Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 59.1. Trade and Commerce
Chapter 43. Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
6/26/2022

Part 6. Performance.

§ 59.1-506.1. Performance of contract in general.

(a) A party shall perform in a manner that conforms to the contract.

(b) If an uncured material breach of contract by one party precedes the aggrieved party's performance, the aggrieved party need not perform except with respect to contractual use terms, but the contractual use terms do not apply to information or copies properly received or obtained from another source. In addition, the following rules apply:

(1) The aggrieved party may refuse a performance that is a material breach as to that performance or a performance that may be refused under § 59.1-507.4 (b).

(2) The aggrieved party may cancel the contract only if the breach is a material breach of the whole contract or the agreement so provides.

(c) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), tender of performance by a party entitles the party to acceptance of that performance. In addition, the following rules apply:

(1) A tender of performance occurs when the party, with manifest present ability and willingness to perform, offers to complete the performance.

(2) If a performance by the other party is due at the time of the tendered performance, tender of the other party's performance is a condition to the tendering party's obligation to complete the tendered performance.

(3) A party shall pay or render the consideration required by the agreement for a performance it accepts. A party that accepts a performance has the burden of establishing a breach of contract with respect to the accepted performance.

(d) Except as otherwise provided in §§ 59.1-506.3 and 59.1-506.4, in the case of a performance with respect to a copy, this section is subject to §§ 59.1-506.6 through 59.1-506.10 and 59.1-507.4 through 59.1-507.7.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.2. Licensor's obligations to enable use.

(a) In this section, "enable use" means to grant a contractual right or permission with respect to information or informational rights and to complete the acts, if any, required under the agreement to make the information available to the licensee.

(b) A licensor shall enable use by the licensee pursuant to the contract. The following rules apply to enabling use:

(1) If nothing other than the grant of a contractual right or permission is required to enable use, the licensor enables use when the contract becomes enforceable.

(2) If the agreement requires delivery of a copy, enabling use occurs when the copy is tendered to the licensee.

(3) If the agreement requires delivery of a copy and steps authorizing the licensee's use, enabling use occurs when the last of those acts occurs.

(4) In an access contract, enabling use requires tendering all access material necessary to enable the agreed access.

(5) If the agreement requires a transfer of ownership of informational rights and a filing or recording is allowed by law to establish priority of the transferred ownership, on request by the licensee, the licensor shall execute and tender a record appropriate for that purpose.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.3. Submissions of information to satisfaction of party.

If an agreement requires that submitted information be to the satisfaction of the recipient, the following rules apply:

(1) Sections 59.1-506.6 through 59.1-506.10 and 59.1-507.4 through 59.1-507.7 do not apply to the submission.

(2) If the information is not satisfactory to the recipient and the parties engage in efforts to correct the deficiencies in a manner and over a time consistent with the ordinary standards of the business, trade, or industry, neither the efforts nor the passage of time required for the efforts is an acceptance or a refusal of the submission.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (4), neither refusal nor acceptance occurs unless the recipient expressly refuses or accepts the submitted information, but the recipient may not use the submitted information before acceptance.

(4) Silence and a failure to act in reference to a submission beyond a commercially reasonable time to respond entitle the submitting party to demand, in a record delivered to the recipient, a decision on the submission. If the recipient fails to respond within a reasonable time after receipt of the demand, the submission is deemed to have been refused.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.4. Immediately completed performance.

If a performance involves delivery of information or services which, because of their nature, may provide a licensee, immediately on performance or delivery, with substantially all the benefit of the performance or with other significant benefit that cannot be returned, the following rules apply:

(1) Sections 59.1-506.7 through 59.1-506.10 and 59.1-507.4 through 59.1-507.7 do not apply.

(2) The rights of the parties are determined under § 59.1-506.1 and the ordinary standards of the business, trade, or industry.

(3) Before tender of the performance, a party entitled to receive the tender may inspect the media, labels, or packaging but may not view the information or otherwise receive the performance before completing any performance of its own that is then due.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.5. Electronic regulation of performance.

(a) In this section, "automatic restraint" means a program, code, device, or similar electronic or physical limitation the intended purpose of which is to prevent use of information contrary to the contract or applicable law.

