Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
8/25/2019

Article 14. Accounting, Returns, Procedures for Corporations.

§ 58.1-440. Accounting.

A. A corporate taxpayer's taxable year under this chapter shall be the same as his taxable year for federal income tax purposes.

B. If a taxpayer's taxable year is changed for federal income tax purposes, his taxable year for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxable year of less than twelve months results from a change of taxable year, the Virginia taxable income shall be prorated under regulations of the Department.

C. A taxpayer's method of accounting under this chapter shall be the same as his method of accounting for federal income tax purposes. In the absence of any method of accounting for federal income tax purposes, Virginia taxable income shall be computed under such method as in the opinion of the Tax Commissioner clearly reflects income.

D. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed for federal income tax purposes, his method of accounting for purposes of this chapter shall be similarly changed. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed, other than from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax which results from adjustments determined to be necessary solely by reason of the change shall not be greater than if such adjustments were ratably allocated and included for the taxable year of the change and the preceding taxable years, not in excess of two, during which the taxpayer used the method of accounting from which the change is made. If a taxpayer's method of accounting is changed from an accrual to an installment method, any additional tax for the year of such change of method and for any subsequent year which is attributable to the receipt of installment payments properly accrued in a prior year, shall be reduced by the portion of tax for any prior taxable year attributable to the accrual of such installment payments, in accordance with regulations of the Department.

E. In computing a taxpayer's Virginia taxable income for any taxable year under a method of accounting different from the method under which the taxpayer's Virginia taxable income was computed, there shall be taken into account those adjustments which are determined, under regulations prescribed by the Department of Taxation, to be necessary solely by reason of change in order to prevent amounts from being duplicated or omitted.

F. Notwithstanding any of the other provisions of this section, any accounting adjustments made for federal income tax purposes for any taxable year shall be applied in computing the taxpayer's taxable income for such year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.061; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-440.1. Accounting-deferred taxes.

In the case of a pipeline distribution company, a gas utility, a gas supplier or an electric supplier, as defined in § 58.1-400.2, that was subject to the tax imposed under § 58.1-2626 with respect to its gross receipts received during the year commencing January 1, 2000, and that on or after January 1, 2001, becomes subject to the corporate income tax pursuant to Article 10 (§ 58.1-400 et seq.) of this chapter, net income shall be computed by taking into account the following adjustments:

In addition to the deductions for depreciation, amortization, or other cost recovery currently allowed by this Code, there shall be allowed deductions for the amortization of the Virginia tax basis of assets that are recoverable for financial accounting and/or income tax purposes placed in service prior to the adjustment date. For purposes of this section, (i) "Virginia tax basis" means the aggregate adjusted book basis less the aggregate adjusted tax basis of such assets as recorded on the company's books of accounts as of the last day of the tax year immediately preceding the adjustment date and (ii) "adjustment date" means the first day of the tax year in which such pipeline distribution company, gas utility, gas supplier or electric supplier becomes subject to the tax imposed by § 58.1-400.2 A. The amortization of the Virginia tax basis shall be computed using the straight-line method over a period of thirty years, beginning on the adjustment date. Gain or loss on the disposition or retirement of any such asset shall be computed using its adjusted federal tax basis, and the amortization of the Virginia tax basis shall continue thereafter without adjustment. The Department of Taxation shall promulgate regulations describing a reasonable method of allocating the Virginia tax basis in the event that a portion of the operations of a pipeline distribution company, gas utility, gas supplier or electric supplier are separated, spun-off, transferred to a separate company or otherwise disaggregated. For gas suppliers, pipeline distribution companies or gas utilities which are required to file an income tax return for a short taxable year pursuant to subsection E of § 58.1-400.2, a portion of the amortized Virginia tax basis will be disallowed based on the proration in computing Virginia taxable income. Such portion will be recovered as a deduction in the first taxable year after which this deduction is no longer applicable.

For rate-making and accounting purposes, the State Corporation Commission shall not require a pipeline distribution company or gas utility to amortize these deferred taxes over a period other than the thirty-year period prescribed herein, nor shall the State Corporation Commission require the treatment of accelerated depreciation different from that allowed for federal income taxes.

