Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
Title 64.2. Wills, Trusts, and Fiduciaries
8/21/2019

Article 1. General Provisions.

§ 64.2-1600. Definitions.

For the purposes of this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Agent" means a person granted authority to act for a principal under a power of attorney, whether denominated an agent, attorney-in-fact, or otherwise. The term includes an original agent, coagent, successor agent, and a person to which an agent's authority is delegated.

"Durable," with respect to a power of attorney, means not terminated by the principal's incapacity.

"Electronic" means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

"Good faith" means honesty in fact.

"Incapacity" means inability of an individual to manage property or business affairs because the individual:

1. Has an impairment in the ability to receive and evaluate information or make or communicate decisions even with the use of technological assistance; or

2. Is missing or outside the United States and unable to return.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, public corporation, government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Power of attorney" means a writing or other record that grants authority to an agent to act in the place of the principal, whether or not the term power of attorney is used.

"Presently exercisable general power of appointment," with respect to property or a property interest subject to a power of appointment, means power exercisable at the time in question to vest absolute ownership in the principal individually, the principal's estate, the principal's creditors, or the creditors of the principal's estate. The term includes a power of appointment not exercisable until the occurrence of a specified event, the satisfaction of an ascertainable standard, or the passage of a specified period only after the occurrence of the specified event, the satisfaction of the ascertainable standard, or the passage of the specified period. The term does not include a power exercisable in a fiduciary capacity or only by will.

"Principal" means an individual who grants authority to an agent in a power of attorney.

"Property" means anything that may be the subject of ownership, whether real or personal, or legal or equitable, or any interest or right therein.

"Record" means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.

"Sign" means, with present intent to authenticate or adopt a record: (i) to execute or adopt a tangible symbol or (ii) to attach to or logically associate with the record an electronic sound, symbol, or process.

"State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

"Stocks and bonds" means stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and all other types of securities and financial instruments, whether held directly, indirectly, or in any other manner. The term does not include commodity futures contracts and call or put options on stocks or stock indexes.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-73; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1601. Applicability.

This chapter applies to all powers of attorney except:

1. A power to the extent it is coupled with an interest in the subject of the power, including a power given to or for the benefit of a creditor in connection with a credit transaction;

2. A power to make health care decisions;

3. A proxy or other delegation to exercise voting rights or management rights with respect to an entity;

4. A power created on a form prescribed by a government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality for a governmental purpose; and

5. A power to make arrangements for burial or disposition of remains pursuant to § 54.1-2825.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-74; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1602. Power of attorney is durable.

A power of attorney created under this chapter is durable unless it expressly provides that it is terminated by the incapacity of the principal.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-75; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1603. (Effective October 1, 2019) Execution of power of attorney.

A power of attorney shall be signed by the principal or in the principal's conscious presence by another individual directed by the principal to sign the principal's name on the power of attorney. A signature on a power of attorney is presumed to be genuine if the principal acknowledges the signature before a notary public or other individual authorized by law to take acknowledgments. A power of attorney in order to be recordable shall satisfy the requirements of § 55.1-600.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-76; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1603. (Effective until October 1, 2019) Execution of power of attorney.

A power of attorney shall be signed by the principal or in the principal's conscious presence by another individual directed by the principal to sign the principal's name on the power of attorney. A signature on a power of attorney is presumed to be genuine if the principal acknowledges the signature before a notary public or other individual authorized by law to take acknowledgments. A power of attorney in order to be recordable shall satisfy the requirements of § 55-106.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-76; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1604. Validity of power of attorney.

A. A power of attorney executed in the Commonwealth on or after July 1, 2010, is valid if its execution complies with § 64.2-1603.

B. A power of attorney executed in the Commonwealth before July 1, 2010, is valid if its execution complied with the law of the Commonwealth as it existed at the time of execution.