(b) A party entitled to enforce a limitation on use of information may include an automatic restraint in the information or a copy of it and use that restraint if:

(1) a term of the agreement authorizes use of the restraint;

(2) the restraint prevents a use that is inconsistent with the agreement;

(3) the restraint prevents use after expiration of the stated duration of the contract or a stated number of uses; or

(4) the restraint prevents use after the contract terminates, other than on expiration of a stated duration or number of uses, and the licensor gives reasonable notice to the licensee before further use is prevented.

(c) This section does not authorize an automatic restraint that affirmatively prevents or makes impracticable a licensee's access to its own information or information of a third party, other than the licensor, if that information is in the possession of the licensee or a third party.

(d) A party that includes or uses an automatic restraint consistent with subsection (b) or (c) is not liable for any loss caused by the use of the restraint.

(e) This section does not preclude electronic replacement or disabling of an earlier copy of information by the licensor in connection with delivery of a new copy or version under an agreement to replace or disable the earlier copy by electronic means with an upgrade or other new information.

(f) This section does not authorize use of an automatic restraint to enforce remedies because of breach of contract or for cancellation for breach. If a right to cancel for breach of contract and a right to exercise restraint under subdivision (b) (4) exist simultaneously, affirmative acts constituting electronic self-help must be taken pursuant to § 59.1-508.16, including its prohibition on mass-market transactions, instead of this section. Affirmative acts under this subsection do not include (i) use of a program, code, device, or similar electronic or physical limitation that operates automatically without regard to breach or (ii) a refusal to prevent the operation of a restraint authorized by this section or to reverse its effect.

2000, cc. 101, 996; 2001, c. 763.

§ 59.1-506.6. Copy; delivery; tender of delivery.

(a) Delivery of a copy must be at the location designated by agreement. In the absence of a designation, the following rules apply:

(1) The place for delivery of a copy on a tangible medium is the tendering party's place of business or, if it has none, its residence. However, if the parties know at the time of contracting that the copy is located in some other place, that place is the place for delivery.

(2) The place for electronic delivery of a copy is an information processing system designated or used by the licensor.

(3) Documents of title may be delivered through customary banking channels.

(b) Tender of delivery of a copy requires the tendering party to put and hold a conforming copy at the other party's disposition and give the other party any notice reasonably necessary to enable it to obtain access to, control, or possession of the copy. Tender must be at a reasonable hour and, if applicable, requires tender of access material and other documents required by the agreement. The party receiving tender shall furnish facilities reasonably suited to receive tender. In addition, the following rules apply:

(1) If the contract requires delivery of a copy held by a third person without being moved, the tendering party shall tender access material or documents required by the agreement.

(2) If the tendering party is required or authorized to send a copy to the other party and the contract does not require the tendering party to deliver the copy at a particular destination, the following rules apply:

(A) In tendering delivery of a copy on a tangible medium, the tendering party shall put the copy in the possession of a carrier and make a contract for its transportation that is reasonable in light of the nature of the information and other circumstances, with expenses of transportation to be borne by the receiving party.

(B) In tendering electronic delivery of a copy, the tendering party shall initiate or cause to have initiated a transmission that is reasonable in light of the nature of the information and other circumstances, with expenses of transmission to be borne by the receiving party.

(3) If the tendering party is required to deliver a copy at a particular destination, the tendering party shall make a copy available at that destination and bear the expenses of transportation or transmission.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.7. Copy; performance related to delivery; payment.

(a) If performance requires delivery of a copy, the following rules apply:

(1) The party required to deliver need not complete a tendered delivery until the receiving party tenders any performance then due.

(2) Tender of delivery is a condition of the other party's duty to accept the copy and entitles the tendering party to acceptance of the copy.

(b) If payment is due on delivery of a copy, the following rules apply:

(1) Tender of delivery is a condition of the receiving party's duty to pay and entitles the tendering party to payment according to the contract.

(2) All copies required by the contract must be tendered in a single delivery, and payment is due only on tender.

(c) If the circumstances give either party the right to make or demand delivery in lots, the contract fee, if it can be apportioned, may be demanded for each lot.