1999, c. 971; 2000, cc. 691, 706.

§ 58.1-441. Reports by corporations.

A. Every corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth, or having income from Virginia sources, other than a Subchapter S corporation subject to the return filing requirements of § 58.1-392, shall make a report to the Department on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of its taxable year. Such reports shall be made on forms prescribed by the Department and shall contain such information, including the gross receipts from any business carried on in the Commonwealth and a depreciation schedule of property used in such trade or business, as may be necessary for the proper enforcement of this chapter and be accompanied by a copy of any federal tax return or report filed for such taxable year. The Department shall not require any nonprofit organization created exclusively to assist a law-enforcement official or agency in apprehending and convicting perpetrators of crimes, to report on such returns, or otherwise, the names of individuals or amounts paid to such individuals by the organization for providing information about certain crimes.

Receivers, trustees in dissolution, trustees in bankruptcy, and assignees, operating the property or business of corporations must make returns of income for such corporations. If a receiver has full custody of and control over the business or property of a corporation, he shall be deemed to be operating such business or property, whether he is engaged in carrying on the business for which the corporation was organized or only in marshaling, selling, or disposing of its assets for purposes of liquidation.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, every organization to whom subdivision 5 of § 58.1-401 applies, and having unrelated business taxable income or other taxable income, shall make a report to the Department on or before the fifteenth day of the sixth month following the close of the organization's taxable year.

Code 1950, §§ 58-151.062, 58-151.078; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1972, cc. 465, 827; 1978, c. 796; 1984, c. 675; 1988, c. 444; 2003, c. 376; 2004, Sp. Sess. I, c. 3.

§ 58.1-442. Separate, combined or consolidated returns of affiliated corporations.

A. Corporations which are affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302 may, for any taxable year, file separate returns, file a combined return or file a consolidated return of net income for the purpose of this chapter, and the taxes thereunder shall be computed and determined upon the basis of the type of return filed. Following an election to file on a separate, consolidated, or combined basis all returns thereafter filed shall be upon the same basis unless permission to change is granted by the Department.

B. For the purpose of subsection A:

1. A consolidated return shall mean a single return for a group of corporations affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302, prepared in accordance with the principles of § 1502 of the Internal Revenue Code and regulations promulgated thereunder. Permission to file a consolidated return shall not be denied to a group of affiliated corporations filing a consolidated federal return solely because two or more members of such affiliated group would be required to use different apportionment factors if separate returns were filed. The Tax Commissioner shall promulgate regulations setting forth the manner in which such an affiliated group shall compute its Virginia taxable income.

2. A combined return shall mean a single return for a group of corporations affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302, in which income or loss is separately determined in accordance with subdivisions a through d below:

a. Virginia taxable income or loss is computed separately for each corporation;

b. Allocable income is allocated to the state of commercial domicile separately for each corporation;

c. Apportionable income or loss is computed, utilizing separate apportionment factors for each corporation;

d. Income or loss computed in accordance with items a through c above is combined and reported on a single return for the affiliated group.

C. Notwithstanding subsection A, a group of corporations may apply to the Tax Commissioner for permission to change the basis of the type of return filed (i) from consolidated to separate or (ii) from separate or combined to consolidated, if such corporations are affiliated within the meaning of § 58.1-302 and the affiliated group of which they are members, as it has existed from time to time, has filed on the same basis for at least the preceding 20 years. Permission shall be granted if:

1. For the taxable year immediately preceding the taxable year for which the new election would be applicable, there would have been no decrease in tax liability computed under the proposed election as compared to the affiliated group's former filing method; and

2. The affiliated group agrees to file returns computing its Virginia income tax liability under both the new filing method and the former method and will pay the greater of the two amounts for the taxable year in which the new election is effective and for the immediately succeeding taxable year.

Code 1950, § 58-151.079; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675; 1990, c. 619; 2003, c. 166.

§ 58.1-443. Prohibition of worldwide consolidation or combination.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, the Department shall not require, and no corporation may elect, that a consolidation or combination of an affiliated group include any controlled foreign corporation, the income of which is derived from sources without the United States.

Code 1950, § 58-151.079:1; 1981, c. 402; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-444. Several liability of affiliated corporations.