C. A power of attorney executed other than in the Commonwealth is valid in the Commonwealth if, when the power of attorney was executed, the execution complied with (i) the law of the jurisdiction that determines the meaning and effect of the power of attorney pursuant to § 64.2-1605; (ii) the requirements for a military power of attorney pursuant to 10 U.S.C. § 1044b, as amended; or (iii) the laws of the Commonwealth.

D. Except as otherwise provided by statute other than this chapter, a photocopy or electronically transmitted copy of an original power of attorney has the same effect as the original.

E. An agent in possession of a general, special, or limited power of attorney or other writing vesting any power or authority in him shall, where the instrument is otherwise valid, be deemed to possess the powers and authority granted by such instrument notwithstanding any failure of the principal to deliver the instrument to him, and persons dealing with such agent shall have no obligation to inquire into the manner or circumstances by which such possession was acquired, provided, however, that nothing herein shall preclude the court from considering such manner or circumstances as relevant factors in any proceeding brought to terminate, suspend, or limit the authority of the agent.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-77; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1605. Meaning and effect of power of attorney.

The meaning and effect of a power of attorney is determined by the law of the jurisdiction indicated in the power of attorney and, in the absence of an indication of jurisdiction, by the law of the jurisdiction in which the power of attorney was executed.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-78; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1606. Nomination of conservator or guardian; relation of agent to court-appointed fiduciary.

A. In a power of attorney, a principal may nominate a conservator or guardian of the principal's estate or guardian of the principal's person for consideration by the court if protective proceedings for the principal's estate or person are begun after the principal executes the power of attorney.

B. If, after a principal executes a power of attorney, a court appoints a conservator or guardian of the principal's estate or other fiduciary charged with the management of some or all of the principal's property, the agent is accountable to the fiduciary as well as to the principal. The power of attorney is not terminated and the agent's authority continues unless limited, suspended, or terminated by the court.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-79; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1607. When power of attorney effective.

A. A power of attorney is effective when executed unless the principal provides in the power of attorney that it becomes effective at a future date or upon the occurrence of a future event or contingency.

B. If a power of attorney becomes effective upon the occurrence of a future event or contingency, the principal, in the power of attorney, may authorize one or more persons to determine in a writing or other record that the event or contingency has occurred.

C. If a power of attorney becomes effective upon the principal's incapacity and the principal has not authorized a person to determine whether the principal is incapacitated, or the person authorized is unable or unwilling to make the determination, the power of attorney becomes effective upon a determination in a writing or other record by (i) the principal's attending physician and a second physician or licensed clinical psychologist after personal examination of the principal that the principal is incapacitated within the meaning of subdivision 1 of the definition of incapacity in § 64.2-1600 or (ii) an attorney-at-law, a judge, or an appropriate governmental official that the principal is incapacitated within the meaning of subdivision 1 of the definition of incapacity in § 64.2-1600.

D. A person authorized by the principal in the power of attorney to determine that the principal is incapacitated may act as the principal's personal representative pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, §§ 1171 through 1179 of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320d, as amended, and applicable regulations, to obtain access to the principal's health care information and communicate with the principal's health care provider.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-80; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1608. Termination of power of attorney or agent's authority.

A. A power of attorney terminates when:

1. The principal dies;

2. The principal becomes incapacitated, if the power of attorney is not durable;

3. The principal revokes the power of attorney;

4. The power of attorney provides that it terminates;

5. The purpose of the power of attorney is accomplished; or

6. The principal revokes the agent's authority or the agent dies, becomes incapacitated, or resigns, and the power of attorney does not provide for another agent to act under the power of attorney.

B. An agent's authority terminates when:

1. The principal revokes the authority;

2. The agent dies, becomes incapacitated, or resigns;

3. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, an action is filed (i) for the divorce or annulment of the agent's marriage to the principal or their legal separation, (ii) by either the agent or principal for separate maintenance from the other, or (iii) by either the agent or principal for custody or visitation of a child in common with the other; or

4. The power of attorney terminates.

C. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, an agent's authority is exercisable until the authority terminates under subsection B, notwithstanding a lapse of time since the execution of the power of attorney.