(d) If payment is due and demanded on delivery of a copy or on delivery of a document of title, the right of the party receiving tender to retain or dispose of the copy or document, as against the tendering party, is conditioned on making the payment due.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.8. Copy; right to inspect; payment before inspection.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in §§ 59.1-506.3 and 59.1-506.4, if performance requires delivery of a copy, the following rules apply:

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the party receiving the copy has a right before payment or acceptance to inspect the copy at a reasonable place and time and in a reasonable manner to determine conformance to the contract.

(2) The party making the inspection shall bear the expenses of inspection.

(3) A place or method of inspection or an acceptance standard fixed by the parties is presumed to be exclusive. However, the fixing of a place, method, or standard does not postpone identification to the contract or shift the place for delivery, passage of title, or risk of loss. If compliance with the place or method becomes impossible, inspection must be made as provided in this section unless the place or method fixed by the parties was an indispensable condition the failure of which voids the contract.

(4) A party's right to inspect is subject to existing obligations of confidentiality.

(b) If a right to inspect exists under subsection (a) but the agreement is inconsistent with an opportunity to inspect before payment, the party does not have a right to inspect before payment.

(c) If a contract requires payment before inspection of a copy, nonconformity in the tender does not excuse the party receiving the tender from making payment unless:

(1) the nonconformity appears without inspection and would justify refusal under § 59.1-507.4; or

(2) despite tender of the required documents, the circumstances would justify an injunction against honor of a letter of credit under Title 8.5A.

(d) Payment made under circumstances described in subsection (b) or (c) is not an acceptance of the copy and does not impair a party's right to inspect or preclude any of the party's remedies.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.9. Copy; when acceptance occurs.

(a) Acceptance of a copy occurs when the party to which the copy is tendered:

(1) signifies, or acts with respect to the copy in a manner that signifies, that the tender was conforming or that the party will take or retain the copy despite the nonconformity;

(2) does not make an effective refusal;

(3) commingles the copy or the information in a manner that makes compliance with the party's duties after refusal impossible;

(4) obtains a substantial benefit from the copy and cannot return that benefit; or

(5) acts in a manner inconsistent with the licensor's ownership, but the act is an acceptance only if the licensor elects to treat it as an acceptance and ratifies the act to the extent it was within contractual use terms.

(b) Except in cases governed by subsection (a) (3) or (4), if there is a right to inspect under § 59.1-506.8 or the agreement, acceptance of a copy occurs only after the party has had a reasonable opportunity to inspect the copy.

(c) If an agreement requires delivery in stages involving separate portions that taken together comprise the whole of the information, acceptance of any stage is conditional until acceptance of the whole.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.10. Copy; effect of acceptance; burden of establishing; notice of claims.

(a) A party accepting a copy shall pay or render the consideration required by the agreement for the copy it accepts. Acceptance of a copy precludes refusal and, if made with knowledge of a nonconformity in a tender, may not be revoked because of the nonconformity unless acceptance was on the reasonable assumption that the nonconformity would be seasonably cured. Acceptance by itself does not impair any other remedy for nonconformity.

(b) A party accepting a copy has the burden of establishing a breach of contract with respect to the copy.

(c) If a copy has been accepted, the accepting party shall:

(1) except with respect to claims of a type described in § 59.1-508.5 (d) (1), within a reasonable time after it discovers or should have discovered a breach of contract, notify the other party of the breach or be barred from any remedy for the breach; and

(2) if the claim is for breach of a warranty regarding noninfringement and the accepting party is sued by a third party because of the breach, notify the warrantor within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the litigation or be precluded from any remedy for the liability established by the litigation.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.11. Access contracts.

(a) If an access contract provides for access over a period of time, the following rules apply:

(1) The licensee's rights of access are to the information as modified and made commercially available by the licensor from time to time during that period.

(2) A change in the content of the information is a breach of contract only if the change conflicts with an express term of the agreement.

(3) Unless it is subject to a contractual use term, information obtained by the licensee is free of any use restriction other than a restriction resulting from the informational rights of another person or other law.

(4) Access must be available:

(A) at times and in a manner conforming to the express terms of the agreement; and

(B) to the extent not expressly stated in the agreement, at times and in a manner reasonable for the particular type of contract in light of the ordinary standards of the business, trade, or industry.