Each affiliated corporation which was included in the consolidated return for any part of the consolidated return year shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax for such year computed in accordance with § 58.1-442 and regulations prescribed by the Department for the filing of the consolidated return for such year.

No agreement entered into by one or more members of the affiliated group with any other member of such group or with any other person shall in any case have the effect of reducing the liability prescribed under this section.

Code 1950, § 58-151.080; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 243; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-445. Consolidation of accounts.

In any case of two or more related trades or businesses liable to taxation under this chapter owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests, the Department may, and at the request of the taxpayer shall, if necessary in order to make an accurate distribution or apportionment of gains, profits, income, deductions or capital between or among such related trades or businesses, consolidate the accounts of such related trades or businesses.

Code 1950, § 58-151.082; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-445.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1998, c. 253, effective December 31, 1998.

§ 58.1-446. Price manipulation; intercorporate transactions; parent corporations and subsidiaries.

When any corporation liable to taxation under this chapter by agreement or otherwise conducts the business of such corporation in such manner as either directly or indirectly to benefit the members or stockholders of the corporation, or any of them, or any person or persons directly or indirectly interested in such business, by either buying or selling its products or the goods or commodities in which it deals at more or less than a fair price which might be obtained therefor, or when such a corporation sells its products, goods or commodities to another corporation or acquires and disposes of the products, goods or commodities of another corporation in such manner as to create a loss or improper taxable income, and such other corporation by stock ownership, agreement or otherwise controls or is controlled by the corporation liable to taxation under this chapter, the Department may require such facts as it deems necessary for the proper computation provided by this chapter and may for the purpose determine the amount which shall be deemed to be the Virginia taxable income of the business of such corporation for the taxable year. In determining such income, the Department shall have regard to the fair profits which, but for any agreement, arrangement or understanding, might be, or could have been, obtained from dealing in such products, goods or commodities.

Any corporation liable to taxation under this chapter and either owned or controlled by or owning or controlling, either directly or indirectly, another corporation may be required by the Department to make a report consolidated with such other corporation showing the combined gross and net income and such other information as the Department may require, but excluding intercorporate stockholdings and the intercorporate accounts. In case it appears to the Department that any arrangements exist in such a manner as improperly to reflect the business done or the Virginia taxable income earned from business done in this Commonwealth, the Department may, in such manner as it may determine, equitably adjust the tax. In all cases mentioned in this paragraph, such other corporations not otherwise liable to taxation under this chapter shall, for the purposes of this chapter, be deemed to be doing business in Virginia through the agency of the corporation liable to taxation under this chapter.

Code 1950, § 58-151.083; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-447. Execution of returns of corporations.

The return of a corporation with respect to income shall be signed by any officer duly authorized so to act. In the case of a return made for a corporation by a fiduciary, such fiduciary shall sign the return. The fact that an individual's name is signed on the return shall be prima facie evidence that such individual is authorized to sign the return on behalf of the corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.084; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-448. Forms to be furnished.

Duplicate blank forms of reports shall be furnished by mail by the Department to the taxpayer at least thirty days before the time for filing returns, but failure to secure such a blank shall not release any corporation from the obligation of making any report herein required.

Code 1950, § 58-151.085; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-449. Supplemental reports.

The Department may require a further or supplemental report under this chapter to contain further information and data necessary for the computation of the tax herein provided.

Code 1950, § 58-151.086; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-450. Failure of corporation to make report or return.

Any corporation which fails to make any report or return required by this chapter within the time required shall be liable to a penalty equal to six percent of the amount of taxes assessable thereon if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to file continues, not exceeding thirty percent in the aggregate. In no case, however, shall the penalty be less than $100, and such minimum penalty shall apply whether or not any tax is due for the period for which the filing of a report or return is required. Such penalty is to be assessed and collected by the Department, in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department. In addition such corporation shall be compellable by mandamus to make such report or return.

Code 1950, § 58-151.087; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 1989, cc. 629, 642; 1991, cc. 316, 331.

§ 58.1-451. Fraudulent returns, etc., of corporations; penalty.