D. Termination of an agent's authority or of a power of attorney is not effective as to the agent or another person that, without actual knowledge of the termination, acts in good faith under the power of attorney. An act so performed, unless otherwise invalid or unenforceable, binds the principal and the principal's successors in interest.

E. Incapacity of the principal of a power of attorney that is not durable does not revoke or terminate the power of attorney as to an agent or other person that, without actual knowledge of the incapacity, acts in good faith under the power of attorney. An act so performed, unless otherwise invalid or unenforceable, binds the principal and the principal's successors in interest.

F. The execution of a power of attorney does not revoke a power of attorney previously executed by the principal unless the subsequent power of attorney provides that the previous power of attorney is revoked or that all other powers of attorney are revoked.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-81; 2012, cc. 57, 614.

§ 64.2-1609. Coagents and successor agents.

A. A principal may designate two or more persons to act as coagents. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, each coagent may exercise its authority independently.

B. A principal may designate one or more successor agents to act if an agent resigns, dies, becomes incapacitated, is not qualified to serve, or declines to serve. A principal may grant authority to designate one or more successor agents to an agent or other person designated by name, office, or function. Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, a successor agent (i) has the same authority as that granted to the original agent; and (ii) may not act until all predecessor agents have resigned, died, become incapacitated, are no longer qualified to serve, or have declined to serve.

C. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney and subsection D, an agent that does not participate in or conceal a breach of fiduciary duty committed by another agent, including a predecessor agent, is not liable for the actions of the other agent.

D. An agent that has actual knowledge of a breach or imminent breach of fiduciary duty by another agent shall notify the principal and, if the principal is incapacitated, take any action reasonably appropriate in the circumstances to safeguard the principal's best interest. An agent that fails to notify the principal or take action as required by this subsection is liable for the reasonably foreseeable damages that could have been avoided if the agent had notified the principal or taken such action.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-82; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1610. Reimbursement and compensation of agent.

Unless the power of attorney otherwise provides, an agent is entitled to reimbursement of expenses reasonably incurred on behalf of the principal and to compensation that is reasonable under the circumstances.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-83; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1611. Agent's acceptance.

Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, a person accepts appointment as an agent under a power of attorney by exercising authority or performing duties as an agent or by any other assertion or conduct indicating acceptance.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-84; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1612. Agent's duties.

A. Notwithstanding provisions in the power of attorney, an agent that has accepted appointment shall:

1. Act in accordance with the principal's reasonable expectations to the extent actually known by the agent and, otherwise, in the principal's best interest;

2. Act in good faith; and

3. Act only within the scope of authority granted in the power of attorney.

B. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, an agent that has accepted appointment shall:

1. Act loyally for the principal's benefit;

2. Act so as not to create a conflict of interest that impairs the agent's ability to act impartially in the principal's best interest;

3. Act with the care, competence, and diligence ordinarily exercised by agents in similar circumstances;

4. Keep a record of all receipts, disbursements, and transactions made on behalf of the principal;

5. Cooperate with a person that has authority to make health care decisions for the principal to carry out the principal's reasonable expectations to the extent actually known by the agent and otherwise act in the principal's best interest; and

6. Attempt to preserve the principal's estate plan, to the extent actually known by the agent, if preserving the plan is consistent with the principal's best interest based on all relevant factors, including:

a. The value and nature of the principal's property;

b. The principal's foreseeable obligations and need for maintenance;

c. Minimization of taxes, including income, estate, inheritance, generation-skipping transfer, and gift taxes; and

d. Eligibility for a benefit, a program, or assistance under a statute or regulation.

C. An agent that acts in good faith is not liable to any beneficiary of the principal's estate plan for failure to preserve the plan.