(b) In an access contract that gives the licensee a right of access at times substantially of its own choosing during agreed periods, an occasional failure to have access available during those times is not a breach of contract if it is:

(1) consistent with ordinary standards of the business, trade, or industry for the particular type of contract; or

(2) caused by:

(A) scheduled downtime;

(B) reasonable needs for maintenance;

(C) reasonable periods of failure of equipment, computer programs, or communications; or

(D) events reasonably beyond the licensor's control, and the licensor exercises such commercially reasonable efforts as the circumstances require.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.12. Correction and support contracts.

(a) If a person agrees to provide services regarding the correction of performance problems in computer information, other than an agreement to cure its own existing breach of contract, the following rules apply:

(1) If the services are provided by a licensor of the information as part of a limited remedy, the licensor undertakes that its performance will provide the licensee with information that conforms to the agreement to which the limited remedy applies.

(2) In all other cases, the person:

(A) shall perform at a time and place and in a manner consistent with the express terms of the agreement and, to the extent not stated in the express terms, at a time and place and in a manner that is reasonable in light of ordinary standards of the business, trade, or industry; and

(B) does not undertake that its services will correct performance problems unless the agreement expressly so provides.

(b) Unless required to do so by an express or implied warranty, a licensor is not required to provide instruction or other support for the licensee's use of information or access. A person that agrees to provide support shall make the support available in a manner and with a quality consistent with express terms of the support agreement and, to the extent not stated in the express terms, at a time and place and in a manner that is reasonable in light of ordinary standards of the business, trade, or industry.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.13. Contracts involving publishers, dealers, and end users.

(a) In this section:

(1) "Dealer" means a merchant licensee that receives information directly or indirectly from a licensor for sale or license to end users.

(2) "End user" means a licensee that acquires a copy of the information from a dealer by delivery on a tangible medium for the licensee's own use and not for sale, license, transmission to third persons, or public display or performance for a fee.

(3) "Publisher" means a licensor, other than a dealer, that offers a license to an end user with respect to information distributed by a dealer to the end user.

(b) In a contract between a dealer and an end user, if the end user's right to use the information or informational rights is subject to a license by the publisher and there was no opportunity to review the license before the end user became obligated to pay the dealer, the following rules apply:

(1) The contract between the end user and the dealer is conditioned on the end user's agreement to the publisher's license.

(2) If the end user does not agree, such as by manifesting assent, to the terms of the publisher's license, the end user has a right to a return from the dealer. A right under this paragraph is a return for purposes of §§ 59.1-501.12, 59.1-502.8, and 59.1-502.9.

(3) The dealer is not bound by the terms, and does not receive the benefits, of an agreement between the publisher and the end user unless the dealer and end user adopt those terms as part of the agreement.

(c) If an agreement provides for distribution of copies on a tangible medium or in packaging provided by the publisher or an authorized third party, a dealer may distribute those copies and documentation only:

(1) in the form as received; and

(2) subject to the terms of any license that the publisher provides to the dealer to be furnished to end users.

(d) A dealer that enters into an agreement with an end user is a licensor with respect to the end user under this chapter.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.14. Risk of loss of copy.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the risk of loss as to a copy that is to be delivered to a licensee, including a copy delivered by electronic means, passes to the licensee upon its receipt of the copy.

(b) If an agreement requires or authorizes a licensor to send a copy on a tangible medium by carrier, the following rules apply:

(1) If the agreement does not require the licensor to deliver the copy at a particular destination, the risk of loss passes to the licensee when the copy is duly delivered to the carrier, even if the shipment is under reservation.

(2) If the agreement requires the licensor to deliver the copy at a particular destination and the copy is duly tendered there in the possession of the carrier, the risk of loss passes to the licensee when the copy is tendered at that destination.

(3) If a tender of delivery of a copy or a shipping document fails to conform to the contract, the risk of loss remains with the licensor until cure or acceptance.

(c) If a copy is held by a third party to be delivered or reproduced without being moved or a copy is to be delivered by making access available to a third party resource containing a copy, the risk of loss passes to the licensee upon:

(1) the licensee's receipt of a negotiable document of title or other access materials covering the copy;

(2) acknowledgment by the third party to the licensee of the licensee's right to possession of or access to the copy; or

(3) the licensee's receipt of a record directing the third party, pursuant to an agreement between the licensor and the third party, to make delivery or authorizing the third party to allow access.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.15. Excuse by failure of presupposed conditions.

