broker or funding portal registered with the federal Securities Exchange Commission pursuant to § 4A(a) of the Securities Act of 1993, P.L. 112-106.

B. Any investment made by a taxpayer that is transacted via an online general solicitation, an online broker, or a funding portal shall be eligible for any tax credit authorized pursuant to this chapter, so long as the investment itself meets the criteria set forth in the statute specifically authorizing the credit.

2013, c. 289.

§ 58.1-319. Unclaimed tax credits; report.

If any tax credit authorized pursuant to this title has not been claimed by any taxpayer during the preceding five calendar years, such credit shall be deemed obsolete, and the Department shall not authorize any taxpayer to claim such credit against any tax levied pursuant to this title in future calendar years except as expressly authorized by the General Assembly. The Department shall report to the House Committee on Appropriations, the House Committee on Finance, and the Senate Committee on Finance no later than February 1 of each year as to all credits that are deemed obsolete and shall publish such report on its website.

For purposes of this section, a credit shall be considered claimed in the calendar year when it is claimed by a taxpayer and shall not include the carryover or transfer of a credit in subsequent years as authorized by law, nor shall this section be interpreted to prevent the lawful carryover or transfer of a credit previously authorized by the Department.

2013, c. 657.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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