D. An agent that acts with care, competence, and diligence for the best interest of the principal is not liable solely because the agent also benefits from the act or has an individual or conflicting interest in relation to the property or affairs of the principal.

E. If an agent is selected by the principal because of special skills or expertise possessed by the agent or in reliance on the agent's representation that the agent has special skills or expertise, the special skills or expertise shall be considered in determining whether the agent has acted with care, competence, and diligence under the circumstances.

F. Absent a breach of duty to the principal, an agent is not liable if the value of the principal's property declines.

G. An agent that exercises authority to delegate to another person the authority granted by the principal or that engages another person on behalf of the principal is not liable for an act, error of judgment, or default of that person if the agent exercises care, competence, and diligence in selecting and monitoring the person; however, nothing herein is intended to abrogate any duty of the agent under the Uniform Prudent Investor Act (§ 64.2-780 et seq.).

H. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, an agent shall disclose receipts, disbursements, or transactions conducted on behalf of the principal if requested by the principal, a guardian, a conservator, another fiduciary acting for the principal, or, upon the death of the principal, by the personal representative or successor in interest of the principal's estate. If so requested, within 30 days the agent shall comply with the request or provide a writing or other record substantiating why additional time is needed and shall comply with the request within an additional 30 days.

I. Except as otherwise provided in the power of attorney, an agent shall, on reasonable request made by a person listed in subdivisions A 3 through A 9 of § 64.2-1614 who has a good faith belief that the principal suffers an incapacity or, if deceased, suffered incapacity at the time the agent acted, disclose to such person the extent to which he has chosen to act and the actions taken on behalf of the principal within the five years prior to either (i) the date of the request or (ii) the date of the death of the principal, if the principal is deceased at the time such request is made, and shall permit reasonable inspection of records pertaining to such actions by such person. In all cases where the principal is deceased at the time such request is made, such request shall be made within one year after the date of the death of the principal. If so requested, within 30 days the agent shall comply with the request or provide a writing or other record substantiating why additional time is needed and shall comply with the request within an additional 30 days.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-85; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1613. Exoneration of agent.

A provision in a power of attorney relieving an agent of liability for breach of duty is binding on the principal and the principal's successors in interest except to the extent the provision:

1. Relieves the agent of liability for breach of duty committed dishonestly, with an improper motive, or with reckless indifference to the purposes of the power of attorney or the best interest of the principal; or

2. Was inserted as a result of an abuse of a confidential or fiduciary relationship with the principal.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-86; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1614. Judicial relief.

A. In addition to the remedies referenced in § 64.2-1621, the following persons may petition a court to construe a power of attorney or review the agent's conduct, and grant appropriate relief:

1. The principal or the agent;

2. A guardian, conservator, personal representative of the estate of a deceased principal, or other fiduciary acting for the principal;

3. A person authorized to make health care decisions for the principal;

4. The principal's spouse, parent, or descendant;

5. An adult who is a brother, sister, niece, or nephew of the principal;

6. A person named as a beneficiary to receive any property, benefit, or contractual right on the principal's death or as a beneficiary of a trust created by or for the principal that has a financial interest in the principal's estate;

7. The adult protective services unit of the local department of social services for the county or city where the principal resides or is located;

8. The principal's caregiver or another person that demonstrates sufficient interest in the principal's welfare; and

9. A person asked to accept the power of attorney.

B. 1. Whether or not supplemental relief is sought in the proceeding, where an agent has violated duties of disclosure imposed by § 64.2-1612, any person to whom such duties are owing may, for the purpose of obtaining information pertinent to the need or propriety of (i) instituting a proceeding under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.); (ii) terminating, suspending, or limiting the authority of the agent; or (iii) bringing a proceeding to hold the agent, or a transferee from such agent, liable for breach of duty or to recover particular assets or the value of such assets of a principal or deceased principal, petition a circuit court for discovery from the agent of information and records pertaining to actions taken pursuant to a power of attorney.