(a) Unless a party has assumed a different obligation, delay in performance by a party, or nonperformance in whole or part by a party, other than of an obligation to make payments or to conform to contractual use terms, is not a breach of contract if the delay or nonperformance is of a performance that has been made impracticable by:

(1) the occurrence of a contingency the nonoccurrence of which was a basic assumption on which the contract was made; or

(2) compliance in good faith with any foreign or domestic statute, governmental rule, regulation, or order, whether or not it later proves to be invalid.

(b) A party claiming excuse under subsection (a) shall seasonably notify the other party that there will be delay or nonperformance.

(c) If an excuse affects only a part of a party's capacity to perform an obligation for delivery of copies, the party claiming excuse shall allocate performance among its customers in any manner that is fair and reasonable and notify the other party of the estimated quota to be made available. In making the allocation, the party claiming excuse may include the requirements of regular customers not then under contract and its own requirements.

(d) A party that receives notice pursuant to subsection (b) of a material or indefinite delay in delivery of copies or of an allocation under subsection (c), by notice in a record, may:

(1) terminate and thereby discharge any executory portion of the contract; or

(2) modify the contract by agreeing to take the available allocation in substitution.

(e) If, after receipt of notice under subsection (b), a party does not modify the contract within a reasonable time not exceeding thirty days, the contract lapses with respect to any performance affected.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.16. Termination; survival of obligations.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), on termination all obligations that are still executory on both sides are discharged.

(b) The following survive termination:

(1) a right based on previous breach or performance of the contract;

(2) an obligation of confidentiality, nondisclosure, or noncompetition to the extent enforceable under other law;

(3) a contractual use term applicable to any licensed copy or information received from the other party, or copies made of it, which are not returned or returnable to the other party;

(4) an obligation to deliver, or dispose of information, materials, documentation, copies, records, or the like to the other party, an obligation to destroy copies, or a right to obtain information from an escrow agent;

(5) a choice of law or forum;

(6) an obligation to arbitrate or otherwise resolve disputes by alternative dispute resolution procedures;

(7) a term limiting the time for commencing an action or for giving notice;

(8) an indemnity term or a right related to a claim of a type described in § 59.1-508.5 (d) (1);

(9) a limitation of remedy or modification or disclaimer of warranty;

(10) an obligation to provide an accounting and make any payment due under the accounting; and

(11) any term that the agreement provides will survive.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.17. Notice of termination.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), a party may not terminate a contract except on the happening of an agreed event, such as the expiration of the stated duration, unless the party gives reasonable notice of termination to the other party.

(b) An access contract may be terminated without giving notice. However, except on the happening of an agreed event, termination requires giving reasonable notice to the licensee if the access contract pertains to information owned and provided by the licensee to the licensor.

(c) A term dispensing with a notice required under this section is invalid if its operation would be unconscionable. However, a term specifying standards for giving notice is enforceable if the standards are not manifestly unreasonable.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.18. Termination; enforcement.

(a) On termination of a license, a party in possession or control of information, copies, or other materials that are the property of the other party, or are subject to a contractual obligation to be delivered to that party on termination, shall use commercially reasonable efforts to deliver or hold them for disposal on instructions of that party. If any materials are jointly owned, the party in possession or control shall make them available to the joint owners.

(b) Termination of a license ends all rights under the license for the licensee to use or access the licensed information, informational rights, or copies. Continued use of the licensed copies or exercise of terminated rights is a breach of contract unless authorized by a term that survives termination.

(c) Each party may enforce its rights under subsections (a) and (b) by acting pursuant to § 59.1-506.5 or by judicial process, including obtaining an order that the party or an officer of the court take the following actions with respect to any licensed information, documentation, copies, or other materials to be delivered:

(1) deliver or take possession of them;

(2) without removal, render unusable or eliminate the capability to exercise contractual rights in or use of them;

(3) destroy or prevent access to them; and

(4) require that the party or any other person in possession or control of them make them available to the other party at a place designated by that party which is reasonably convenient to both parties.

(d) In an appropriate case, a court of competent jurisdiction may grant injunctive relief to enforce the parties' rights under this section.

2000, cc. 101, 996.

§ 59.1-506.19. Reserved.

Reserved.