Any officer of any corporation who makes a fraudulent return or statement with intent to evade the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $1,000, to be assessed and collected in the manner prescribed in § 58.1-450.

Code 1950, § 58-151.088; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-452. Fraudulent returns; criminal liability; penalty.

In addition to other penalties provided by law, any officer of any corporation who makes a fraudulent return or statement with intent to evade the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony. A prosecution under this section shall be commenced within five years next after the commission of the offense.

Code 1950, § 58-151.089; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675; 2003, c. 180.

§ 58.1-453. Extension of time for filing returns by corporations.

A. In accordance with procedures established by the Tax Commissioner, any corporation may elect an extension of time within which to file the income tax return required under this chapter to the date six months after such due date or 30 days after the extended date for filing the federal income tax return, whichever is later, provided that the estimated tax due is paid in accordance with the provisions of subsection B.

B. Any taxpayer desiring an extension of time in accordance with the provisions of subsection A shall, on or before the original due date for the filing of such return, in accordance with the procedures established by the Tax Commissioner pay the full amount properly estimated as the balance of the tax due for the taxable year after giving effect to any estimated tax payments under § 58.1-491 and any tax credit under § 58.1-499. If any amount of the balance of the tax due is underestimated, interest at the rate prescribed in § 58.1-15 will be assessed on such amount from the original due date for filing of the income tax return to the date of payment. In addition to interest, if the underestimation of the balance of tax due exceeds 10 percent of the actual tax liability, there shall be added to the tax as a penalty an amount equal to two percent per month for each month or fraction thereof from the original due date for the filing of the income tax return to the date of payment.

C. If the return is not filed, or the full amount of the tax due is not paid, on or before the extended due date elected under subsection A, the penalty imposed by § 58.1-450 or 58.1-455 shall apply as if no extension had been granted.

Code 1950, § 58-151.090; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1976, c. 720; 1984, c. 675; 1991, cc. 362, 456; 2005, c. 100.

§ 58.1-454. Department may estimate corporation's tax when no return filed.

If any report or return required to be made by any corporation under this chapter is not made as herein required, the Department is authorized to make an estimate of the net income of such corporation and of the amount of tax due under this chapter, from any information in its possession, and to order and state an account according to such estimate for the taxes, penalties and interest due to the Commonwealth from such corporation.

Code 1950, § 58-151.091; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1984, c. 675.

§ 58.1-455. Time of payment of corporation income taxes; penalty and interest for nonpayment.

A. Every corporation liable for income tax shall pay the same to the Department at the time fixed by law for filing the return. The full amount of the tax payable as shown on the face of the return shall be so paid. A corporation may file its return and pay its tax in full in the closing days of its taxable year provided it is able to prepare a complete return.

If any payment is not made in full when due, there shall be added to the entire tax or to any unpaid balance of the tax, a penalty of six percent of the amount thereof, if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional six percent for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to pay continues, not exceeding thirty percent in the aggregate. The entire tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, together with such penalty, will immediately become collectible. Interest upon such tax or any unpaid balance of the tax, and on the accrued penalty, shall be added at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the date the tax or any unpaid balance of the tax was originally due until paid. In the case of an additional tax assessed by the Department, if the return was made in good faith and the understatement of the amount in the return was not due to any fault of the taxpayer, there shall be no penalty on the additional tax because of such understatement, but interest shall be added to the amount of the deficiency at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

The penalty under this subsection shall not be applicable to any month or fraction thereof for which the corporation is subject to the penalty imposed under § 58.1-450. In no event shall the total amount of penalty assessed under this subsection and under § 58.1-450 exceed thirty percent in the aggregate.

B. If the understatement is false or fraudulent with intent to evade the tax, a penalty of 100 percent shall be added together with interest on the tax at a rate determined in accordance with § 58.1-15, from the time the return was required by law to be filed until paid.

Nothing contained in this section shall prevent the taxpayer from applying to the circuit court of the county or the city wherein the corporation is located for a correction of the assessment made by the Department, with right of appeal in the manner provided by law.

Code 1950, § 58-151.093; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 171; 1977, c. 396; 1984, c. 675; 1989, cc. 629, 642; 1991, cc. 316, 331.

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