2. The petition may be filed in the circuit court of the county or city in which the agent resides or has his principal place of employment, or, if a nonresident, in any court in which a determination of incompetency or incapacity of the principal is proper under Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.), or, if a conservator or guardian has been appointed for the principal, in the court that made the appointment. The court, after reasonable notice to the agent and to the principal, if no guardian or conservator has been appointed, or to the conservator or guardian, if one has been appointed, may conduct a hearing on the petition. The court, upon the hearing on the petition and upon consideration of the interest of the principal and his estate, may dismiss the petition or may enter such order or orders respecting discovery as it may deem appropriate, including an order that the agent respond to all discovery methods that the petitioner might employ in a civil action or suit subject to the Rules of Supreme Court of Virginia. Upon the failure of the agent to make discovery, the court may make and enforce further orders respecting discovery that would be proper in a civil action subject to such Rules and may award expenses, including reasonable attorney fees, as therein provided. Furthermore, upon completion of discovery, the court, if satisfied that prior to filing the petition the petitioner had requested the information or records that are the subject of ordered discovery pursuant to § 64.2-1612, may, upon finding that the failure to comply with the request for information was unreasonable, order the agent to pay the petitioner's expenses in obtaining discovery, including reasonable attorney fees.

3. A determination to grant or deny in whole or in part discovery sought hereunder shall not be considered a finding regarding the competence, capacity, or impairment of the principal, nor shall the granting or denial of discovery hereunder preclude the availability of other remedies involving protection of the person or estate of the principal or the rights and duties of the agent.

C. The agent may, after reasonable notice to the principal, petition the circuit court for authority to make gifts of the principal's property to the extent not inconsistent with the express terms of the power of attorney or other writing. The court shall determine the amounts, recipients, and proportions of any gifts of the principal's property after considering all relevant factors including, without limitation, those contained in subsection C of § 64.2-1638.

D. Upon motion by the principal, the court shall dismiss a petition filed under this section, unless the court finds that the principal lacks capacity to revoke the agent's authority or the power of attorney.

E. In a judicial proceeding under this chapter, if the court finds that the agent breached his fiduciary duty in violation of the provisions of this chapter, the court, as justice and equity may require, may award costs and expenses, including reasonable attorney fees, to any person who petitions the court for relief under subdivisions A 1 through 8, to be paid by the agent found in violation. This provision applies to a judicial proceeding concerning a power of attorney commenced on or after July 1, 2019.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-87; 2012, c. 614; 2019, c. 520.

§ 64.2-1615. Agent's liability.

An agent that violates this chapter is liable to the principal or the principal's successors in interest for the amount required to:

1. Restore the value of the principal's property to what it would have been had the violation not occurred; and

2. Reimburse the principal or the principal's successors in interest for the attorney fees and costs paid on the agent's behalf.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-88; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1616. Agent's resignation; notice.

Unless the power of attorney provides a different method for an agent's resignation, an agent may resign by giving notice to the principal and, if the principal is incapacitated:

1. To the conservator or guardian, if one has been appointed for the principal, and a coagent or successor agent;

2. If there is no person described in subdivision 1, to an adult who is a spouse, child or other descendant, parent, brother, or sister of the principal;

3. If none of the foregoing persons is reasonably available, another person reasonably believed by the agent to have sufficient interest in the principal's welfare; or

4. If none of the foregoing persons is reasonably available, the adult protective services unit of the local department of social services for the county or city where the principal resides or is located.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-89; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1617. Acceptance of and reliance upon acknowledged power of attorney.

A. For purposes of this section and § 64.2-1618, "acknowledged" means verified before a notary public or other individual authorized to take acknowledgments.

B. A person that in good faith accepts an acknowledged power of attorney that has been signed in accordance with § 64.2-1603 without actual knowledge that the power of attorney is void, invalid, or terminated, that the purported agent's authority is void, invalid, or terminated, or that the agent is exceeding or improperly exercising the agent's authority may rely upon the power of attorney as if the power of attorney were genuine, valid, and still in effect, the agent's authority were genuine, valid, and still in effect, and the agent had not exceeded and had properly exercised the authority. The preceding sentence shall not apply to an acknowledged power of attorney that contains a forged signature of the principal.

C. A person that is asked to accept an acknowledged power of attorney may request, and rely upon, without further investigation, any or all of the following:

1. An agent's certification under oath of any factual matter concerning the principal, agent, or power of attorney;

2. An English translation of the power of attorney if the power of attorney contains, in whole or in part, language other than English; and

3. An opinion of the counsel for the principal or the agent, or the opinion of counsel for the person, as to any matter of law concerning the power of attorney if the person making the request provides in a writing or other record the reason for the request.

D. An English translation or an opinion of counsel for the principal or the agent requested under this section shall be provided at the principal's expense.

E. An agent's certification, an English translation, or an opinion of counsel shall be in recordable form if the exercise of the power requires recordation of any instrument under the laws of the Commonwealth.

F. For purposes of this section and § 64.2-1618, a person that conducts activities through employees and exercises commercially reasonable procedures to communicate information concerning powers of attorney among its employees is without actual knowledge of a fact relating to a power of attorney, a principal, or an agent if the employee conducting the transaction involving the power of attorney has followed such procedures and is nonetheless without actual knowledge of the fact.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-90; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1618. Liability for refusal to accept acknowledged power of attorney.

A. Except as otherwise provided in subsection B:

1. A person shall either accept an acknowledged power of attorney or request a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617 no later than seven business days after presentation of the power of attorney for acceptance;

2. If a person requests a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617, the person shall accept the power of attorney no later than five business days after receipt of the certification, translation, or opinion of counsel; and

3. A person may not require an additional or different form of power of attorney for authority granted in the power of attorney presented.

B. A person is not required to accept an acknowledged power of attorney for a transaction if:

1. The person is not otherwise required to engage in the transaction with the principal in the same circumstances, or the principal has otherwise relieved the person from an obligation to engage in the transaction with an agent representing the principal under a power of attorney;

2. Engaging in the transaction with the agent or the principal in the same circumstances would be inconsistent with federal law;

3. The person has actual knowledge of the termination of the agent's authority or of the power of attorney before exercise of the power;

4. A request for a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617 is refused;

5. The person in good faith believes that the power is not valid or that the agent does not have the authority to perform the act requested, whether or not a certification, a translation, or an opinion of counsel under subsection C of § 64.2-1617 has been requested or provided; or

6. The person makes, or has actual knowledge that another person has made, a report to the local adult protective services department or adult protective services hotline stating a good faith belief that the principal may be subject to physical or financial abuse, neglect, exploitation, or abandonment by the agent or a person acting for or with the agent.

C. A person that refuses in violation of this section to accept an acknowledged power of attorney is subject to:

1. A court order mandating acceptance of the power of attorney; and

2. Liability for reasonable attorney fees and costs incurred in any action or proceeding that confirms the validity of the power of attorney or mandates acceptance of the power of attorney.

D. For purposes of this section, "business day" shall refer to any day other than Saturday, Sunday, or any day designated as a holiday by the Commonwealth or the federal government.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-91; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1619. Principles of law and equity.

Unless displaced by a provision of this chapter, the principles of law and equity supplement this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-92; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1620. Laws applicable to financial institutions and entities.

This chapter does not supersede any other law applicable to financial institutions or other entities, and the other law controls if inconsistent with this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-93; 2012, c. 614.

§ 64.2-1621. Remedies under other law.

The remedies under this chapter are not exclusive and do not abrogate any right or remedy, including a court-supervised accounting, under the laws of the Commonwealth other than this chapter.

2010, cc. 455, 632, § 26-94; 2012, c. 614.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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